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COURSE

ACCIDENT PREVENTION WORK


E
FIRST AID
MEDTRAB Consulting in Quality and Productivity S / C Ltda.
Rua Major Freire, 244 - sala 2001 - São Paulo - SP 5093.5616 (fax) - 275.1607
- 5589.4435 (fax)
Email: grupomedtrab@uol.com.br
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION PAGE • • • ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS STATEMENT OF ACCIDENT HAZARDS OF W
ORK • • • CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS SAFETY INSPECTION OF ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION • • PR
OTECTIVE EQUIPMENT - PPE • COMMISSION INTERNAL PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS - CIPA CI
PEIROS • • POWERS OF PREVENTION AND FIGHTING • FIRST AID TO FIRE 016 020 009 010
011 013 014 007 008 003 004 005
INTRODUCTION
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Legislation on Safety and Occupational Health in Brazil is relatively new. After
the publication of Decree Law No. 5452 of 1943, which created the Consolidation
of Labor Laws - CLT, we highlight the following facts are most striking: Crea
tion of the Internal Commission for Accident Prevention - CIPA, by Decree Law No
. 7036 of 10 November 1944. Creation of the National Center for Safety and Occ
upational Health, today Jorge Duprat Figueiredo Foundation for Occupational Heal
th and Safety-FUNDACENTRO established by Law No. 5161 of 21 October 1966. Inte
gration of Labor accident insurance to Social Security by Law No. 5316 of 14 Sep
tember 1967. Creating mandatory Specialized Services in Safety Engineering and
Occupational Medicine by the companies through the issue of Ordinance No. 3237
of July 17, 1972. Approval Regulating NR-Chapter V, Title II of the Labor Code
, by Ordinance No. 3214 of 08 June 1978.
edition of Ordinance No. 8, February 23, 1999 which amended the Standard
Regulator No. 5 - CIPA, currently in force.
ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
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Environmental risks are considered the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic
and accidents / mechanics who can bring or cause harm to workers' health in the
workplace, due to their nature, concentration, intensity and duration of exposu
re. Such agents are: • PHYSICAL HAZARDS noise, vibration, ionizing and non-ion
izing radiation, cold, heat, humidity and abnormal pressures. • CHEMICAL HAZARDS
mineral dust, dust plant, alkaline dust, metal fumes, fog, mist, gases, fumes
and chemical products. BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS • Viruses, bacteria, parasites, ric
kets, fungi and bacilli. • ergonomic hazards Monotony, incorrect postures, int
ense pace of work, fatigue, worry, heavy physical work and repetitive. • RISKS O
F ACCIDENTS / MECHANICAL inappropriate physical arrangement, machinery and equ
ipment without protection, defective or inadequate tools, inadequate lighting, e
lectricity, probability of fire or explosion, inadequate storage, venomous anima
ls and lack of signage.
STATEMENT OF RISKS
What is Risk Map?
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Consists of the graphical representation of the health risks identified by CIPA,
in each of the various workplaces in a company.
Objectives Risk Map
gather the information needed to establish the diagnosis of the health and saf
ety at work in the company. possible during its development, exchange and diss
emination of information among employees and encourage their participation in pr
evention activities.
Who prepares the Risk Map?
It is prepared by members of the Internal Commission for Accident Prevention - C
IPA, after listening to employees of all productive sectors of the company, with
advice from SESMT - Specialized Services in Safety Engineering and Occupational
Medicine, where one exists.
Stages of Development of Risk Map
know the process of working on-site review; Identify risks in the property a
ssessed; Identify existing preventive measures and their effectiveness; Iden
tify health indicators (most frequent complaints, accidents, occupational diseas
es, etc.). ; Knowing the environmental surveys already carried out on site.
graphic representation of the Risk Map
The risks are represented by circles of various sizes and colors shall be affi
xed on the plant (layout) of the site analyzed. The size of the circle will in
dicate whether the risk is high, medium or small (the larger the circle, the gre
ater the risk).
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For each type of risk the circles will be represented by a different color, as
follows:
• • • • • Physical risks: green; chemical risks: red; biological hazards: brown;
ergonomic hazards: yellow; risk of accidents / mechanical: blue.
Some examples: • At one warehouse was found that there are a lot of dust: Risk
large (dusty) Color Red (chemical hazard) • In an office area were found some f
ixed chairs, used to operate the microcomputer: Risk (average fixed seating) Col
or Yellow (ergonomic risk) • In the canopy was found a canister of gas: Risk sma
ll (cooking gas) Color Blue (risk of accident / mechanical)
WORK ACCIDENT
LEGAL CONCEPT
Law No. 8213 of 07.24.1991 of Social Welfare which defines its ARTICLE 19: Occ
upational Accident is the case by the exercise of work for a company, causing in
jury or functional disorder that 6
cause death, or loss, or permanent reduction or temporary capacity for work.
