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Variable valve timing system Honda

VTEC
VTEC system objects. The combustion environment is one of the most important fac
tors that determine the engine performance. The environment inside a combustion
engine is largely influenced by the configuration of the valves - when opened (t
ime) and how open (uprising) -. In high performance engines, the valves open lon
ger and longer. This allows for a rich mixture of fuel / air that flows into the
combustion chamber, generating high power at high rpm. However, at low rpm, the
combustion cycle is slower, so the fuel / air mixture leaves the combustion cha
mber without being completely burned. The result is poor performance in low:
Moreover, conventional engines are capable of producing more torque at low rpms
due to the lack of air cargo and fuel, but can produce only a limited amount of
power:
The VTEC system (Variable valve Timing and lift Electronic Control) Honda solves
the problem of combining power with high torque at low revs and turns. Honda VT
EC engines have a dual personality, be manageable in low-end and adopting the ch
aracteristics of a high performance engine revs high. Besides saving fuel:
It is the first instrument in the world that simultaneously modify the values of
the angle of opening and closing valves and standard values.
How does the Honda VTEC variable valve timing:
Honda's VTEC system is more sophisticated than early systems variable valve open
ing time other manufacturers could only change the time that both intake / exhau
st were open at once (in crossing), in the transition between the exhaust and in
take stroke. The configuration VTEC alters both the valve opening time as their
uprising. In its classic form used in the DOHC engine (picture above), there are
two different types of cams, one used under conditions of low speed and another
that acts only at high revolutions (usually above the 4900 rpm). The low speed
cams have a smooth profile for a good response in the low, low emissions and low
consumption. By contrast, high-cam system is like racing cams with a profile wi
th an aggressive and open duration of 290 º in the case of Integra B18C5 engine
. The system was mounted first in the high-performance DOHC engines. It consiste
d of three cams (two low-n regime 2 in the figure on page 5 - and a high regime
between the former No 3 -) and three rocker arms for each pair of intake and exh
aust. A low and mid-range rocker ends, which are aligned with the low rpm cam (#
4 and 6) act
directly to open and close the valves. The rocker extra high rpm (no. 5) moves u
p and down on the rocker, acting on a false spring valve (No. 10). At high rpm t
he rocker extra high rpm (no. 5) moves solidarity with the rocker shaft (and the
refore with lower cams) and the whole is served directly by the high rpm cam (no
. 3).
The connection and disconnection of high performance rocker rocker axis is achie
ved by a hydraulic latch system on the axis of rocker (no. 7,8 and 9). At a give
n engine speed, hydraulically actuated pin that slides inside the three rocker
blocks together. This gives control of the entire set of extra rocker to the cam
. With its higher profile, extra cam opens the valve further and for longer, all
owing more flow into fuel and air in the combustion chamber. With a larger load
of fuel / air at higher revs, the engine generates more power. Once the lower mo
tor turns, the pin that locks the rocker assembly is released, allowing the low
cam rocker profile and resume its operation. The following figure is an outline
of the operation at low engine speeds:
You can see how low rocker (E and F) are not anchored to the high (G). Then, the
external cam (A and B) act directly low rocker, and through these rockers, valv
es. The rocking of the medium (high rpm) is performed by high performance cam, b
ut because that is not connected to anything has no effect.
Outline of operation at high speed:
The outline is that a predetermined number of revolutions per minute (typically
between 5000 and 6000 rpm)€the control unit sends a signal to a hydraulic distr
ibutor which delivers the oil pump into the pin (D) through an electro-valve in
the direction of the arrow. This links the external rocker in the middle, causin
g the three rocker arms move together as one. Electronic Control. The time for c
hange is driven by an Electronic Control Unit (ECU), which changes the oil press
ure to activate the hydraulic pin. The hydraulic pin slips into place quickly an
d smoothly, producing high-performance engine almost instantly. In the case of m
otor and Civic CRX B16A of the PGM-F1 ECU is responsible for ongoing monitoring
of changes occurring in the engine such as load, the regime, temperature and veh
icle speed. This information is sent to the computer of the injection,
after an interpretation, decide the mode of operation of the engine. The conditi
ons necessary for you to switch to high mode regimes B16A engine are as follows:
"Regime engine above 5300 rpm, vehicle speed above 30 km / h-coolant temperatur
e above 60 º C-Charge of the engine, detected by measuring the depression in th
e intake manifold through the MAP sensor diagram electronic control of the elect
ro-valve:
Furthermore, depending on load and engine speed can change the ECU switching poi
nt:
Impact on distribution diagram:
In the distribution diagram above it can be seen in high-rate mode, the opening
times of the valves are larger than in low speed mode, allowing better filling o
f the cylinder, the intake valve opens before and closes later and the same goes
for the exhaust, including also taking a longer crossing. Each model is equippe
d with Honda's VTEC DOHC engine offers, per liter, the more torque and more powe
r among the naturally aspirated engines of its kind and a very low consumption.
VTEC engine types.
