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Teaching Methodology

How do you teach?

conceptions of "Psychology of Form" or "Gestalt" The holistic approach shows how
humans perceive. According to this school: "The whole is greater than the sum o
f the parts."
global perspective does not prescribe methods, but provides guidelines for organ
izing the teaching-learning process based on student interests and organization
of the construction activity as an element of meaningful learning. We can ther
efore say that globalization inspires methodological choices as centers of inter
est, method of project ...
Different Methodologies
Faced with strategies that encourage competitiveness among students, there are o
ther alternative methodologies such as: The project work, The development of
centers of interest, Cooperative learning ... that promote maturation and per
sonal enrichment and help comply with differences between partners
Cooperative Learning Techniques

It seems that we can say (Coll, 1984) that the cooperative organization of learn
ing activities, compared with competitive or individualistic organizations to be
significantly higher in terms:

Performance and productivity of the participants to generate positive socializat

ion patterns

Implementation of cooperative learning techniques

cooperative learning techniques, there are two components that differentiate the
m from other types of education in the classroom:

the group task the group-based reward.

heterogeneous groups in terms of performance, gender, ethnicity and / or cultura
l, composed of four to six students
Cooperative Learning Techniques
equipment and games (TGT) (De Vries, Slavin, Fennessey, Edwards and Lombardo, 19
80). student teams: Division of achievement (STAND) (Slavin, 1978). Jigsaw (
Aronson, 1978). Research Groups (Sharan and Sharan, 1976).
Interest centers

The centers of interest are methodological choice based on action: "The school f
or life and for life" Ovide Decroly (1871-1932), from a comprehensive approach,
introduces the focus of interest as a pedagogical approach to trying to answer n
atural needs and interests of students. Decroly are for the "ideas - force" that
move and motivate students, as it is part of their physical, intellectual and s
The areas of interest revolve around four main needs:
1. Eating to maintain and develop life 2. Protecting against the weather in Marc
h. Defending against the threat in April. Acting and working jointly, recreation
and improve ...
The boy, from very small, relates these centers with other interests:
a) animal b) plants c) Nature d) companies e) civilizations f) cultures
Phases of the centers of interest
Observation. Through direct observation will find the sensory qualities of objec
ts: be felt, weighed, smell ... It's the beginning of the scientific method. 2nd
Association. In this process relate the background of the students with the o
bservation obtained by strengthening the management, comparison, seriation, clas
sification, abstraction, generalization ...
Phases of the centers of interest (Cont.)
Expression. The expression would be the culmination of the process, and we can h
concrete (materialization of their observations and personal creations, resultin
g in free drawing, crafts ...) abstract expression (realization of thought thr
ough conventional symbols and codes, is captured in free text, language, mathema
tical, musical ... )
Project Method
influenced by Dewey created the project method. This approach is based on the
development of a globalized knowledge and relational. The partial schedule for
each project replaces the program materials.
F. Hernandez (1986) has defined the organizational strategy
... The
role of the proposed work is to create strategies for organizing knowledge based
on information processing and the establishment of relationships between facts,
concepts and procedures that facilitate the acquisition of knowledge. "
Project Phases
Suggestion: choice of subject, of the problem situation ... Planning: the search
for possible solutions. Activities are planned and the time required for their
development. It attempts to specify the type of class organization, materials, r
esources ... From that moment begins to develop the project.€Conclusion: Resolut
ion of the issues raised. The research, documentation, information processing, .
.. made throughout the project, must be translated into something concrete: a mu
ral, a model, a monographic work, ...
the teacher would be the "leader" that the instructor of the group.
project method, open a range of possibilities for educational innovation, implem
enting such familiar terms as:
Globalization interest motivation
meaningful learning
Motivation in the Classroom: Theories
The word motivation is derived from Latin motus, which moves, those internal and
external factors that drive a person to act in a certain way. There are two asp
ects of motivation: Some internal variables to the subject: the needs of food,
shelter, security, self esteem, at ease with himself ... Other variables exte
rnal to the person but interacting with it: to belong to a group and be accepted
, to have things, prestige before others, power, and be above the other, fashion
Maslow Theory

For Maslow only unmet needs are sources of motivation. Maslow developed a hierar
chy of needs organized into five categories. Believes there is a natural process
in which individuals meet their needs in order from the most immature to more m
ature. This progression of the hierarchy of needs is seen as the climb up a ladd
er: the individual must feel secure on the bottom step to put your foot on the t
Maslow Theory
• Therefore, when it has fulfilled a need arise in the lower to the higher rate
individual needs • The five categories of needs are: V. IV self-actualization ne
eds. III standing requirements. II membership needs. I. security needs Basic Nee
Homeostatic theory: Lindsley, Hull

Homeostasis is defined as the set of phenomena of self-regulation, which seek to

maintain a relative balance or constancy of internal environment of an organism
. Motivated behavior arises from some kind of imbalance that disrupts the stabil
ity or constancy of the inner person. The internal imbalance can be caused by in
ternal or external deficits that produce internal states of need. This imbalance
causes the body rebalancing trend-motivation-which ceases when it has achieved.
The scheme would follow is: Gaps -> need -> Impulse -> consummatory behavior ->
rebalancing -> Cesa motivation
Cognitive Theories: Tolman, Bandura
reference to expectations of success, self-efficacy a person has to perform a ta
sk, which increases motivation. The person is motivated to a task that can be
efficient. The idea of self-efficacy in person until now, he is determined lar
gely by past experience accumulated in this task. This approach has clear appl
ication to teaching. A student who is aware of its efficacy, having expectations
of success, will have a much higher yield than that this deficit in these varia
Motivation in the Classroom: Law and Strategies

A current problem in the primary and secondary education, often mentioned by tea
chers is the lack of student motivation. How to organize the tasks has a motivat
ing power and performance improvement.

