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SLENDER BEAMS

1

Assistant Professor - Senior Grade, Department of Civil Engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology,

Sathyamangalam, Tamilnadu, India 638401

2

Assistant Professor - Senior Grade, Department of Civil Engineering, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology,

Sathyamangalam, Tamilnadu, India 638401

Abstract

Nine high strength reinforced concrete beams with minimum shear reinforcement and heavier than minimum as per ACI code,

were tested to investigate their size effects on shear strength for medium depth beams (d ranges from 305 to 560 mm), ultimate

shear capacity and failure modes. Test variables were shear reinforcement percentage (v varying from 0.2682 to 0.3351),

longitudinal steel percentage (l varying from 2.78 to 3.43) and effective depth (varying from 400 to 500 mm) with constant

compressive strength (fck =70 MPa) and shear span to effective depth (av/d) =2.6. This study investigated the influence of beam

depth with varying longitudinal reinforcement and minimum shear reinforcement. Test results were compared with the strengths

predicted by ACI code, CEB-FIP Model, Zsuttys equation, Okumaros equation and also with Bazants method. ACI code and

Okumaros equation can predict the shear strength trend reasonably well for slender beams. The Bazants method is

underestimating the ultimate strength. The accuracy of the Zsuttys equation is relatively better than ACI approaches and but it

does not take in to account the size effect. Canadian code provisions correlates well with the experimental results taking in to

account the size effect.

Keywords: Size Effect, High strength concrete, Shear strength, Slender Beams, Varying Section Depth.

--------------------------------------------------------------------***------------------------------------------------------------------

The problem of shear failure of reinforced concrete beams specifies the shear strength of reinforced concrete members

has received much attention in technical literature due to its where fc is cylinder compressive strength of concrete in

complex mechanism. A large number of experimental MPa, d- effective depth of beams in mm and bw- breadth of

programme has been conducted all over the world using beam in mm. This code formula gives size independent

concrete with compressive strength lower than 40 MPa, concrete shear strength. From the literature study the

most of these test specimens are usually smaller than in following important points were observed. Diagonal tension

actual structural members, because it is practically difficult failure was most common failure mode of the beam with

and expensive to carry out laboratory tests on large size shear span to effective depth (av/d) > 2.5. It was observed

specimens. Many current design methods are based on more that the ultimate shear strength reduced for beams with

or less statistic analysis of existing test results. minimum shear reinforcement showing significant size

effect. There is a more pronounced size effect in medium

The diagonal shear failure of reinforced concrete beams has effective depth beams than in small depth beams (d <

been known to be a brittle type of failure and it is already 305mm).

known that size effect occurs in both short and slender

beams with normal strength concrete. Size effect is 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

represented by a reduction in ultimate shear strength due to

increase in beam size. In recent years with rapidly This program consists of nine rectangular beams with

increasing use of high strength concrete, this issue becomes constant width equal to150 mm and overall depth varying

more important. High strength concrete is known to be more from 400 to 500 mm. In this study, three groups of concrete

brittle than normal strength concrete. This will result in slender beams are consisting of three specimens with shear

strong size effect in high strength concrete beams. However, span to effective depth (av/d) ratio equal to 2.6. The beams

the experimental information on this subject is limited. The were tested to shear failure under two point symmetric top

experimental program described in this investigation loads. The beams are designed to fail in shear before their

attempts to provide more data on shear behavior of high flexure capacity is reached. The beams are longitudinally

strength concrete beams affected by size. The result should reinforced with l varying from 2.78 to 3.43 and each beam

be useful for evaluating design methods used for high is provided with minimum shear reinforcement as per ACI

strength concrete beams. code 318-02

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 113

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

Asv depth beam that is (305 to 560 mm). The effective depth (d)

v (min) = where sv =0.065 f c f y 0.33 f y MPa chosen was from 400 to 500 mm.

bw .s v

2.1 Details of Test Specimen

Where fc up to 120 MPa, nominal stirrup capacity fy not

greater than 0.345 MPa and maximum spacing of stirrups The details of each group specimen with respect to l and v

0.5d. Here the study is made for medium range effective are given in Table-1.

