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Lecture 1

TRIGONOMETRY branch of Mathematics which deals with the measurement of triangles.


Greek word: trigonon- triangle; metron measure

Applications:
Ancient times surveying, navigation, astronomy to find relationships between the lengths of sides
of triangles and measurement of angles.

Modern times wave motion, repetitive phenomena, business cycles.

Angles and their Measurement


Definition: The graph of the equation x y 1 is the unit circle (U) having its center at the origin and
2 2

radius 1.

Examples: Show the location on U of the terminal point of the arc having the initial point at (1,0) and having the
given arc length; state the quadrant in which the terminal point lies.

5
1. 2. 2 3.
12 8

11 15
4. 5. 10.34 6.
3 6
Definition: An angle is thought of as a union of two rays called the sides having a common endpoint called the
vertex.

Definition: An angle having its vertex at the origin and having one side called the initial side, lying on the positive
side of the x-axis is said to be in standard position.

If the terminal side lies on an axis, the angle is said to be quadrantal.

Definition: If an angle has its vertex at the center of the unit circle U and intercepts on U an arc of length 1, the
angle has a measure of 1 radian.

m R ( ) t

Illustrations:

1. m ( ) 2 2. m ( ) 3.25
R R


3. m ( ) 4. m ( )
R R

3 4
Example: Show by a diagram the angle that has the given radian measure.

11 13
1. 3. 5. -2.35 7.
6 6 6

4 5 8
2. 4. 6. 7.23 8.
3 3 3

Conversion of the angle measurement from radian to degree, and degree to radian:

Use 180
Example: Find the equivalent degree measurement for the angle having the given radian measurement.
1 4
1. 2. 3. -5
4 3

4. 4.78 5. 2.75

Example: Find the equivalent radian measurement for the angle having the given degree measurement.
1. 60 2. 210 3. -225
Example: Convert the angle measurement to a form using decimals to the nearest hundredth of a degree.
1. 352212 2. 1023127

Example: Express the angle in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds.


1. 54.135 2. 246.5134 3. 153.723

Definition: Given an angle in standard position. An angle that is coterminal with the angle is the angle in
standard position that has the same terminal side as .

9
Consider: m ( )
R

Example: Find the radian measure of the smallest positive angle that is coterminal with the angle in radian, and
draw both angles.

3 8 7
1. 2. 3.
4 3 6

11
4. 7.28 5. 4.25 6.
4
Definition: A central angle of a circle is one whose vertex is at the center of the circle.

Theorem: If r is the radius of a circle and t is the radian measure of a central angle that intercepts on the circle
an arc length s, then
s rt

Illustration: If r = 3, t = 2, then ___________________.

Definition: A sector of a circle is the region bounded by an arc of the circle and the sides of the central angle.

1 2
K r t
2

Example: Find the arc length and the area of the sector of the circle having the radius and central angle .


r = 8 cm, m ( )
R
1.
4
2
2. r = 9 cm., m ( )
R

3
3. r = 12 in., m ( ) 120

4. r = 6 cm, m ( ) 135