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Years 9-10

Forces

&

Motion

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Disk Filename Topic Name Disk Filename Topic Name

01.Energy Energy 12.Waves Wave Energy (inc. Light)

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keep it simple science

This topic belongs to Physics, the study of energy, force and motion.

In this topic you will study the Physics of movement... speed and acceleration

and how forces are involved when things move.

Average &

Instantaneous

Speed, Distance

& Time Distance-Time

Graphs

Equations of

Motion

Speed

& Acceleration

Velocity

Forces Forces.

& Balanced &

Motion Unbalanced

Newtons

Mass, Weight Laws of Motion

& Gravity

1st Law

3rd Law &

Motion Action - Inertia

Weight

under Reaction

Force

Gravity

2nd Law

&

Acceleration Acceleration

due to

Gravity

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 3 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Cut out the boxes. Sort them into an appropriate lay-out on a page of your

workbook, then glue them down. Add connecting arrows and colour in.

Graphs Force

& & Gravity

Motion Equations of

Motion

1st Law

&

&

Instantaneous

2nd Law

Average &

Velocity Forces. &

Acceleration

Balanced &

Newtons

Unbalanced Acceleration

Laws of Motion due to

Gravity

Motion 3rd Law

Speed, Distance under Action -

& Time Gravity Reaction

Cut out the boxes. Sort them into an appropriate lay-out on a page of your

workbook, then glue them down. Add connecting arrows and colour in.

Graphs Force

& & Gravity

Motion Equations of

Motion

1st Law

&

&

Instantaneous

2nd Law

Average &

Acceleration

Balanced &

Newtons

Unbalanced Acceleration

Laws of Motion due to

Gravity

Motion 3rd Law

Speed, Distance under Action -

& Time Gravity Reaction

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 4 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Speed

When something is moving, its position changes as time goes by.

It moves some distance in each second (or hour) of time.

This idea of distance moved per unit of time gives us our most

basic way to study motion... the idea of speed.

The faster an object is moving, the more Speed = Distance

distance it covers in each second, or Time

hour.

We can write this relationship in a

We commonly measure speed in shorter way with symbols. To avoid

kilometres per hour (km/hr) or in metres confusion later, get used to using the

per second (m/s). Other units are symbols as follows:

possible, but here we will mostly use

only one or the other, of these. v= S

If you walk at a speed of 4 km/hr, it

t

means (of course) that if you keep it up v = velocity, a technical name for speed.

for 1 hour then you will cover a distance The difference between speed &

of 4 kilometres. If you keep walking at velocity will be explained later. We will

this speed for 2 hours, you will cover measure speed in either km/hr or in m/s.

8km, and so on.

need a calculator to help with (Why S for distance? Just do it!)

the number work involved.

t = time taken, in hours (hr) or seconds (s).

Measuring Speed

The simplest and most basic way to measure how fast something

is moving is to use a stop-watch to accurately measure

the time taken to move over a measured distance.

suggested by this diagram

Landmark

A Time to travel from A to B measured by stopwatch

Landmark B

Vehicle Distance (m) Time (s) Car Bicycle

v = S/t v = S/t

Car 73.5 5.30 = 73.5 / 5.30 = 73.5 / 21.0

= 13.9 m/s = 3.50 m/s

Bicycle 73.5 21.0 (about 50km/hr) (about 13 km/hr)

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 5 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Worksheet 1

Calculating Speed Student Name.............................................

1. If v = S / t, then S = v x t

What is the speed of a truck which

travels 120 km in 1.5 hours?

and t = S / v

6.

v= S = In a car travelling at 80 km/hr, how far

t would you travel in 3.5 hr?

=.................. km/hr

2.

In a 200m athletics race, a students time 7.

was 25.0 s. What was her speed? An arrow was fired from a bow at a

speed of 120 m/s. How far will it move in

v= S = 0.2s?

t

=.................. m/s

8.

3. A marathon runner can maintain a

An aircraft flew 4,000 km in 5 hours. steady speed of 15 km/hr. How long will

What was its average speed? it take him to complete the 42 km race?

9.

4. Sound waves travel through air at

A bullet fired from a pistol travelled 50 330m/s. If you see a lightning flash, then

metres to the target in 0.08s. What was hear the thunder 8s later, how far away

its speed? is the lightning? (answer in m and km)

5. 10.

A train completed a 440 km trip in 8 In a parachute, falling steadily at 7.5m/s,

hours. What was its average speed? how long does it take to reach the

ground from 3,000 m high?

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 6 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Average Speed Instantaneous Speed

If you go somewhere by car, it is very This refers to your speed at a particular

unlikely that you will travel the whole instant of time.

way at the same speed.