CONCEPT PREVENCION
An unplanned event, unexpected or not, that interrupts or interferes with the
normal process of an activity causing loss of time and / or injuries to employee
s and / or property damage.
So even the occurrences that do not result in injury or property damage must be
considered as work accidents.
TYPES OF ACCIDENTS
Accidents in work performance.
Accidents Path: those that occur in the course of residence
for work and when we returned from work to our residence.
Professional disease: is produced or triggered by exercise
work. (Ex: silicosis, lung disease common in coal miners).
Disease Labour: that is acquired or launched in function
special conditions under which the work is done and it relates directly. (Ex: te
nosynovitis).
CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS
Workplace accidents arise basically from three primary causes:
unsafe acts
These acts are performed in a manner contrary to the Safety Standards (eg, cli
mbing chair to change a light bulb). 7
UNSAFE CONDITIONS
There are deficiencies, defects, irregularities technical work environment tha
t can cause an accident (eg, stairs without handrails, slippery floors).

PERSONAL FACTORS OF INSECURITY


Are the physical or mental characteristics of an individual that can interfere
with work being performed (eg, emotional instability, lack of coordination).
SAFETY INSPECTION
It's the survey that is done in workplaces, in order to uncover risks of acciden
ts:
ROUTINE INSPECTIONS
inspections are normally performed by members of CIPA and
aim, above all, observe and avoid the creation of known risks, such as cupboards
dangerous defects in paragraphs 8
vital equipment, carpets hipsters, use of extensions, benjamins (Ts), dangerous
attitudes of officials, etc..
PERIODIC INSPECTIONS
There are inspections that are done at regular intervals, mainly to discover r
isks already provided, which can be characterized by exhaustion, aggressiveness
and other efforts that are subject furniture, machinery, etc..
SPECIAL INSPECTIONS Inspections are usually performed by specialists in Work
place Safety, using special equipment to monitor physical agents and / or chemic
al (eg, decibel meter, thermometer, dosimeter, etc.)..
INVESTIGATION OF ACCIDENTS
Investigate an accident is to do your analysis after its occurrence, in order to
discover the causes and take corrective action to prevent a recurrence of simil
ar cases.
To carry out an investigation of the accident, you should consider five (5) fact
ors: AGENT OF INJURY Is the local environment, the act, well, what could be
the cause of the injury. 9
A SOURCE OF INJURY It is the object that, acting on the body caused the inju
ry. FACTOR FOR PERSONAL INSECURITY If there. NATURE OF INJURY Establish
as was the contact between the injured person and the object or movement that ca
used it (burn, cut, fracture, etc.).. THE LOCATION OF INJURY Allows often id
entify the source of the injury and also indicate certain frequencies in relatio
n to some factors of insecurity-rity.
E.P.I.
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
It is considered Personal Protective Equipment - PPE, any device for individual
use, manufacturing domestic or foreign, to protect the health and physical integ
rity of the worker.
CABE THE EMPLOYER
Provide employees free of charge Protective Equipment approved by the Ministry o
f Labour - MTb appropriate to risk and in perfect condition and operation, where
the measures of a general offer no complete protection against the risks of acc
idents and injury to health employees.
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CABE TO EMPLOYEE
• Use it only for its intended purpose;€• To take responsibility for their care,
conservation and sanitation; • Communicate to the employer any change that rend
ers it unfit for use, • the employee's wrongful act constitutes the unjustified
refusal of the use of PPE
NOTE
All E.P.I. will present, in indelible and clearly visible, the trade name of man
ufacturer or importer, and the number of CA (*) (*) - CA - Certificate of Approv
al, issued by the Ministry of Labor and Employment - MTE.
