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WhowasthefirstEuropeantoDiscoverHawai`i?

By
Capt. MichaelA.Lilly,USN(Ret)

Cooks
Chartof
Hawaii
ConventionalWisdom:
CaptainJamesCook,R.N.,1778

Google:
CaptainJamesCookFirsttoDiscoverHawai`i
879,000results!
GodfreysHandbookofHawai`i,1899

PrincessLikelikedonatedtotheBritish
Governmentthelandfortheerectionofa
monumenttoCapt.CooktheDiscovererof
Hawai`i.
CaptainCooksMonument
KealakekuaBay
CaptainCooksMonument
KealakekuaBay
1960s
But.
For223yearsbeforeCook,SpanishGalleonssailed
yearlybetweenAcapulcoandManila.BecauseHawai`i
liesalongtheroute,theseshipscouldnothavemissed
twooftheworldstallestmountainsandthreeactive
volcanoesvisible100sofmiles

Hawaii Acapulco
Manila
More
1743 BritishCommodoreGeorgeAnson
capturedaSpanishgalleonnearAcapulco.It
hadachartshowingseveralislands "Groupe
delaMesa"and"LosMonges" inthe
generallocationandexactlatitudeofHawai`i.
Capt.Cook'snavigationalchartofthePacific
includedtheSandwichIslands(Hawai`i)&,to
theeast,severalislandscalled"LosMejos".
Hawaiianfloweredhelmetsappear
patternedafterSpanishmarines
Rev.WilliamEllis1827journal
regardingfairhaired"ehu"
descendantsofSpanishexplorers:

ThereareintheSandwichIslandsa
numberofpersonsdistinguishedbya
lightercolorintheirskin,and
correspondingbrowncurlyhair,called
ehu,whoare,byallthenativesofthe
islands,consideredasthedescendants
oftheseforeigners
More
KingKalkauas LegendsandMythsofHawai`i: during
thereignofKamaluohua longbeforeCook aship
wreckedoffMauiwith5survivorswhowerewhite,
withbright,shiningeyes.
1823 HawaiianstoldRev.WilliamEllisthree
accountsofforeignersarrivinginHawai`ibefore
Cook.
1838:DavidMalos Ka Moolelo Hawai`idescribed
shipwreckedhaole survivorslandingonHawai`iduring
thereignofKealiiokaloa (152130).
PresenceofirononKauaiwhenCooklanded.
PreCookChantofKuAlii,KingofOahu:
HistriptoKahiki possiblypickedupatsea
bySpanishGalleon&transportedtoAcapulco?
AlandwithastrangelanguageisKahiki.
ThemenofKahiki haveascended
Thebackboneofheaven(mountains)
Uptheretheytrampledown,
Theylookdownonthosebelow.
MenofourracearenotinKahiki.
OnekindofmenisinKahikitheHaole.
Heislikeagod.
Iamlikeaman,
Aman,indeed
SamuraiWilliams
by
HistorianGilesMilton

1599:DutchShipLiefde onitswayto
Japanmadelandfallatcertain
islandswhichMiltonbelieveswas
Hawai`i.Eightsailorsdeserted.Milton
believestheywerethesailors
HawaiianstoldWilliamElliswere
pitchedontoourshores.
OurIslandsandTheirPeople,1899
ThePacificSinceMagellan,Vol.I,1979
byGeographerO.H.Spate
TheSpanishconsiderJuanGaetanothe
discovererofHawai`i.
1786 FrenchexplorerlaPerouse
searchedtotheeastofHawai`iinvainfor
the"LosMejosislands,concludingthey
wereinfactHawai`iandthatitappears
certainthattheseislandswerefirst
discoveredbyGaetan in1542.
Gananath Obeyesekere
PrincetonEmeritusProfessorofAnthropology
EmailfromProf.Obeyesekere
11/12/2012
DearMichael:manythanksforyournicenoteon
myCookbook! YouarerightabouttheSpanish
anditisashameitsbeingneglectedamong
scholars. I'vealwayshavehadthefantasythat
somethingmightturnupintheSpanisharchives
orthatCook'sown"lost"journalmayappear
somewhere. ButinmyretirementhereinSri
Lanka,thesefantasiesrecedeintoablur. ButitIS
sonicehearingfromyouandwishIcouldvisit
Hawaiionceagainbutalasageandtraveldonotgo
together. Bestwishes,Gananath
AmsterdamNatlMaritimeMuseum
Themainglobesandmapsofthe16th and17th
centurieswerebyDutchcartographers.We
foundoriginalpreCookglobesandmapswitha
groupofislandsataboutHawai`is location.
PacificOcean