Effective Sv,limit

v=100(A l=100( Ast, Asv

Specimen Depth (d) = 0.5d

sv/b Sv) Ast/bd) fy=415 fy=415

in mm in mm

MNR1 400 200 0.3351 2.78 3#25 + 1#16 2#8

MNR2 450 225 0.2978 2.78 3#25 + 2#16 2#8

MNR3 500 250 0.2682 2.78 3#25 + 2#16 2#8

NNR1 400 200 0.3351 3.43 4#25 2#8

NNR2 450 225 0.2978 3.43 4#25 + 1#16 2#8

NNR3 500 250 0.2682 3.43 4#25 + 2#16 2#8

ONR1 400 180 0.37 2.78 3#25 + 1#16 2#8

ONR2 450 200 0.3351 2.78 3#25 + 2#16 2#8

ONR2 500 225 0.2978 2.78 4#25 2#8

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION support and loading point. The failure crack patterns of three

groups of beams are similar. All beams failed in diagonal

The specimen remains elastic until flexure crack takes place. tension mode of shear failure. For the entire tested beam,

Diagonal crack occurs after the flexure crack obtained and primary shear crack angle varied between 30 to 40 degrees

widened quickly under increase in load as the diagonal crack regardless of size and stirrup spacing. The mode of failure is

width widens quickly a few of them merge and develop in to given in Table-2 along with the test results.

diagonal cracks that finally leads to the failure of beams.

The inclined web shear crack may formed between the end

Effective Breadth

fck in

Specimen Depth (d) of beam av/d fc' Vcr (KN) Vu (KN) Mode of Failure

MPa

in mm in mm

MNR1 400 150 2.6 61 48.8 145 268.69 Diagonal Tension

MNR2 450 150 2.6 61 48.8 140 254.845 Diagonal Tension

MNR3 500 150 2.6 61 48.8 110 193.43 Diagonal Tension

NNR1 400 150 2.6 47 37.6 120 264.52 Diagonal Tension

NNR2 450 150 2.6 47 37.6 100 233.53 Diagonal Tension

NNR3 500 150 2.6 61 48.8 90 193.03 Diagonal Tension

ONR1 400 150 2.6 47 37.6 145 268.69 Diagonal Tension

ONR2 450 150 2.6 47 37.6 100 250.223 Diagonal Tension

ONR3 500 150 2.6 47 37.6 80 207.61 Diagonal Tension

The mix proportion used for the M70 high strength concrete Size effect is a phenomenon in R C beams associated with

is given in Table-3 reduction in shear strength owing to increase in depth. The

variation of diagonal cracking shear strength and ultimate

Table-3: Mix Ratio shear strength with effective depth are explained below. The

Micro above two parameters are normalized with respect to f c

Super

Grade Mix Silica

W/b Plasticizer take in to account of the inevitable differences in concrete

of Proportion By Wt.

Ratio By Wt. of strength.

concrete C:FA:CA of

Cement

cement

M70 1:0.87:2.03 0.25 5% 3%

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 114

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

4.1 Effect of Increase in Depth (d =400 to 500 mm) Figure 1 & 2. It has been observed as the effective depth

increase from 400 to 500 mm for beam with minimum shear

on Normalized Diagonal Cracking Shear Strength reinforcement, there is a reduction of cracking shear strength

and Ultimate Shear Strength at Diagonal Cracking and ultimate shear strength by 45% and 35% respectively.

Thus clearly indicate, there is a significant size effect in

Load and Failure Load for Beams with Minimum diagonal cracking shear strength and ultimate shear

strength of beams with minimum shear reinforcement.

