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BASIC ELEMENTS OF MACHINE TOOLS

BENIGN ESTEVES CARLOS BENITO


PRODUCCCION TEACHING MECHANICS
Machine tool
CNC milling machine.
Definitions

The machine tool is a type of machine used to shape solid materials, mainly meta
ls. Its main feature is its lack of mobility, because they are usually stationar
y machines. The shaping of the piece is performed by removing some of the materi
al, which can be done by chip removal, by stamping, cutting or EDM.
Definitions

The term machine tool is usually reserved for tools that use a different power s
ource of human movement, but can also be moved by people if they are installed p
roperly or when no other source of energy. Many historians of technology conside
r that the real machine tools were born when they removed the man's direct inter
vention in the process of shaping or punching out different types of tools. For
example, it is considered that the first round can be considered the machine too
l was invented around 1751 by Jacques de Vaucanson, since it was first incorpora
ted the cutting instrument in a mechanically adjustable head, removing it from t
he operator's hands.
Definitions

The machine tools can use a variety of energy sources. The human and animal powe
r are options, as is the energy obtained through the use of waterwheels. However
, the actual development of machine tools began after the invention of the steam
engine, which led to the Industrial Revolution. Today, most of them run on elec
tricity
Definitions

The machine tool can be operated manually or by automatic control. Early machine
s used flywheels to stabilize their motion and had complex systems of gears and
levers to control the machine and the parts where she worked. Shortly after the
Second World War developed numerical control systems. The CNC machines used a se
ries of numbers punched on paper tape or punched cards to control their movement
. In the 60 computers were added to increase the flexibility of the process. Suc
h machines began to be called CNC machines, or machines, Computer Numeric Contro
l. CNC machines and CNC sequences can be repeated again and again with precision
, and can produce more complex parts that can do more experienced operator.
Types of machine tools

On the way to work the machine tools can be classified into three types; From ro
ughing or trimmers, shaping the piece for removal. Presses, shaping the pieces b
y cutting, pressing or drawing. Space shaping the piece using different techniqu
es, laser, EDM, ultrasonic, plasma ...
Conventional

Among the conventional machines have the following basic equipment:


Torno, is one of the older machines and works by removing material by blades and
drill bits. This piece by a car tour and which places the blade wears the same
obtaining cylindrical and conical parts. If you put a bit in the appropriate pos
ting, you can make holes.
Lathe.
Torno

There are several types of lathes, the parallels, which are the conventional num
erically controlled, which are controlled by a programmable electronic system, t
he cam, the control is done via paddles they are also called free cutting, turre
t lathes , which have a rotating turret, the gun, in which lie the various worki
ng tools.
Drills
Drills, for drilling, these machines are tools, along with the winches, the olde
st. In them the tool is rotating and the piece remains attached to a clamp or pl
acement. The useful often usually in the drills, a drill that, properly carried
out the corresponding hole sharp. You can also perform other operations with dif
ferent drilling tools, as a special type of drilling and reaming are lasavellana
r. working with pacer

small teeth grinding or other material. They are used for precision operations a
nd their speeds are usually very high.
Milling machine

Milling.
Milling, in order to obtain smooth surfaces or a concrete milling machines are c
omplex in that it is the useful part that turns and it remains attached to a mob
ile bed. The tool used is strawberry€that is usually round with different edges
whose shape agrees with that is to give the workpiece. The piece is placed firml
y secured to a car that's about the strawberry in three directions, ie in the X,
Y and Z. With different tools and other accessories such as the divider, you ca
n do many jobs and shapes. Shiner, works with an abrasive that etches the materi
al of the workpiece. Typically used for precision finishing the possibility of p
recise control of abrasion. Usually no mechanical pressure is exerted on the wor
kpiece.
Reciprocating
Profiling is used to obtain smooth surfaces. The piece remains stationary and th
e tool, usually a knife, has a swinging motion with every trip to eat a little p
iece to work. Planer, as opposed to profiling, the planer is the part that moves
. Allows for smooth surfaces and different cuts. You can put several useful both
to work simultaneously. Saws, are of various types, reciprocating, circular or
band. It is the blade that rotates or moves and the piece that approaches it.
Presses

They perform metal cutting, shaping the material by cutting or shearing, the str
oke for bending and pressure. Dies and matrices commonly used and useful. The pr
ocesses are very fast and are high risk machinery accident.
Unconventional Machines