In a car, the

Example: A Drive to the Beach reading on the

Total distance = 10 km speedometer

Total time taken = 15 min. (= 0.25 hour) gives you the

speed at that

v= S = 10 = 40 km/hr moment.

t 0.25

The speedo

This calculated speed is the average reading changes instantly if the car

speed for the trip. During the drive you speeds up or slows down.

may have stopped for traffic lights,

slowed down for round-abouts and In the scientific study of motion it is the

given way to traffic and pedestrians. instantaneous speed that is usually of

interest. The average speed over a

At some moments you were travelling whole journey is not very useful for

much faster than the average speed, studying the Physics of motion.

and at other times much slower.

There are a variety of ways to measure instantaneous speed.

The method described here is a very simple one that you may use experimentally.

Here is an example of what part of the

The Ticker-Timer paper record might look like.

This system works by attaching a long

strip of paper to a moving object, such ved

If this is full-size the

ce mo s

as a laboratory trolley. an 02

distances are dist ext 0.

in n

Every time the hammer hits shown. ove

d mm

38

the moving strip of paper e m .02 s

anc

it leaves a dot.

The string of dots can be Moving lab. trolley dist e of 0 First, you need

im

analysed to study the in t to convert the

drags a strip of mm

motion of the trolley. paper behind it 30 distances to metres.

30 mm = 0.030 m

38 mm = 0.038 m

which vibrates up and down every 0.02 sec. v=S/t v=S/t

= 0.030/0.02 = 0.038/0.02

= 1.5 m/s = 1.9 m/s

When the trolley moves, it drags the

paper through the ticker-timer device. Each of these values is really the

A small hammer hits the paper every average speed over the time and

0.02 second and leaves a dot. The string distance between dots. However, this is

of dots is a record of both distance and such a short time period that it is taken

time over very short time intervals. to be the instantaneous speed.

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 7 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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These are sometimes called travel graphs because they can be used

to describe a journey in terms of distance and time.

How to Read

Janes Bicycle Trip Stopped

the Graph F

60

Section A

50

Jane has moved 40km in 2hr.

B

Distance (km)

V = S/t = 40/2 = 20 km/hr.

40

E

G

30

C

Section B

Jane stopped D

A

20

for 1hr.

Speed = zero.

10

Stopped

Section C

Jane has moved 20km in 2hr.

0

Time (hours)

She has moved back towards

Section E Section G

the starting point because she

Jane has moved 40km in 1hr. Jane has moved 60km in 2hr.

ends up only 20km from

V = S/t = 40/1 = 40 km/hr. V = S/t = 60/2 = 30 km/hr.

where she started.

She has returned to her

starting point.

Construct a Travel Graph

Fred Goes Hiking

Fred left base camp heading

east and walked 4km in the

6

first hour.

5

Distance (km)

4

covering 1km.

3

walked 3km in 1hr. He

2

30min, then walked back to

base camp in 11/2 hours.

1

0

for each part of his walk Time (hours)

and write it along that

graph section.

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 8 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Acceleration

In everyday language, to accelerate means to speed up and go faster.

In Science, accelerate means any change of velocity.

So speeding up is acceleration, but slowing down is also acceleration.

shows its instantaneous speed in

metres per second, rather than km/hr. After travelling along at a speed of

15m/s (which is about 55 km/hr) the car

Speedo ...and 5 sec. approaches a red light, so the driver

reading... later. applies the brakes and comes to a

complete stop in 5 seconds.

10 10

The change in speed was:

15

15

5

20

20

15 12 9 6 3 0

0

speed slowed down by 3 m/s.

In 5 seconds it has accelerated from an

initial speed of 5 m/s to a final speed of

Its rate of acceleration was negative

15 m/s. This means that the speed

3m/s per second.

increased by 10 m/s, over 5 seconds.

Acceleration = -3 m/s2

Start 1sec 2sec 3sec 4sec 5sec

5 7 9 11 13 15

m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s m/s Acceleration means any change in velocity.

Its rate of acceleration was an increase

Units = metres per sec per sec (m/s2).

of speed of 2 m/s per second.

Here are the same situations described

Mathematically:

above, but calculated mathematically.

a=v-u 1. Car sped up from 5m/s to 15m/s

t in 5s.

a = acceleration, in m/s2. a = v - u = (15 - 5) = 2 m/s2.

t 5

v = final speed (velocity) in m/s

at the end of the acceleration. 2. Car slowed down from 15m/s to zero

in 5 seconds.

u = initial speed (velocity) in m/s

before the acceleration began. a = v - u = (0 - 15) = -3 m/s2.

t 5

t = time period of acceleration, in sec. Negative value means to slow down.

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 9 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Worksheet 3

Velocity & Acceleration Student Name.............................................

Fill in the blank spaces.

something is moving. The units of speed i)................................. speed. In the

commonly used are b).................... or laboratory, inst. speed can be measured

..................... Mathematically, speed can by using devices such as a

be calculated by dividing c)...................... j) ........................................

by d)........................

Acceleration is the rate at which

Average speed is total e)...................... k)................................ changes. It is most

divided by f).................. for the entire commonly measured in units of

g)....................... Instantaneous speed l)............................... If the object slows

means the speed at an h)......................... down, the acceleration is m).....................

of time.