E.P.I. 's MOST USED
TYPE OF PROTECTION FOR FACE PROTECTION
PURPOSE against the risk of particle impact, splashes from chemicals, the action
of light or heat radiation (infrared, ultraviolet and heat). against the risk o
f falling objects beats, beats for electric shock, hair pulled, etc.. -
EQUIPMENT STATED safety glasses (for flame cutters, grinders, grinders, welders,
machinists). - Masks and shields (for welding). - Safety helmet
PROTECTION FOR THE SKULL
against noise hearing protection that exceed the limits of tolerance. RESPIRATOR
Y PROTECTION
-
against gases or other substances harmful to the body that have the vehicle
protective insert (or not moldable) guards outside (shell type) respirators with
mechanical filters, chemical or combination of both types,
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PROTECTION BODY PROTECTION OF UPPER LIMBS
respiratory infection. against all kinds of aggressive agents. against cutting m
aterials, abrasives, escoriantes, penetrating, thermal, electrical, chemical, bi
ological and radiant that may damage or cause disease in their hands through the
m. against impacts, electricity, molten metals, moisture, chemicals, sharp tools
, biological agents, etc..
etc.. aprons of leather or PVC, PVC, canvas and plastic, depending on the type o
f agent. steel mesh gloves, rubber, neoprene and vinyl, leather, scrapes, canvas
and cotton, Kevlar, etc..
-
PROTECTION OF LOWER LIMBS
-
safety shoes leggings leggings boots (with steel toe caps, insulators, etc.. mad
e of leather, canvas, rubber, etc..
C.I.P.A.
INTERNAL COMMISSION OF PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS
CIPA was founded in 1944, the government of Getulio Vargas.
Its primary objective "to prevent accidents and occupational diseases."
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The current legislation that regulates the Ordinance is No. 8, edited by the Min
istry of Labor and Employment - MTE 2/23/1999.
CIPA is composed of representatives of employers and employees, and substitutes,
according to the proportions set out in Tables minimum of NR-5
POWERS OF CIPEIROS
Members of CIPA have the following responsibilities:
Identify the risks of the work process, and develop the risk map,
with the participation of more workers, with the advice of SESMT (Specialized in
Safety Engineering and Occupational Medicine), where it exists. Develop work
plan that allows for preventive action in solving problems of safety and health
at work. participate in the implementation and quality control of the necessar
y preventive measures as well as assessment of priorities for action in the work
place. Conduct periodically checks the environments and working conditions for
the identification of situations that may pose risks to safety and health of wo
rkers. 13
Make every meeting (monthly), assessment of compliance with targets
fixed in its work plan and discuss the situations of risk was identified. Diss
eminate information to employees on safety and health at work. participate, th
e SESMT, where there is, of discussions facilitated by the employer to assess th
e impacts of changes in the environment and work process related to safety and h
ealth of workers.
request the SESMT, if any, or the employer, the stoppage of a machine or secto
r where it considers there are serious and imminent risk to safety and health of
workers.
Collaborating in the development and implementation of PCMSO (NR-7) and PPRA (
NR-9) and other programs related to safety and health at work.
Disseminate and promote compliance with the Regulatory Standards and clauses i
n contracts and collective bargaining work, concerning safety and health at work
. participate, together with SESMT, where there is, or with the employer's ana
lysis of the causes of diseases and accidents at work and propose measures to so
lve the problems identified. Ordering the employer and analyze information on
issues that have interfered with the safety and health of workers.€ To request
copies of the CAT company issued.
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Promote annually in conjunction with the SESMT, where there is the Internal We
ek for Prevention of Work Accidents - SIPAT.
participate annually in conjunction with the company, Campaigns
Prevention of AIDS (and anti-smoking).
FIRE PREVENTION AND COMBAT
The instructions below are intended to give some theoretical notions regarding t
he use of portable fire fighting.
FIRE
It is the result of a chemical reaction resulting from the combination of three
elements, consisted the so-called "Triangle of Fire":
FUEL is the element that serves food to the fire and can be: Solid: fabric, wood
, paper, etc.. Liquid: gasoline, alcohol, ether, oil, diesel, etc.. Gas: gas coo
king, gas, street, etc..
OXYGEN Also called oxidant, is another element of fire and is present in nature,
it is he who gives life to the flames. 15
HEAT is the last element, leaving him the task of initiating combustion.
Note the absence of any of these elements allows the emergence of fire.
LEGAL ASPECT
According to the Regulatory Standard No. 23 - Fire Protection, all companies mus
t have: protection against fire. Sufficient exits for quick evacuation of the bu
ilding. Adequate equipment to fight the fire in its early stages. People trained
in correct use of equipment (extinguishers, hydrants, etc.)..
PREVENTION
The main goal of prevention is to prevent the emergence of a principle of fire,
is hampering its development, or providing their extinction.
HIERARCHY OF SHARES
In case of fire must adopt the following procedures: Trigger the Fire Departme
nt; Start the abandonment of the establishment; Fighting fire. 16
CLASSIFICATION OF FIRES
CLASS MATERIAL CATEGORY A - (I) common fuel material: paper, wood, fabric, etc..
than to burn out, leave residues B - (II) Flammable liquids: gasoline, oils, pa
ints, grease, etc.. that the burn does not leave residues C - (III) D energized
electrical equipment - (IV) METHOD OF EXTINCTION TYPE OF EXTINGUISHER Cooling: w
ater or fire extinguisher containing water.