EDM, the EDM equipment worn by electrical sparks are tiny parts of it melting. T
here are two types of EDM, the electrode, which made holes in the shape of the e
lectrode surface wear or the reverse of the one with the electrode, and recordin
gs made of thread, using a thread sparks jumping from wearing the material, will
cut the pieces as appropriate. In both cases throughout the process, both usefu
l as the piece are immersed in a liquid conductor. Arco plasma using a gas jet a
t high temperature and pressure to cut the material. Laser, in this case is a po
werful and accurate laser that makes the cut by vaporizing the material to be re
moved. Ultrasonic vibrating a useful ultrasonic speeds above 20,000 Hz, using an
abrasive material and water are doing the machining of the workpiece by the fri
ction of the abrasive particles. Used to work very hard materials such as glass
and the diamond and carbide alloys.
Useful and cutting fluids

The tools used in machine tools is paramount to the success of the process to be
performed. The quality of the material they are constructed and very sharp prep
aration of these are determining factors for the accuracy sought and the duratio
n of the useful. An extremely important issue is the cooling of the operation. T
his requires the provision of a mechanism that is responsible for cooling the fr
iction zone. This is done with the drilling fluid called that is a mixture of oi
l and water.
History

The evolution of man and in particular its technology is based on the use of too
ls, these were like the extension of human hands. The first machines were tools
that appeared lathes and drills. At first very rudimentary and manual. The movem
ent is manual and directly provided useful material or wanted to work. The violi
n bow was that first embryo of machine tool whose origin is lost in time. In 125
0 the advance allowed to leave the hands free to work to be able to print the ne
cessary movement by foot pedal device and flexible shaft. In the early sixteenth
century Leonardo da Vinci had designed three basic machines for coins minted: t
he laminator, trimmer and the press beam. His designs would provide guidance for
the development of machines in the future. Around this time he discovered the c
ombination of the pedal with a rod and a crank to get the rotary motion, which w
as rapidly applied to the grinding wheel and a little later to the lathe, to whi
ch we had to add a flywheel to avoid the effect high and low producing deadlocks
.
History

The winch will be refined and added 1658 and began chuck machining steel parts i
n 1693 was not yet widespread this activity. In 1650, the French mathematician B
laise Pascal, enunciated the principle of the hydraulic press,€but would not be
used for industrial applications to 1770, the year in which Bramach patented in
London a hydraulic press. Years later be used in France for the minted coin. The
watchmakers in the seventeenth and eighteenth and used lathes and screw machine
s that allowed them to get very good accuracy. Emphasizes the design of threadin
g done by Jesse Ramsden in 1777.
Water as a source of movement

The waterwheel that provided motion to mills and hammers and bellows of the forg
es and ironworks from the fourteenth century and the boring bit after, it became
the source of movement for lathes and drills that made up the workshops of the
seventeenth and XVIII, until the advent of truly practical steam engines that co
uld be built by Watt boring thanks to John Wilkinson made in 1775 that achieved
a tolerance of "thickness of a sixpence in a 72-inch diameter, precision suffici
ent for the adjustment of Watt's engine.
Steam as a source of movement, the Revolution

In the eighteenth century appears the steam engine, one of the causes of the ind
ustrial revolution and the development of machine tools. The waterwheel is repla
ced by the steam engine and with it acquired independence in their workshop loca
tion. The movement pulleys distributed to all machines that compose it, which ha
d already begun has performed with waterwheels. Also regardless of the weather t
akes no longer depends on the flow of rivers. From now begin a process that last
s until our day: the need to design precision machines that create other machine
s. One of the leading manufacturers of machine tools of that time, the Englishma
n Henry Maudslay, would be the first to realize this need. It was he who introdu
ced improvements that ensured very high precision and robustness. The use of met
al benches and guide plates for trucks carrying tools and screw-nut screws were
the basis of increased accuracy and reliability.
To appreciate the precision of a machine in a depreciating work must have the to
ols necessary for the completion of the measure. The important step in 1805 gave
Maudslay, already five years earlier had made the first all metal around a lead
screw pattern, was a micrometer measuring device which he called Mr. Chancellor
and could measure to the thousandth of an inch. During the nineteenth century th
e development of the machine tool would be tremendous. Maudslay's achievements w
ere the beginning of an endless number of different machines that they responded
to the needs of different manufacturers and construction industries with machin
ing of parts needed for its activity. So before, for example, the need to plan i
ron plates Brush built the first bridge. Maudslay technical heirs, Richard Rober
ts, James Nasmyth and Joseph Whitworth, are the architects of this evolution of
creation. Roberts built the brush bridge, Nasmyth, the first shaper, and in 1817
the German press Dietrich Uhlhöm made coinage, much progress in making them.