Shear Reinforcement

The variation of diagonal cracking shear strength and

ultimate shear strength with effective depth is shown in

EFFECT OF INCREASE IN DEPTH ( d =400 to 500 mm) ON NORMALISED DIAGONAL EFFECT OF INCREASE IN DEPTH (d =400 to 500 mm) ON NORMALISED ULTIMATE SHEAR

CRACKING SHEAR STRENGTH OF BEAMS WITH MINIMUM SHEAR REINFORCEMENT AT STRENGTH OF BEAMS WITH MINIMUM SHEAR REINFORCEMENT AT FAILURE LOAD

DIAGONAL SHEAR CRACKING LOAD

0.6

0.4 0.55

Vcr/ b d fc' ^ 0.5

"with percentage of

Vu / b d fc' ^ 0.5

0.35 0.5

longitudinal with percentage of longitudianal

0.3 0.45

reinforcement=2.78" reinforcement=2.78

0.25 0.4

with percentage of longitudianal

"with percentage of 0.35

0.2 reinforcement=3.43

longitudinal

0.15 0.3

reinforcement=3.43

0.25

0.1

0.2

300 350 400 450 500 550 300 350 400 450 500 550

Effective Depth in mm Effective Depth in mm

Fig -1: Influence of Normalized Vcr on varying section depth Fig-2: Influence of Normalized Vu on varying section depth

4.2 The Influence of Amount of Longitudinal 4.Thus beams with shear reinforcement whether minimum

or heavier than the minimum , is unable to suppress the size

Reinforcement on Size Effect as Effective Depth effect it mitigates the size effect .

Ranges from 400 to 500mm

THE INFLUENCE OF AMOUNT SHEAR REINFORCEMENT (

Beams with minimum shear reinforcement with l=2.78%

MINIMUM OR SLIGHTLY HIGHER THAN THE MINIMUM)

the reduction in shear strength is 41.45% with effective

depth range 400 to 500 mm, whereas for l=3.43%, the 0.80

reduction in shear strength is 40.68%. Thus in both cases 0.75

Vu/ b d fc' ^ 0.5

with lower percentage of

reinforcement by 18.95%, it does not eliminate the size 0.65

shear reinforcement

0.60

effect but they only slightly mitigate it as shown in Figure 3. with higher percentage of

0.55

shear reinforcement

0.50

THE INFLUENCE AMOUNT OF LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT ON SIZE EFFECT AS 0.45

EFFECTIVE DEPTH RANGES FROM 400 to 500mm 0.40

300 350 400 450 500 550

0.8

Effective Depth in mm

0.7

Vu/ b d fc' ^ 0.5

0.5 longitudinal Fig-4: Influence of v on varying section depth

reinforcement=2.78

0.4

with percentage of

0.3

0.2

longitudinal

reinforcement=3.43

4.4 Influence of Reserve Shear Strength Index (R)

0.1

0 with Varying Depth

350 400 450 500 550

Effective Depth in mm Reserve shear strength is defined as the ratio of Vu/Vcr as

criteria to measure the reserve strength. It can be understood

Fig -3: Influence of l on varying section depth from the observation that the increase in overall depth leads

to decrease in load carrying capacity after the diagonal crack

4.3 The Influence of Amount Shear Reinforcement this results in wider cracks and higher energy released rate

at the front of cracks due to reduction of shear strength. The

(Minimum or Slightly Higher than the Minimum) reduction in R as depth increased from 400 to 500 mm is

RC slender beams with minimum shear reinforcement, with from 1.85 to 1.76. The variation of decreasing reserve shear

increase in shear reinforcement by 9.4% the ultimate shear strength is shown in Figure 5.

strength reduces from 27% to 24% as shown in Figure

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 115

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

1.86

with Theoretical Tensile Strength as per CEB-FIP

Reserve strength,

1.84

1.82

Model 1990

Vu/Vcr

reserve strength

1.80 The tensile strength of beams has been calculated both from

variation

1.78

1.76

load level at initiation of diagonal crack and also from cube

1.74 strength according to model code 90 (CEB-FIP model code

350 400 450 500 550 1990). It can be seen that beams with a diagonal tension

Effective Depth in mm failure the ratio between the two is slightly below one. For

beams with compression failure all ratios more than one.