Choking: extinguishers smother or isolate flammable liquid air: dry chemical, fo
am, CO-2 Extinguisher non-conductive of electrical current, ie not containing wa
ter: CO-2 and dry chemical. Pyrophoric metal magnesium, tungsten, Sand, special
chemicals, titanium, zirconium graphite, iron filings or rock salt.
(CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTINGUISHERS)
EXTINGUISHER DRY CHEMICAL POWDER
FOAM (*)
COMPARATIVE TABLE
CATEGORY OF FIRE
CO2
WATER
A - (I) WOOD, CLOTH, PAPER, ETC. B - (II) OIL, GASOLINE, PAINT, GREASE, ETC. C -
(III) EQUIPA.ELÉTRICO
No, but early fire control Yes Yes
Yes
No, but small foci controls Yes Yes
Yes
Yes No
No No
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EMPOWERED D - (IV) pyrophoric metal E - (V) NUCLEAR FIRE
(*) Foam Mechanics
Extinguishing Media: Sand, special chemical compounds, graphite, iron filings or
rock salt Specific Extinction
FIRST AID
Below we provide some basic, simple and important to attend to first aid. Rememb
er, the life of the victim depends on the mode and the speed with which such cal
ls are given. Hemorrhage Every time the blood out of the veins or arteries cau
ses bleeding. Features: • When you notice that the blood spurts or sneeze into j
et know that there was damage to the artery and the blood is bright red; • When
the blood flows continuously without jets, the lesion was of the veins and dark
red color is blue; • When blood is seen leaving the injury, saying that it was e
xternal hemorrhage, otherwise the bleeding is internal call. Treatment of minor
bleeding in intensity in arms and legs: • amounts to the injured limb, causing
compression with gauze or clean cloth. in excessive bleeding:
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• The procedure must be fast and safe by starting to cut or rip the clothes quic
kly so that the wound is thoroughly exposed; • Then with gauze or a towel to do
compression on the wound; • bleeding from the legs, arms and fingers can be cont
rolled by tourniquet (tie, scarf or cloth strip). the nosebleeds (epistaxis):
• Unscrew and remove the clothing ties; • placing the victim in a position recli
ning with his head high; • pinch with the index finger of the wing nose against
the nasal septum during 50-10 minutes. hemorrhages in the neck: • Compress the
area with gauze and never use garrote. Burns Burns are injuries produced by e
xcessive heat, electricity or chemicals (acids, bases).€Rating: Can be 1st, 2n
d and 3rd degrees and are much more serious as more extensive areas of the body
affected. Treatment: cover the burned site with gauze; with extensive burns,
seek to involve them with cloths, clean sheets or plastic; if the burn is pro
duced by soaking clothing with acids or bases, withdraw it immediately, and wash
with running water reached the surface; never use the site burned any "home r
emedy"; not pierce bubbles; forward for medical evaluation. 19
Insolation and Intermação Features: Heatstroke is caused by the direct actio
n of sunlight; The intermação is due to proximity to sources of heat such as o
vens used by smelters, engineers, firemen, etc.. Treatment: • remove the clothes
of the patient; • put it in shade or cool and airy • promote hydration, if nece
ssary. Fainting Features: are caused by various reasons such as: - weakness
- starvation - an upright position property. Treatment: • loosen the victim's cl
othing and place it in an airy place; • talk to the victim in order to breathe d
eeply, lowering his head forcefully forward, placing it between the legs on the
lower level of the knees , • can also keep the victim lying on her back, trying
to leave the head at lower level than the rest of the body. Eye Injury 20
Features: are caused by foreign bodies such as swarf, dust, insects, emery, ac
idic materials, corrosives, etc.. Treatment: • Do not try to remove the foreign
body, • where materials acids, or caustic, rinse immediately hit the eye with ta
p water; • make packing and transporting the victim to medical care. lesions i
n the bones and joints Injuries column: Keep the victim wrapped up and motionl
ess. do not mess and do not let anyone touch the victim. never turn a person wit
h a suspected broken spine; note vital signs, transport has to be done on a stre
tcher or litter, avoiding to the maximum bend the body of the victim - during tr
ansport in vehicles, avoid sudden braking and balances not to aggravate the inju
ry - when the lesion is in the neck, wrap around the same, without pressing a sh
irt, towel or other cloth to immobilize it. Fractures: In case of fractures, f
irst aid is only to prevent the displacement of the broken pieces to avoid furth
er damage. Features: - closed fractures: when the bone is broken but the skin wa
s not perforated - fractures: when the bone is broken and the skin broken.
