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# Lecture 1

## TRIGONOMETRY branch of Mathematics which deals with the measurement of triangles.

Greek word: trigonon- triangle; metron measure

Applications:
Ancient times surveying, navigation, astronomy to find relationships between the lengths of sides
of triangles and measurement of angles.

## Angles and their Measurement

Definition: The graph of the equation x y 1 is the unit circle (U) having its center at the origin and
2 2

Examples: Show the location on U of the terminal point of the arc having the initial point at (1,0) and having the
given arc length; state the quadrant in which the terminal point lies.

5
1. 2. 2 3.
12 8

11 15
4. 5. 10.34 6.
3 6
Definition: An angle is thought of as a union of two rays called the sides having a common endpoint called the
vertex.

Definition: An angle having its vertex at the origin and having one side called the initial side, lying on the positive
side of the x-axis is said to be in standard position.

## If the terminal side lies on an axis, the angle is said to be quadrantal.

Definition: If an angle has its vertex at the center of the unit circle U and intercepts on U an arc of length 1, the
angle has a measure of 1 radian.

m R ( ) t

Illustrations:

1. m ( ) 2 2. m ( ) 3.25
R R

3. m ( ) 4. m ( )
R R

3 4
Example: Show by a diagram the angle that has the given radian measure.

11 13
1. 3. 5. -2.35 7.
6 6 6

4 5 8
2. 4. 6. 7.23 8.
3 3 3

Conversion of the angle measurement from radian to degree, and degree to radian:

Use 180
Example: Find the equivalent degree measurement for the angle having the given radian measurement.
1 4
1. 2. 3. -5
4 3

4. 4.78 5. 2.75

Example: Find the equivalent radian measurement for the angle having the given degree measurement.
1. 60 2. 210 3. -225
Example: Convert the angle measurement to a form using decimals to the nearest hundredth of a degree.
1. 352212 2. 1023127

## Example: Express the angle in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds.

1. 54.135 2. 246.5134 3. 153.723

Definition: Given an angle in standard position. An angle that is coterminal with the angle is the angle in
standard position that has the same terminal side as .

9
Consider: m ( )
R

Example: Find the radian measure of the smallest positive angle that is coterminal with the angle in radian, and
draw both angles.

3 8 7
1. 2. 3.
4 3 6

11
4. 7.28 5. 4.25 6.
4
Definition: A central angle of a circle is one whose vertex is at the center of the circle.

Theorem: If r is the radius of a circle and t is the radian measure of a central angle that intercepts on the circle
an arc length s, then
s rt

## Illustration: If r = 3, t = 2, then ___________________.

Definition: A sector of a circle is the region bounded by an arc of the circle and the sides of the central angle.

1 2
K r t
2

Example: Find the arc length and the area of the sector of the circle having the radius and central angle .

r = 8 cm, m ( )
R
1.
4
2
2. r = 9 cm., m ( )
R

3
3. r = 12 in., m ( ) 120

4. r = 6 cm, m ( ) 135