Hawai`i21 N
Latitude
DutchGlobe1665

LosMojas
21NLatitude
DutchGlobe1665

LosMonges
21NLatitude
DutchMap1662
FredericdeWitt
DutchMap1662
FredericdeWitt
CloseUp

LosMonges
21NLatitude
DutchMap1665
JoanBlaeu

LosMonges
21NLatitude
DutchGlobe,1728
GerardandLeonardValk

LosMonges
21NLatitude
Oldest:1579 MapofPacific
FlemishCartographerOrtelius
Hawai`i LosBolcanos

LosBolcanos
Similarly.
LateHawaiianartistHerbKawainui Kanes
bookVoyagers referencesa1613 globein
EnglandsNatlMaritimeMuseumwhich
illustratesaclusterofsmallislandsroughly
whereHawai`ioughttobe.
KailuaresidentAlanLloydfoundpreCook
globesinInnsbruck,AustriaandAustralias
JamesCookHistoricalMuseumportraying
islandsroughlyatHawai`islocation.
November2013,SydneyHotel
ReproductionCooksChart
CookChart:Hawaii&LosMejos

Hawaii Los Mejos


Allofthesemapsplaceourislandsexactlyon
Hawai`islatitude,but500700milestotheeast.

Why?
EarthMeridians
Plottingyourpositiononearthrequires
knowingwhereyouare:

Easttowest(longitude)

Northtosouth(latitude)
NorthSouth Latitude
Inthenorthernhemisphere,yourlatitudeis
easilycalculatedbytheangle(degree)ofthe
NorthStarabovethehorizon.
EastWest:Longitude
CalculatingLongituderequires:
Measuringtheangleofseveralstars

Knowingthetimewhereyouare&ashoreat
someknownlocation
Algorithmstartables
NauticalAlmanac StarAngles&Time
LongitudebeforeCookIllusive
Earlynavigatorscouldplotnorthsouth(latitude).
Lackingaclock,theycouldnotploteastwest(longitude).
Eventopnavigatorsbecamelostoncetheylostsightofland
shipswreckedonreefsandshores;manydisappeared.
Thesolutiontolongitudewassoughtthroughouthuman
historyuntilmid1700s theHarrisonClock.
Cookwasthefirstnavigatorwithanaccurateclock.

HerbKanetoldmethisiswhyLosMonges appears500700
mileseastofHawai'ionpreCookcharts.
HerbKanePaintingofManilaGalleon
ApproachingHawai`i
ContraAuthority

E.W.Dahlgrens1916bookWeretheHawaiian
IslandsVisitedbytheSpaniardsBeforetheir
DiscoverybyCaptainJamesCookin1778:
DisputespreCookdiscoverybySpanish
ClaimsLosMonges etalareactuallypartof
theMarianasincludingGuam
TheMarianasareonpreCookmapsasLadrones
4,000milestothewest.E.g.,1665JeanBlaeu map:

4,000Miles

Islade
Los
Ladrones
Monges
So.
WasCaptainCookthefirst
Europeantodiscover
Hawai`ior.
So.
WasCaptainCookthefirst
Europeantodiscover
Hawai`ior.

