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Harvesting sugar cane

Harvesting sugar cane


Operations 1. Cut 2. Charging 3. Transportation Systems Manual Semi-mechanized h
arvesting Mechanized
HARVEST MANUAL Cutting and loading are done by hand labor manual laborer income
cut-cane: 2 to 2.5 t / man / day-cane burning: 6-13 t / man / day (central south
) 5 7 t / man / day (northeast and east)
Carriage by animals or machinery
HARVEST semi-mechanized
Loaders
claw pusher
Self-Propelled
attached to the chassis of the tractor
Pushers loaders
Mechanical Harvest
All operations performed by machines
• The classification of chopping the power source mounted laterally to the tract
or, self-propelled • The rotated tires, semi-mats, matting • The number of rows
instead cut by one, two, three • The type of raw material supplied stalk Whole s
talk fractionated
Whole sugar cane harvester
Cut Cut and pile
Cut and windrowing
Whole sugar cane harvester
Whole sugar cane harvester
Advantages them harvested stems not deteriorate as fast as the chopped and can b
e stored for longer periods and require no special deposits. Disadvantage-the ne
ed to use cranes to pick up the material deposited on the ground, encouraging th
e incorporation of extraneous matters.
Chopped sugar cane harvester
Chopped sugar cane harvester
Advantages-eliminate the use of loaders-efficient cleaning
Losses caused by mechanized harvest visible: Whole canes, cuttings, pieces of ca
ne, caps, stumps and crushed reeds, which are lost or stuck in the field harvest
er fragments: fragments left on the field or are trapped in harvester invisible:
losses occurring during harvest forms of sawdust and broth, and impossible to q
uantify
blade: more responsible for any loss or damage
• High Court • Burial
CONDITIONS FOR TESTING
-Scale sugar cane plantation tending to erect-productivity between 80-100 t / ha
of plantation spacing compatible with the gauge of the machine-ground level and
without obstacles-operators with experience and knowledge of the harvesting pro
cess
Characterization of the sugarcane
• Average length and diameter of culms • Average stem densities of matter and st
range plant by lineal meters of sugarcane • Porte • Soil moisture • Level of mat
urity of the crop
OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE set of attributes that characterize the degree of activa
tion of the machinery for implementation of the harvesting operation under certa
in operating conditions.
ABILITY TO HARVEST QUALITY OF MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF PRODUCT FUNCTIONALITY
COLLECTION CAPACITY: The amount of work that
machine is able to execute in unit time.
• Effective capacity:-net: considers losses in field-Gross: material released in
to the transport vehicle operating capacity-• 'journey: a journey to that long-t
erm: that a crop
QUALITY OF PRODUCT PROCESSING - losses of raw materials - cleaning product (effi
ciency of fans, conveyors vibrations of the elements - technological quality of
the material collected: characteristic patterns of quality of the product (Brix,
min 18%, 14.4 and Pol 15.3%, purity 80 and 85%
MECHANICAL FUNCTIONALITY • Efficient handling of pointers • Index • Index of lea
ves and roots of straw • Index • Index of strange matter plant matter • Index •
Index of odd mineral material not selected foreign matter • Index • Frequency of
total length of cuttings • Index shearing of billets
TESTS:
general idea of operation of a harvester
• Characterization • dimensional weight and fuel consumption • Wear parts • Ergo
nomics and safety
Optimum values that characterize the functionality of the mechanical harvester
Efficacy parameters handling (min. value) Cana burned 95% 1% 3% 0.5% 0.5% 1.5% 5
% 90% 95% (max value) raw cane 93% 3% 6% 0.5% 0.5% 1.5% 8% 90% 95%
Index of leaves and straw (max. value) index of root (maximum value)
Index of vegetable foreign matter (max. value) index material not selected
Mineral content of foreign matter (max. value) Index of total foreign matter (ma
x. value)
Length frequency of grindstones (min. value) shear index (max. value)
Sugarcane harvest
Burning
Green or raw
Independent harvesting of burnt cane cutting be done manually or mechanized, alm
ost 100% of the raw material is even taken by fire. Advantages: efficient and ec
onomical cleaning of cane brings the producer and industry, economic advantages.
Eliminates almost 50% of water in the stem. -Facilitates the operation of manua
l cutters,€increasing productivity in the cut-reduction of accidents caused by p
oisonous animals, often found in plantations.
Harvesting of burnt cane Disadvantages:-aggression to the environment, causes im
balances in the flora and fauna, contributing to the reduction of air quality in
cities and increasing greenhouse effect and the destruction of the ozone layer,
causes the appearance of acid rain thereby reducing the availability of nutrien
ts in the soil pore-clogging of the surface layer of soil by ash, promoting the
formation of surface crust that reduces water infiltration and decreasing its ae
ration
Green cane harvesting performed almost entirely by machines, manual cutting is i
mpractical currently observed in 5% of the total area planted in Brazil, focusin
g on the state of São Paulo (Ribeirão Preto)
Advantages: reduction of air pollution, increase in plant cover, organic matter
accumulation in the soil, encouraging the development of plant and microbial pop
ulation associated with the system-possibility of using the straw to supplement
sugarcane bagasse in boilers - delays the need for renewal of sugarcane
Transportation-Highway
-Railway-Waterway
Rodotrem
Treminhão
Mechanized system efficient performance of the machine harvester stands fully pr
epared for the mechanical harvesting of sugarcane varieties suitable efficient t
ransportation system planning for the harvest experienced operators
wwww.ufv.br / postharvest / crop
MIALHE, L. G. Agricultural Machinery. Testing & Certification. Foundation for Ag
rarian Studies Luis de Queiroz. Piracicaba, SP: p.635-674. 1996.

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