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# Scalar and vector

There are physical quantities which are completely determined when its known num
erical values and their measurement units. These quantities are called scalar qu
antities. Eg: 10 kg mass temperatur 22 ° C 2h time energy 50J
Moreover, there are quantities that besides the numerical value and unit of meas
ure require a direction and a sense that they are completely determined. These q
uantities are called vector quantities. Eg displacement speed 10 m vertical down
10 km / h right to the horizontal acceleration 50 m/s2, the upward force 100 N
horizontally to the left vertical thrust down 50 Ns
VECTORS
Vector is a mathematical entity represented by line segment oriented. The length
of this line segment represents the numeric value (or intensity of the vector m
odule), the support of straight line segment determines the direction of the vec
tor, and the orientation of the segment indicates the direction.
• An array can be moved in space, provided you keep your module, meaning and dir
ection.
• A vector is only negative if its direction reversed.
V
-V
OPERATIONS WITH VECTORS
1. Sum
Rule 1.1 of the polygon, the rule of the polygon can be used in addition to any
number of vectors. For application, we put the vectors such that: the origin of
the second vector coincides with the end of the first, the origin of the third c
oincides with the end of the second, and so on. The resulting vector sum or vect
or is determined by connecting the source of the first vector to the end of the
last track.
V V
1
V
3
V
2
1
V
V VR
3
2
Rule 1.2 of the parallelogram:
The parallelogram rule is applied only to the addition of two vectors. Without c
hanging the module, the guidance and direction of each vector, draw the two vect
ors with their origins coincide. From the end of the vector V1, we draw a straig
ht line parallel to the vector V2. Then, from the end of the vector V2, we drew
a parallel to another segment vector V1. The resulting vector is obtained by con
necting the common point of origin of the vectors to the crossing point of line
segments plotted.

V1
V1 V2 V2
VR
being θ the angle between the vectors V1 and V2, we calculate the vector sum
of the module through the expression: February 2 VR = V1 + V2 + 2.V1. V2. cos
θ
V1
θ
V2
Particular cases of the parallelogram rule: 1) angle θ = 0 °
If the angle θ between the vector and the vector V1 V2, measure 0 °, the vectors
have the same direction and sense. In this case, the modulus of the resultant v
ector is the sum of the modules of the vectors V1 and V2.

V1 V2
2) Angle θ = 90 °
V1 VR
V2
In this case, the vector V1 and V2 vector are perpendicular. The module of the r
esulting vector is obtained by applying the Pythagorean theorem:

VR = a 2 + b 2
V1
VR
V2
3) Angle θ = 180 Vector vector V1 and V2 have the same direction, but opposite d
irections. In this case, the module of the vector sum is given by the modulus of
the difference between modules of the vectors V1 and V2.

V1 VR
2. The vector subtraction subtraction, it is a sum, but by reversing one of the
vectors. Ex: V1 - V2 preserves the sense of V1 and reverses the direction of V2,
adding to the drivers right away, as shown.
V2

V1
V2
V1
-V two
VR
V1
V-2
You can also determine the subtraction by joining the origins of the vectors and
plotting the vector difference at the ends of the vectors. The difference vecto
r should point to the first vector. (In this example the first vector would be t
he vector V1)

V1
VR
V
3. A vector decomposition vector can be written as the sum of any two or more ve
ctors. In some situations, we can decompose a vector into its components
y, tracing imaginary lines parallel to the axes
ranging from the end of the vector
v until
axis, as shown below. We can calculate the value of vx and vy using basic trigon
ometry. Thus:
y
vy
θ
v vx
Exercises
Vx = V cos θ Vy = V sin θ
x
1) What characteristics of a vector we need to know that it is determined? 2) Wh
at are vectors e ual? E Vector opposites? Give example of each. 3) Calculate the
modulus of the resulting vector of the vector and in each case below.
4) What is the vector sum of two mutually perpendicular vectors whose modules ar
e 6:08 units?
5) Calculate the angle formed by two vectors of modules 5 and 6 units and units
whose resultant vector has module units? 6) Determine the modulus of two vectors
, modules are in a ratio of 7) Note the picture: and, perpendicular to each othe
r and engaged in the same spot, knowing that your module has 10.
and that the vector sum of e
Which module, direction, and the vector a) = + b) = + c) = +
,in each case: d) = + e) = f + +) = + +
8) The sum of two vectors a different module may be zero? Please explain. 9) Wha
t are the conditions so that the module of the resultant vector of two vectors,
non-zero, is e ual to zero? 10) Consider the figure below.
Knowing that m = 4, b = 6 m cos 30 = 0.8, calculate the module of vector differe
nce (3-2) 11) Determine the modulus of the components of a vector module 4 m for
ming an angle of 30 degrees with the vertical. Adopt 1.7. =
12) A projectile is thrown with a velocity of 400 m / s at an angle of 45 degree
s to the horizontal. Determine the vertical and horizontal components of the vel
ocity of the projectile. 13) A velocity vector is decomposed into two other mutu
ally perpendicular. Knowing that the modulus of the velocity vector is 10 m / s
and one of the components is e ual to 8 m / s, determine the modulus of the vect
or corresponding to the other component. 14) Given the vectors,,, and under repr
esented graphically obtain the vectors and.
a)
= +
+
b)
= 2
-
+
15) A young man walks 100 meters north, then guided to the east and walk another
50 meters. Determine the modulus of the resulting displacement. 16) What is the