In the above chart above describes some types of VTEC engines "DOHC VTEC engine
acts on the intake and exhaust valves, generating high power at high rpm. It is
the type of engine used in more powerful models such as the S2000's F20C engine
capable of developing 125 hp / l (250 hp and 1998 cm3). Other engines are specta
cular B16B Civic Type R (185 hp and 1598 cm3) and the Integra Type R B18C (200 h
p and 1797 cm3). "The motor SOHC VTEC is the type, ie with a single camshaft in
the head. This system is simple: the game three with three rocker cam is only fo
r the intake valves, exhaust the act as those not VTEC. Your goal is smooth torq
ue and power gains for a more pleasant and convenient. -VTEC-E engine was develo
ped to cross the barriers of fuel efficiency and respond to a reduction in CO2 e
missions without causing a decrease in power. A low-and middle regimes, the VTEC
-E engine performs its objectives by maintaining delayed (nearly closed) an inta
ke valve. This causes an increase in the rate of air entering the combustion cha
mber and produces a "whirlwind" that leads to a stabilization of the leaner comb
ustion.
The VTEC-E engine works in conjunction with a detector / air ratio linear Fuel (
LAF - Linear Air / Fuel), a piece that is normally found in the world of F1. Thi
s controls the proportion of air / fuel and directs the amount of fuel injected
per unit PGM-F1. These technical accomplishments work together to achieve a lean
burn in low and middle level regimes and a more stable combustion in the whole
range of rules, also achieve a sufficient torque at low speed, high performance
fuel and retain the good characteristics of engine with four valves per cylinder
in the middle and lower regimes. There is also a kind of type D VTEC Civic rode
some that widened the power band simply advancing or retarding the valve openin
g under different conditions. 3stage-VTEC system appeared in 1995 and was then d
esigned for optimal balance supereconomÍa fuel and high-power and range of use.
It is a combination of systems and VTEC-E SOHC VTEC:
In phase 1 acts as the VTEC-E system: a valve just opens. In Phase 2 (from 2500
rpm) through the oil pressure swings are blocked two casualties and the valves o
pen simultaneously with low-profile cams (this also makes the VTEC-E). In phase
3 (over 4500 rpm), acts as a SOHC VTEC,€rocker being commanded by the high-prof
ile cam as described above. The i-VTEC engine. In 2000 came another evolution of
VTEC engines: the i-VTEC DOHC. The i appears for "smart" (intelligent VTEC).
Honda introduced many novelties in this engine, but the most significant is the
VTC (Variable Timing Control) for being named an opening mechanism and variable
valve crossing. Work on the intake camshaft and allows the overlap between the i
ntake and exhaust valves is continuously varied according to engine load. This a
llows more refined power delivery, especially in the medium regime. But most imp
ortant is the reduction of NOx by delaying the opening of the intake valves with
out affecting the smooth running motor. The opening of the intake valves progres
sively moves forward as the revs rise. Its operation, above, consists of a pulle
y mechanism located between the camshaft and the tree itself. The mechanism has
a helical link to the pulley and can be moved in relation to the pulley through
hydraulic half. When you move, the helical device, rotate the shaft with respect
to the pulley.
Drawing on the previous page illustrates the basic principle of operation of the
VTC and other generic systems (such as BMW VANOS, VVT-i Toyota, Renault Clio sp
ort ...). A pulley is driven by the timing belt. Normally the cam C is linked di
rectly to the pulley, but the VTC system joins the intermediate device B with he
lical tracks on the outside and inside streaking to rotate integral with the sha
ft and slide at a time by . In the picture you can see that if that device B mov
e forward or backward will move the camshaft on its axis, regardless of the pull
ey, producing an advance or delay the opening or closing the intake valves. The
VTEC system is able to vary the opening times of valves, but does so in two or t
hree stages (or sections). The addition of the VTC allows the crossing of valves
is continuously varied, which does not replace the VTEC system, if not suppleme
nting their effectiveness, especially in media noticing regimes. The i-VTEC I en
gine This engine is featured in 2004 and is a refinement of i-VTEC. It is direct
injection and can work with 65 parts of air for each gas, carries the VTC syste
m and was developed to achieve high fuel economy, low emissions and high power.
At low speeds (mode Fuel Economy) is only one intake valve opens, the VTC optimi
zes the crossover and the injection in the compression phase. If accelerates str
onger, the VTC forward the opening of the intake valve and the injection at that
time. With high load on the engine (High Output mode) run the two intake valves
, the VTC optimizes the movement of valves and injection occurs at the inlet. Th
is engine runs 15 km / l in the 156 hp version and has a special catalyst and EG
R that do comply with very stringent environmental regulations. In summary, the
VTEC engines have outstanding performance and a very good use thanks to its inte
lligent variable valve timing and also enjoy exceptional reliability: in the las
t thirteen years, Honda has built 15 million VTEC system and not one has had a b
reakdown.
Bibliography:
"Video" Honda Type R Special "Best Motoring Int-Programme 02.11.2003" Top Gear "
BBC-Various Internet pages: www.espiritvtec.com www.hotrod.com www.vtec.net www.
honda. co.jp www.leecao.com www.mecanicavirtual.org
© Rafael Nicolas Rio de Vega 2004