The law of the preparation or provision of Thorndike

law of the preparation or provision of Thorndike argues that The provisions of
the subject contribute to learning, because when a subject is prepared to do so
mething satisfying. In other words: "The achievement of one's expectations is th
e reinforcement that motivates action"
The Thorndike's law of effect
Thorndike's law of effect states that when an act is followed by a reward tends
to recur, while if it accompanies a punishment decreases the likelihood of its r
ecurrence. This means that the frequency of a behavior is given by the implica
tions for the subject.
The intensity and repetition of the task
current law states that the yield will be greater the more intense the exercise
strengthening law simply says that the repetition or training at an easier task
that can be done with less effort.
There is a motivational intensity optimal for learning
experience we have learned something or to be getting better skills Motiva pri
or performing the task that you want, because it has been chosen,€not because ot
hers have organized the Motiva approval of parents, teachers or other adults i
mportant to the student, as well as the approval of one's fellow
There is a motivational intensity optimal for learning
expectations of success of the subject, the probability of achieving the new, wh
ich triggers curiosity, surprising or inconsistent with information he knows the
subject, raising questions within their field of expertise and interest.
Variables that are related to motivational climate in class
Class perceived difficulty of different subjects, explanations and reviews O
rder. It refers to aspects such as the timely start of school, the level of nois
e and movement, the permissiveness of clutter in the classroom ..., Degree of
specification of objectives and activities. Knowing what is sought and what must
be done to achieve that goal, helps the subject strives
Variables that are related to motivational climate in class
group. It refers to the degree to which group actually works in class, to helpin
g behavior in cooperative work, assess and also to consider these issues ... Com
parisons Individual attention. Refers to the teacher cares about individual
progress, the degree of support and encouragement received by the student progre
ss. orient toward learning goals better than to performance targets.
Discipline in the Classroom: Causes of discipline problems relating to teacher
Discipline is one of the first conditions for effectively addressing the teachin
g / learning in the classroom. Without her school work is seriously bitter.
The causes of the lack of discipline have to be analyzed from

what affects students, faculty and the Center.

Grounds for discipline problems relating to teacher

The way to be the teacher Is it something that is manifested in their physical c

haracteristics, such as extreme slowness or hesitation in speaking, pronunciatio
n, vague, somewhat vague on how to answer your questions, or irritating habits?
Or perhaps an obvious anxiety, lack of confidence or shyness? ... Or is it that
does not look at students as they address them, or giving the class in his chair
behind the desk in a posture too relaxed?

Grounds for discipline problems relating to teacher

have Organising what to do in class It is therefore necessary that the teach
er is clear about what is going to do in the classroom and ensure that students
know it. Propose variety of classroom activities
with tag lines that we
The way of presenting the subject
important to know the students before us, their characteristics, interests, leve
l of knowledge ... We from the level of knowledge possessed at this time to cl
imb the ladder in the process of teaching and learning. Does the planned teach
ing program is right for the capacity, age and interests of learners? Are ther
e enough exercises and for participation by the student, or consists of a long c
Grounds for discipline problems concerning students
to capture the attention Lack of self-efficacy expectations The negative s
elf-concept influences the group's leaders test the limits Teacher
Need to get attention

Some young people suffer a deprivation of care, whether in family or social envi
ronment, and compensate this deficit by drawing attention to peers laugh, they l
ay down in them ... They do not care to speak ill of them, because you want this
type of student is that you have in mind above all else.

The teacher must realize what is happening to this student and not to reinforce
his behavior by calling attention in the middle of the class, responding to his
provocations, or losing control. What is not to give appropriate weight to their
calls to the forefront, and if the student nevertheless persists, it should say
so and clearer that at the end of the class talk in private
Lack of self-efficacy expectations

Self-efficacy expectations that have led to the completion of a task. That for w
hich I feel competent attracts me, pay attention and I dedicate my time. On the
contrary, the possibility of failure on a task leads me to leave. The interventi
on of the teacher must facilitate successful experience for the student receives
the reinforcement of a job well done. We must spread the content, exercises, ac
tivities ...€graduate levels so they can be resolved properly by the students.
The negative self-concept
students with negative or low self esteem, as is often said, too, will doubt the
ir ability to solve new tasks, even if they consider most relevant. The teache
r intervention must be targeted to change the idea of himself that this type of
student. Help to discover their potential, to experience its effectiveness, you
see the role that has been assigned does not correspond with reality
Influences of the group leaders
teacher should know the groups formed in the class, who are the leaders, who are
the "stars" that are popular but do not have the leadership, who are isolated.
A useful tool for this is the sociogram, makes explicit all relationships.
Testing the limits of teacher
students are faced with a new teacher, carry out what might be called a 'evaluat
ions of teachers "to know what he is capable of withstanding, how far it can go
with it, what degree of authority is, what is going to allowed to do or not ...
Psychologists often call this process "testing limits."
activities Time and space materials Resources