Whatlessonsdoyoulearnfromthisevidence?
Justbecauseitiswrittensomewhere,doesit
makeittrue?
SpanishorCook?
MoreonDahlgren
Itcannotbeentirelyrefutedthatrecordsmaybemissing&
Gaytan mayhavediscoveredHawai`iwithoutleavingany
traceinthewrittenrecords.Page33.
Iputforwardnoclaimtobeabletogiveaquitedefinite
solutiontotheproblemofwhethertheallegeddiscoveryof
Hawai`ibytheSpaniardscanbeeitherestablishedor
definitelyrejected.Page40
Admits(pp.13031)SpanishGalleonstravelledfromAcapulco
toManilaat1117NLatitude.1 latitude=69miles.Hawai`i
is19,soatitsclosest,aGalleoncouldpass138milessouthof
Hawai`i.ThetopofMaunaKeaandMaunaLoacanbeseenat
139.7miles;thevolcaniceruptionscanbeenseenfurther
(1924eruption 20K seenat173milesor16.5N).A
GalleononlyafewdegreesoffcoursecouldntmissHawai`i.
MoreonDahlgren
Regarding6preCookGalleonslostwithouta
trace,Dahlgrenwrites,Itisnotincrediblethat
oneoftheseships,orsomeothershipofwhich
wehavenoknowledge,strandedonsomerock
orreefbelongingtotheHawaiiangroup,and
thattheshipwreckedmensucceededin
reachingtheinhabitedislandsinboats.Page
139.
MoreonDahlgren
HeattributestheLosMongeserrorto1)an
erroneous1570mapthatputLadrones
southeastofJapan(p.157);2)alengtheningof
theknowndistancebetweenCaliforniaandAsia
whichpushedLadrones tothewestandLos
Monges totheeastonaFrenchmap;3)and
repeatingtheerrorsinsuccessivemaps.
But:hisconclusionsdependonaseriesof
assumptions,noneofwhichcanbeproven.
MoreonDahlgren
Hepointstoseveral17th CenturyDutchmaps,theearliestdated
1675byDanckers onwhichtheLosMonges groupismissing,
apparentlysuggestingthatDutchcartographers thebestinthe
world wereunawareoftheislands.Pages17778.

Yet,IfoundseveralDutchmaps&globesattheAmsterdamNatl
MaritimeMuseumpredating1675withtheLosMonges group
prominentlydisplayed.AlanLloydsummarizedothersimilar
maps&globesdated1579,1596,1613,1626,1641,1643,1645,
1662,and1670 mostofwhichwerenotdiscussedby(or
apparentlyknownto)Dahlgren.(Dahlgrendoes,however,show
a1570FlemishmapbyOrtellius asthefirsttodepictLos
Monges.Page154.)
More
1865 MadridHydrographicalDept:
discovery[ofHawai`i]datesfromtheyear
1555,or223yearsbeforeCaptainCook;
andthediscovererwasJuanGaetanoor
Gaytan
Syphilis:auniquelyEuropeandiseasefromthe
1490s.Theremainsofawomanunearthedat
BarbersPointshowedevidenceofsyphilis
datingfrombefore1664.Davis,1990.
ConventionalWisdom:
CaptainJamesCook,R.N.,1778
LifeMagazine,1948:[W]henCaptainJamesCook
discoveredtheislandsin1778,300,000nativeswere
livingthere.
EncyclopediaofCanadasPeoples,1999:TheBritish
explorerCaptainJamesCookiscreditedwithhaving
discoveredHawai`iforEuropeinlate1778.
BookHumanity:AnIntroductiontoCultural
Anthropology,2011:InJanuary1778,twoBritishships
underthecommandofCaptainJamesCookdiscovered
theHawaiianIslands
Thousandsofsimilarreferencesinbooks,articles,and
internetpages.
HarvardClass1907
H.A.Walker,Sr.,
President,Amfac,Inc.,193350
HawaiianWordsofSpanishOrigin?
Hawaiian Spanish Definition
Pono Bueno Good
Puaa Puerco Pig
Poko Poco Short
Mauna Montana Mountain
Ala Ala RoadorPath