The presses are perfect in the second half of the century XIX in 1867 appears pr
ess fiction, Cheret French, and three years after the eccentric house U.S. Blis
& Williams. The milling is born with the war of independence from the British co
lonies in North America. The need for the production of large quantities of arms
which led to mass production, Ely took Whitney to build the first mill in 1818
that 30 years later would be perfected by the engineer who would lend Howe movem
ents in three axes, also develops a router copier. J. R. Brown introduces the di
vider in 1862 to be a major breakthrough. The router reaches the peak in 1884 wh
en the Cincinnati home of the United States builds the universe router first joi
ns a cylindrical ram down axially. Another important step before the CNC automat
ion was the introduction of the rotating head that can work in any plane between
horizontal and vertical produced in 1894 by French Huré.

The Whitworth lathe that developed in 1850 and kept alive until now and only suf
fered improving the Norton Fund introduced in 1890 (Whitworh also developed the
standard screw that bears his name.)€In 1854 he introduced the gun turrets on th
e lathe turret lathe born and which enables the realization of different operati
ons with a single workpiece clamping. A variation of these was the introduction
of continuous bar work. By 1898 had already developed automatic lathes (which so
lved the major productions of small pieces). English leadership in the developme
nt and manufacture of machine tools rose in early twentieth-century Americans. T
he development of the tool is attached to the machine itself. Thus in 1865 the n
ew tools out of alloy steel to increase machining capacity and in 1843 performed
artificial teeth grinding can replace obsolete sandstone.

The discovery of high speed steel in 1898 by Taylor and White increased the cutt
ing speed (the multiplied by 3) and the evolution of chip capacity (more than 7)
. The manufacture of grinding wheels develops, both cylindrical and flat surface
. The discovery of silicon carbide in 1891 by Edward Goodrich Acheson who provid
ed the opportunity to develop machines with large cutting speeds thus opening th
e opportunity to build machines more accurate and powerful that were specified b
y the growing automotive industry. The nineteenth century would be the industria
l development.
The twentieth century, the breakthrough

The twentieth century should be divided into two distinct periods, which runs fr
om the beginning of the century to the end of World War II and since the end of
the century. Progress is very different, whereas in the first part remains the p
ace of the nineteenth century, which was already high in the other technology pr
ogresses very quickly, especially electronics, a new computer that allows, toget
her with the knowledge of materials, changes that can be considered revolutionar
y.
Until the end of World War II

Electricity as a source of movement and had developed in the late nineteenth cen
tury. In the XX engines, AC and DC take the place of steam mills and are respons
ible to operate the general broadcasts industrial workshops. For 1910, starts us
ing tolerances of thousandths of a meter and a micrometer is universalized as pr
ecision measuring equipment. The automotive industry is a driving force in advan
cing the technologies of machine tools and precision measurements. The demands o
f interchangeable parts and an increasing accuracy makes significant advances oc
cur such as the vertical Jig polar table developed by the Swiss Jacot Prrenond a
chieves precision hitherto unimaginable.

The incorporation of different technologies, such as heads of bearings, ball bea


rings or ball screws are there is a considerable increase in productivity across
the industry, especially in the car. Advances in materials essential for the ma
nufacture of cutting tools, suffers a major contribution in 1927 with the appear
ance of the HW, presented at the fair in Leipzig (Germany) by the Krupp company.
Systems control movement and complicated and will improve with incorporation of
local electric motors, even for different axes of a machine, hydraulic controls
, pneumatic and electric. In the 20 develops the concept of autonomous units of
machining and with it the transfer of the workpiece and the union of both result
s in a transfer machine which is a set of autonomous units.
The second half of the twentieth century

In 1943 the marriage of Lazarenko Soviet scientists discovered and built the fir
st EDM is developed from 1950 and 1955 space when the Americans were making simi
lar machines. EDM have another quantum leap from having electronic control techn
ologies turn of the century and developed wire EDM. In 1948 and begin to develop
the first electronic controls for machines. After an investigation starring the
Massachusetts Institute of Technology achieved a prototype and present it in 19
52 (was programmed by punched tape and the machine could perform coordinated sim
ultaneous movement on all three axes).