Fig-5: Influence of Reserve shear strength on varying Thus confirming with the experimental result.

section depth

Actual

tensile

Effective Applied Theoretical tensile

Breadth stress, f(t)

Specimen Depth -d Shear (Vcr) stress

of beam f(t) exp exp/Sv(the)

in mm in KN Sv(the)=0.24(fck)0.66

in

N/mm2

MNR1 150 400 145 2.42 3.65 0.66

MNR2 150 450 140 2.07 3.65 0.57

MNR3 150 500 110 1.46 3.65 0.40

NNR1 150 400 120 2 3.04 0.66

NNR2 150 450 100 1.48 3.04 0.49

NNR3 150 500 90 1.2 3.65 0.33

ONR1 150 400 145 2.42 3.04 0.80

ONR2 150 450 100 1.48 3.04 0.49

ONR3 150 500 80 1.07 3.04 0.35

Behavior or Shear Strength Provided by Stirrups Specimen Depth -d in capacity cracking

mm Vs (KN) angle

Based on ACI code the shear strength provided by stirrups

can be calculated by using the equation Vs= fy Asv d/Sv the MNR1 400 123.69 34

term fy Asv is the shear strength provided by one stirrups and MNR2 450 114.845 36

d/Sv is the number of stirrups crossing the diagonal crack MNR3 500 83.43 45

and shear crack angle is assumed to be 45 degrees for all the

tested beams, the beam size, effective depth and the stirrup

spacing did not influence the angle at which primary shear stirrup capacity with varying depth

cracking occurred the test results indicate that the primary

shear crack angle varied between 30 to 45 degrees 200

with percentage of

regardless of size and stirrup spacing.

150 longitudinal

Vs in KN

reinforcement=2.78

Vs (predicted as per ACI) = fy Asv d/Sv 100

with percentage of

50 longitudinal shear

Vs (Actual)= Nv fy Asv and this is equal to stirrup capacity reinforcement=3.43

where, 0

Nv is the number of stirrup crossing the shear angle (full 300 350 400 450 500 550

integer quantity).

Shear capacity analysis with varying effective depth for the Effecive Depth in mm

first group specimens are shown in Table IV.

Fig-6: Influence of Stirrup capacity on varying section

depth

Table-5: Stirrup Capacity The shear crack angle determines the number of stirrup

crossing the diagonal crack. Steeper angle resulted in a

decrease in number of stirrups that cross the diagonal crack.

It can be observed that crack angle is affected by size effect.

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 116

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

For beams MNR1 to MNR3, shear strength provided by 4.7 Comparison Of Test Results With Various

stirrups decreases by 31% for effective depth between 400

and 500 mm. For the beams with l = 2.78 and l = 3.43, the Shear Code Provisions And Shear Design

influence of stirrup capacity with varying section depth as Equations

shown in Figure 6.

The experimental diagonal cracking load and failure load is

compared with the theoretical one calculated as per different

codes and based on this Figure 7 and Figure 8 shows the

comparison of diagonal cracking load and failure load for

different codes respectively.

