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Office Ergonomics

to
Safety Manual on Ergonomics for Offices
Objectives
This Guide will enable you to:
better understand the basic elements of ergonomics
office;
identify tasks that can potentially cause
the Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) and other injuries to muscles and joints;
develop an Ergonomics Program and establish
goals for your workplace, and
focus on solving problems with
involvement of employees and management.
Scope
This manual is applicable for work in offices and covers the factors that contri
bute to the compatibility between workers and their work. Includes ergonomics of
the workstation, work organization, working environment and safety practices re
commended. This manual will assist in developing and implementing ergonomics pro
grams for offices. Training courses for employees, can be a practical material f
or participants.
Target Audience
This manual is designed for managers, supervisors, workers, people working at ho
me, nurses work, occupational therapists, chiropractors, representatives and occ
upational health and safety.
Summary
Ergonomics studies the compatibility between workers and their work. "Work" incl
udes the desktop, workstations and tasks. Ergonomic conditions are inadequate wh
en the "job" is incompatible with the body of workers and their ability to conti
nue working. These conditions can cause discomfort, fatigue and, consequently, i
njury. Injuries resulting from inadequate ergonomic conditions are known as Repe
titive Strain Injury (RSI), musculoskeletal disorders Work-Related (MSDs) or Rep
etitive Motion Injuries (MRLs). The causes for these lesions are extended work i
nvolving repetitive movements, forceful movements and awkward postures. RSI inju
ries are painful and often disabling, affecting primarily the wrists, back, legs
, shoulders, neck, muscles and joints. Suitable environmental conditions are imp
ortant for the complete well being of workers and productivity. A desktop that i
s too cold or too hot, dimly lit, noisy, poorly ventilated, or unpleasant odors,
cause annoyance, stress, fatigue, eyestrain, headaches and other problems. In e
xtreme cases, an inadequate environment in the office can cause disease. Injurie
s and illnesses related to inadequate ergonomic conditions can be prevented, mak
ing the location and organization of work fits the physical and mental needs of
each individual worker.
Index
Introduction
Part I.
Ergonomic Hazards in Offices
1. What is Ergonomics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. What
is RSI? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. Why is so much t
alk in Ergonomics?. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. What are the common symptoms of R
SI?. . . . . . . . . 5 MSDs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pain 6. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5. Injuries occur as th
e effort. . . . . . . . . . . . Repeatable (RSI)?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . June 8. RSIs affect how your body? . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 10 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Low back pain. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . July 16. What do you notice
the symptoms of RSI? . . . . . . . 19 8. Such as RSI are treated? . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . 19
Part II.
Ergonomics Program for Office
1. What is an Ergonomics Program. . . . . . . . . . . . Offices for? . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2. How to identify ergonomic hazards.
. . . . . . 23 3. Controlling the Ergonomic Hazards. . . . . . . . 24 workstatio
n and work organization. . . 28 Material Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 35 Desktop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Lighting and Vis
ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4. Ergonomic aspects of comp
uters. . . . . . 45 Common Health Hazards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 RSI re
lated to the use of Computers. . . . . 48 Causes and Common Symptoms. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . 49 Workstation Computer. . . . . . . 50 Using the Mouse. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Standing Working with Computers.
. . . . . . 58 Working on foot - Chairs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Footwear and floors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .€Work Orga
nisation 62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5. Safety in Offices. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6. Exercises to do in office. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 66 7. Education and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 71
Part III. Legislation
Safety and Occupational Health
1. Legislalação Safety and Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occupational Braz
il. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 2. Responsibilities of the Empl
oyer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3. Employee responsibilities. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 76 4. Internal Commission for Accident Prevention (CIPA). . . 76
Part IV. Sources
Information
Canada. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
U.S.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
0 Brazil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 81 Standardization in Ergonomics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Part V.
Attachments
A1: Sample Survey of Ergonomics. . . . . . . . . . . 85 A2: Sample Health Survey
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 A3: Sample Checklist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
on Ergonomics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Introduction
The Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) are health problems that occur more frequentl
y in modern offices. These lesions result from plans and workstations designed i
mproperly. Two common types of RSI are the muscle strain in the neck, shoulders
and back, to remain seated for long periods, and muscle and joint injuries due t
o excessive repetition of moves. Injuries resulting from repetitive movements ar
e known as Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI), Repetitive Motion Injuries (MRL), mus
culoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and musculoskeletal disorders Work-Related (MSDs).
In this manual, we use RSI. The following table summarizes the ergonomic hazard
s and safety at work most common in offices.
USING an adjustable document holder. Put it beside the screen and at the same ti
me. The head will have less turn and eyes will settle more easily. (See figure o
n next page) changing the position of supporting documents on both sides of the
monitor to vary the head position. Connecting the keyboard to the computer with
a string of at least 70 cm in length. CHECK excessive noise of the computer or p
rinter. Clean the screen regularly as instructed by the manufacturer. Report to
your supervisor if you have problems with the controls, onscreen instability or
excessive noise. You and your workstation
Wrist in a neutral position (no bending) keyboard directly in front next to the
keyboard and mouse at the same level shoulders and hips aligned backrest adapted
to the curvature of the spine Rest arm at the elbow height of the patella assen
toabaixo
Knees slightly below hips feet flat on the floor or footrest
51
Ceiling Lamps
filters to disperse light located parallel to the computer monitor
Environment
neutral finish of the walls and no furniture reflector minimum noise
Light Work Window
located at the right angle of the computer screen
Support Document
mobile and adjustable
Computer Monitor
position adjustable display brightness and contrast adjustable
Keyboard
thin, separate, mobile
Chair armrests
revolving wheels or casters Adjustable keyboard height stable base angle
and seat height adjustable backrest Adjustable edge of the front seat rou
nded armrests
Footrest, wrist rest for
Workstation
height adjustable work surface height Adjustable keyboard
52
Publications
this Series
Safety Guide for groundskeepers workers who care for soil and gardens Cold Weath
er Workers Safety Guide information on health and safety for workers outdoors in
cold climates School Workers Health and Safety Guide for teachers and other emp
loyees of Schools Office Ergonomics Safety Guide helps workers to Offices in rec
ognition of ergonomic hazards and corrective actions Food Service Workers Safety
Guide on the aspects related to services and food preparation industries Wareho
use Workers Safety Guide for workers in warehouses, depots and air Indoor Air Qu
ality Health and Safety Guide information on the quality air indoors,€explains h
ow to ensure occupant health and comfort Violence in the Workplace Prevention Gu
ide information on violence in the workplace and its prevention Welders Health a
nd Safety Guide helps in recognizing the dangers and prevention of diseases rela
ted to the work of welders Health and Safety Committees Reference Guide practica
l guide for the formation and effective functioning of health committees and saf
ety Noise Control in Industry: A Basic Guide helps in recognizing problems relat
ed to noise, control of exposure and the development of a program for hearing pr
otection
For more information about these titles
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