The development of electronics allows for the early 70's, electronic controls. B
orn the concept of numerical control is widespread in the 80s and benefits of bi
rth and progress of computing.€With the numerical control and its extension to a
ll types of machines is born the concept of machining center, which is a machine
that is capable of performing other functions of different types, lathes, milli
ng, godmother, drill ... has a warehouse of tools and is capable of positioning
the workpiece in different positions needed and different placements. All this w
ith a centralized control. The machines have won in mechanical simplicity, first
in electronics and then passing the elements of mechanical devices to control e
lectrical / electronic, first, and programming later. As in the case of computer
s, the hardware is replaced by the software.

The union of individual machines with transport elements and placement of the pi
eces, like a robot or gantry, all controlled from a central control system and c
oordinated create flexible manufacturing cells. The integration of mechanics and
electronics is to have called mechatronics. Along with the advancement of contr
ol systems has developed another, much quieter, referring to the construction ma
terials of the computers, plastics and resins developed hardness and excellent f
lexibility and motor systems that allow better performance levels in the movemen
ts parts and tools. In terms of tools, progress in ceramic materials and studies
of geometric forms have influenced a remarkable performance of cutting tools ha
s greatly improved the work.
Basic structure

All machine tools have a set of parties, activities and principles that distingu
ish and characterize.
The main parts and their functions
Party Base
Maintains function and sets the machine on the floor, table, or its own structur
e. There are three basic types of bases: • Anchored to the floor or grounded • S
upport d.Integrada table or bench on the body of the machine supports parts of t
he machine, on some machines used for sliding and other tools for fixing of the
pieces that go to work, usually on the bench or stand is located fixed head mach
ines. Dota moving to different parts of the machine, usually consists of the fol
lowing parts: • Engine or engines • Bands • Pulleys • Gears • gearboxes or worm
screws or levers in connection g.Manijas
Thwart or support
Powertrain
Headstock and main spindle
In the fixed head are located all moving parts that generate the movement of the
main spindle. The main spindle attachment which placed the arrangements for sec
uring work pieces. Set the pieces that are going to work, both rotating parts to
fixed as well then: b. Chucks or mandrels c. D. drag clips E. Press F. setting
Cones G. slots Jaws of one or several teeth h. Fix dishes turners of the tools o
ff the chips and shape, the main ones: b. C. Torres Chisels Porta d. Fixing one
or more nails e. F. strawberries Rails Chuck g. Manual support
Securing workpiece
Tool clamping
Cooling
Dotan liquids or fluids for cooling the tools and cut parts. Usually equipped wi
th a pumping system and transmission and collection of fluids.
Mechanisms of progress and / or penetration
Movement permit or lend the tools to achieve the continuous release of chips, th
e main ones are: b. C. herrmientas trolley Brazos prota chisels or strawberries
d. Spindles Town or slips (drill)
Mechanism of automatic or semi automatic control
Initiate or discontinue an action of movement of a part or parts of machines, th
ese can be: b. Worm connected to gears and machine parts c. Bumpers signal to mi
cro switches d. Stepper motors e. F. tape reader units Digitized signal receivin
g units CAM computer g. Material supply systems h. Tools Power Systems i. Automa
tic Inspection Systems
Fasteners

Fasteners on machines require a special analysis tool, even if the presentation


of each machine will be special mention of the corresponding fastening systems.
In this part of the course presents some general their main characteristics.
Chucks or mandrels

They are also known as chuck jaws in the specific case of around two types of ch
ucks.
Universal and independent Chuk The universal chuck is characterized by its three
jaws move with a single key and separate each jaw is set with a separate key in
put.
Chuck Vests

Within subject mandrels can be placed on the chuck with taper shank with the fun
ction of holding the bit and its operation is similar to universal chuck.
Drag clips

The best known and fasteners are used dish, which can be closed or open. Everyon
e always used to a dog known as a skidder. They usually are used for work on sys
tems points or divisors of the strawberries.
DRAG AND PLATE DOG
Presses
Cones fixing

It is an element used in most systems that hold the piece has an axis of rotatio
n. It consists of a conical surface that is inserted into another conical surfac
e between these pieces work force meets the surface prevents their separation, f
riction prevents the rotation and also gives great support.
Drill with taper shank

Most of these fasteners are the chuck or taper shank drills.


Slots

It is usually located in the worktables of machine tools in them are inserted sc


rews with your head down at the table and press plates or nails to fix the piece
s.
Turners plates or dividers

Although the purpose of these devices is not the setting, are considered as elem
ents to keep moving parts of the sites in which they will work.
Turners plates or dividers

These devices attach via a chuck or a bowl of drag of a piece with a handle to r
elease the clamping force can turn the piece a number of specific grades.