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Arrangements: in closed fractures: • keep the injured limb in the position it
was found, trying not to correct deviations; • Place the affected member support
ing battens, so they are long enough to overcome the joints above and below the
fracture; • any rigid material can be used as a splint (board, cardboard, metal
rod, magazine or folded newspaper) • Use a cloth or soft material to pad the spl
ints, to prevent damage to skin, • tie the splints with bandages or strips cloth
, not too tight at the end of the joint below the fracture ends and at the joint
above the fracture. open fractures: • place a gauze, a handkerchief or cloth
over the wound; • firmly secure the dressing in place, using for this, a necktie
, strip of cloth, etc.., • in the case of bleeding serious follow the instructio
ns seen before; • keep the victim lying; • apply splints, as described for close
d fractures, without trying to puch the member or to make it back to its natural
position; • transport the victim to a doctor or hospital, as previous instructi
ons, after the fracture has been immobilized. Dislocations and Displacements:
• Whenever the bones of a joint board or do they leave their place as in the cas
e of closed fractures. • Place the arm in a sling when there is dislocation of t
he shoulder, elbow or wrist; • forward for medical care.
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Sprains: • Treat as if there were a closed fracture, • applying ice and cold c
ompresses; • refer for medical attention.
Poisoning:
Types: • by ingestion, inhalation •, • by skin contamination. Measures: • observ
e evidence on the spot (bottle of poison pills, etc.). • assess vital signs and
level of consciousness, • remove victim to fresh air, when there is contaminatio
n of the environment, • remove clothing and wash with water current, when there
is contamination of the skin, • do not induce vomiting if victim ingested gasoli
ne, kerosene, acids,€caustic soda or if you are unconscious or having seizures;
• liquid and does not offer home or antidotes, • refer the victim to medical car
e.
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Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation - CPR
CPR is a set of measures that should be followed in the event of a cardiac arres
t and / or respiratory until they transport the victim to the appropriate place
for medical care. Parade Respiratory occurs when the total absence of breath
ing, the person will die if breathing is not immediately reestablished.
Signs of respiratory arrest:
• absence of chest expansion, • lack of air out through the nostril or mouth.
Arrangements:
• approaching the ear of the victim's face to try to hear if there's air passage
, or • placing a mirror or a glass object in front of the mouth and nostrils of
the victim and if this is found not to be blurry to respiratory arrest; • apply
immediately 04 (four) inflated with air and for this: • place the victim in the
correct position (lying on your back supporting your neck with one hand and with
the other press the forehead down, • keep your head in this position, plug the
nostrils and blow forcefully into the mouth of the victim (placing the lips so t
hat covers the entire mouth of the victim so that no air leaks) • in children, c
overing his mouth with the lips and nostril, • between each inflated air, remove
mouth not to impede the return air (expiration);
• after the 04 (four) first continuous inflated, keep breathing at a rate of twe
lve (12) to sixteen (16) by
minutes, 24
• when respiratory arrest is caused by poisonous gases, chemical fumes or lack o
f oxygen, remove victim to fresh air before you start breathing • when respirato
ry arrest is caused by drowning, remove, if possible, the victim of water or rem
ove it for a boat or a more reason to start breathing; • when respiratory arrest
is caused by suffocation by plastic bag, tear the plastic and immediately start
breathing • when respiratory arrest is caused by electric shock, break or separ
ate the victim from the power before you start breathing. Cardiac Arrest:
Signs of Cardiac Arrest:
• no heartbeat; • no pulse (carotid, femoral or radial) • marked pallor.
Arrangements:
• place the victim lying on her back on hard surface, • put both hands and overl
apping fingers interlaced in the lower half of the sternum of the victim; • pres
sure to do next with enough force to the sternum download more or less 05 ( five
) inches and compress the heart against the vertebral column (then unzip) • repe
at the maneuver as often as necessary (approximately 60 (sixty) compressions per
minute). • put pressure on babies with only 02 (two) fingers to avoid fracturin
g the ribs.
cardiopulmonary arrest: If while cardiopulmonary arrest, you should perform ca
rdiac massage associated with mouth to mouth, as follows: 25
to fifteen (15) and chest compressions without interruption, apply two (02) br
eaths, repeating this cycle many
often as necessary (if you're alone providing relief);
making 05 (five) chest compressions while the second
a rescuer applies mouth to mouth resuscitation (if in two rescuers); if necess
ary, these procedures continue while the victim is being transported to the hosp
ital.
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