Comparison of codes at diagonal cracking load

2

2

1.8

1.8 ACI

ACI 318-02 1.6 318-

Vcr exp/Vcr ther

Vu exp/ Vu ther

1.6 02

AS-3600 1.4 AS-

3600

1.4 OKAMURA

1.2 OKA

1.2 ZSUTTYS MUR

1 A

1 BAZANT ZSUT

0.8 TYS

SSVM

0.8

0.6

0.6

350 400 450 500 550

350 400 450 500 550

Effective depth in mm Effective depth in mm

Fig-7: Comparison of different codes with cracking load Fig-8: Comparison of different codes with ultimate load

From Figure 8, it is clear that all the different codes consider beams (d = 400 to 500 mm) than in small depth

in this paper are predicting decreasing order while range beams (d less than or equal to 305 mm).

increasing in section depth. ACI code gives conservative However the safety factor for shear decrease with

predictions for slender beams it can be seen that this increase in depth from 400 to 500 mm range which

conservative trend decreases within increase of beam depth. exhibit an inadequate safety factor so it can be

The Bazants method can predict the trend of the influence concluded that the ACI code predictions for shear

of effective depth on shear strength of high strength concrete strength at diagonal cracking load and failure load,

beam, it also underestimate the ultimate strength. should address the size effect.

Beams designed with minimum shear reinforcement

5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS as percentage of longitudinal reinforcement

increased from 2.78% to 3.43%, the normalized

Experimental investigation on shear behavior of slender ultimate shear strength reduces from 41.45% to

beams with size effect is important because many of the 40.68%. And thus in both the cases there is a size

shear design code provisions are principally empirical, vary effect and with increase of percentage of

greatly from code to code and do not provide for uniform longitudinal reinforcement by 18.95%, it does not

factors of safety against failure. For these reasons, nine eliminate the size effect but only slightly mitigate it.

reinforced concrete beams with medium effective depth RC slender beams with minimum shear

range between 400 to 500 mm, longitudinal percentage reinforcement the reduction in shear strength is 27%

ranging from 2.78 to 3.43 and minimum shear reinforcement for 400 to 500 mm effective depth range. With

percentage from 0.2682 to 0.37 with constant concrete increase of shear reinforcement by 9.4%, for the

strength fck = 70MPa and shear span to effective depth ratio same effective depth range, the reduction in ultimate

(av/d = 2.6), were tested to shear failure under two strength is 24%. For slender beams whether

symmetric point loading. The principle findings from minimum or heavier than the minimum is unable to

experimental results are summarized as follows suppress the size effect.

Reserve shear strength is defined as the ratio of

For the RC slender beam tested here with minimum Vu/Vcr as criteria to measure the reserve strength. As

shear reinforcement as per ACI code, as depth the effective depth increases the reserve shear

increased from 400 to 500 mm (medium effective strength reduces from 1.85 to 1.76. Thus confirming

depth range) there was a corresponding decrease of from the experimental result.

45% in concrete shear strength in diagonal cracking It can be observed that the ratio of experimental

load and 20% in ultimate shear strength and that is tensile strength to theoretical tensile strength

there is a size effect . Thus there was more predicted by CEB FIP model code 1990 is less than

pronounced size effect in medium effective depth one which confirms the diagonal tension failure.

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 117

IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

This calculation clearly shows that reinforcement Members without Stirrups ACI Structural Journal ,

distributes the stresses in the web and therefore leads pp 232-241.

to cracking at later stage. [6] Joost Walraven and Nobert Lehwalter , (1994 )Size

For beams tested in study, the beam size and the Effects in Short Beams Loaded in Shear , ACI

stirrup spacing did not influence the angle at which Structural Journal, pp 585-593

primary cracking occurred. The test results indicate [7] Keun Hyeok Yang, Hee- Chang Eun, Heon Soo

that primary shear crack angle vary between 30 to Chung (2006) The influence of web opening on

45 degrees regardless of beam size and stirrup the structural behavior of reinforced high strength

spacing. concrete deep beams Engineering Structures 28 ,

It was observed that beam size did not affect post 1825-1834.

cracking behavior or shear strength provided by [8] Michael P Collins Denis Mitchell, Perry Adebar,

stirrups. Frank J Vecchio (1996 )Shear Strength of High

For beams tested, shear strength provided by Performance Concrete Beams , A General Shear

stirrups decreases by 31% for effective depth Design , ACI Structural Journal, pp 36-45

between 400 and 500 mm. Considering the variation [9] Michael P Collins, Evan C Bentz, and Edward G

in observed shear angle, closer spacing or reduced Sherwood,(2008)Where is Shear Reinforcement

d/Sv with smaller diameter stirrups, which provide a Required? Review of research results and design

better stirrup distribution may be beneficial . procedures ACI Structural Journal ,pp 590-599.

[10] Prodomas D Zararis and George Ch. Papadakis

NOTATIONS (2001) Diagonal Shear Failure and Size Effect in

RC Beams without Web Reinforcement Journal of

v = Shear reinforcement percentage Structural Engineering , pp 733-741.

l = Longitudinal steel percentage [11] Prodomos D.Zararis (2003)Shear Strength and

fck = Cube compressive strength of concrete minimum shear reinforcement of Reinforced

fc = Cylinder compressive strength of concrete Concrete slender beams, ACI Structural Journal,

bw = Breadth of beam in mm pp 203-214.

v (min) = Minimum shear reinforcement percentage [12] Robert J Frosch (2000)Behavior of large Scale

Sv = Spacing between Stirrups Reinforced Concrete Beams with minimum shear

R = Reserve Shear Strength Index reinforcement ACI Structural Journal, pp 814-820.

Vs (predicted as per ACI) = Stirrup capacity predicted by [13] Subramanian( 2003)Shear strength of high strength

ACI method concrete beams: Review of codal provisions The

Vs (Actual) = Actual stirrup capacity Indian Concrete Journal ,pp 1090-1094

Nv = Number of stirrup crossing the shear angle [14] Tarek K Hassan ,Hatem M Seliem ,Hazim Dwairi,

Vcr = Cracking Shear Strength Sami H Rizkalla and Paul Zia(2008)Shear Behavior

Vu = Ultimate Shear Strength of Large Concrete beams Reinforced with High

Ast = Area of tensile reinforcement Strength Steel ACI Structural Journal , pp 173-179.

Asv = Area of shear reinforcement [15] Vijayarangan(1998) Shear Design of Reinforced

av = Shear span Concrete Beams, Slabs and Walls , Cement and

d = Effective depth Concrete Composites, pp 45-464.

fy = Yield strength of steel [16] Zdenek P Bazant (1987 )Size Effect in Diagonal

Shear Failure: Influence of Aggregate Size and

REFERENCES Stirrups , ACI Materials Journal ,pp 259-272.

[1] ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements [17] Zdenek P Bazant , Qiang Yu, Walter Gerstle, James

for Structural Concrete (ACI 318 05) and Hanson, and J.Woody Ju (2007)Justification of

commentary (318R 05), American Concrete ACI 446 Code Provisions for Shear Design of

Institute, Farmington Hills, Mich 2005. Reinforced Concrete Beams ACI Structural

[2] A.F Ashour ( 2000)Shear Capacity of Reinforced Journal ,pp 601-607

Concrete Deep Beams Journal of Structural [18] Zdenne P Bazant and Mohammad T Kazemi ,

Engineering, pp 1045-1052. (1991) Size Effect on Diagonal Shear Failure of

[3] Eric J Tompos and Robert J Frosch (2002) Influence Beams without Stirrups ACI Structural Journal pp

of beam size , longitudinal reinforcement , and 268-278.

stirrup effectiveness on concrete shear strength.

ACI Structural Journal pp -567.

[4] Evan C Bentz and Sean Buckley (2005)Repeating a

Classic Set of Experiments on Size Effect in Shear

of Members without Stirrups ACI Structural

Journal ,pp 832-838.

[5] Evan C Bentz( 2005)Empirical Modeling of

Reinforced Concrete Shear Strength Size Effect for

_______________________________________________________________________________________

Volume: 03 Issue: 08 | Aug-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org 118

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