Worksheet 4

Student Name.............................................

Calculating Acceleration

3. When a gun is fired the bullet goes

1. from being stationary to a velocity of

An aircraft accelerating for take-off 800m/s by the time it reaches the end of

takes 20 seconds to go from stationary the barrel in a time of 0.05s.

(u = 0) to take-off speed of 35 m/s. What is its acceleration?

What is its rate of acceleration?

t ...............

carrier at a speed of 52 m/s. To stop it

2. quickly, its tail hook snags an arrester

The aircraft (from Q1) lands at the same wire which brings it to a complete stop

speed as it took off. (u = 35m/s) (v = 0) in 1.6s. Acceleration rate?

It takes 7 seconds to slow down and

stop. (v = 0)

What is its acceleration?

accelerated to a final velocity of 30 m/s

over a period of 10s. Acceleration?

negative answer?

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 10 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Worksheet 5 (2 pages)

Practical Skills. Student Name.............................................

Analysing Ticker-Timer Data for an Data Table 1

Accelerating Trolley Measure the distance (in mm) from the start

Start

dot to each of the others, and fill in the data

Down the centre of this page is an table.

actual-size reproduction of a ticker- Total Time Total Distance

timer paper record. from start from start

(s) (mm)

This paper strip was attached to a 0 0

laboratory trolley which was allowed 0.1 4

to roll down a ramp, along a bench, 0.2 10

and finally up a second ramp. 0.3 18

Most ticker-timers make a dot on the

paper every 0.02s, but this one was

set to beat only every 0.1 second.

study, all distances will be in

millimetres (mm) and speed will be in

millimetres per second (mm/s).

Question1

What was the total distance moved by the

trolley? Measure carefully with a ruler.

(in millimetres) .................mm

Question 2

What was the total time of the motion?

Data Table 2

Measure the distance from each dot to the

(count gaps, not dots!) next, and record. For each distance, divide it

........................... s by 0.1s to calculate the instantaneous speed

at that time.

Question 3

Calculate the average speed (mm/s) of the

trolley for the entire motion. (show working) Total Time Distance in Instant.

from start this 0.1s Speed

(s) (mm) (mm/s)

0.1 4 4/0.1= 40

0.2 6 6/0.1= 60

0.3 8 8/0.1=

0.4 10

(round-o

off answer to the nearest 1 mm/s)

Question 4

Do you think that calculating the average

speed is a good way to study this motion?

Why, or why not?

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carefully at the shape of your graph, AND the

pattern of dots on the ticker-timer record AND

Distance-Time Graph look at the speeds shown in Table 2.

Plot the data from Data Table 1 to construct a

Question 5

distance-time graph. If the points do not lie in a a) Did the trolley travel at the same speed for

straight line, join them with an even curve. any period of the motion? If so, when?

200

What shape is the graph over this period?

180

Question 6

a) Was the trolley speeding up (accelerating) for

any period of the motion. If so, when?

160

What shape is the graph over this period?

140

Question 7

a) Was the trolley slowing down (decelerating)

for any period of the motion. If so, when?

120

Distance (mm)

What shape is the graph over this period?

100

80

D-TT graph is a)...................................................

(shape of graph). The ticker-ttimer tape shows

dots which are b)................................................

60

graph is c)...................................................

(shape of graph). The ticker-ttimer tape shows

40

(describe pattern of dots during this time)

20

is e)................................................... (shape of

graph). The ticker-ttimer tape shows dots which

are f)................................................ (describe

pattern of dots during this time)

0

Time (s)

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Equations of Motion

Here is what you have so far in the calculations department:

Speed Equation

Acceleration Equation

v= S

t

a = v-u

Used to: calculate speed, t

distance, or time.

Used to: calculate acceleration

Limitations: only works for average from speed change & time.

speed or constant speed.

Cannot work with Limitations: does not include distance.

accelerations.

This is the Acceleration Equation Example

turned around with a little algebra. It A speedboat is travelling at a speed

is often more useful in this form. of 5.0m/s. When the throttle is opened

it accelerates at 1.5m/s2 for 20s.

v = u + at What is its final speed?

Solution:

v = final speed (velocity), in m/s.

v = u + at

u = initial speed, in m/s. = 5.0 + (1.5 x 20)

a = acceleration, in m/s2. = 35 m/s

t = time, in seconds. Final speed is 35 m/s.

For the boat described in the example

S = ut + 1/2at2 above, what distance did it cover

during the acceleration?

S = distance travelled, in m.

u = initial speed, in m/s. Solution:

S = ut + 1/2at2

a = acceleration, in m/s2. = 5.0x20 + 0.5x1.5x202

t = time, in seconds. = 100 + 300

= 400m

This equation is very useful for

finding the distance covered while The boat travels 400m.

something is accelerating.

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Worksheet 6

Equations of Motion Student Name.............................................

1. A Formula 1 racing car can go from a 5. What distance does the Shuttle cover

standing start to 60 m/s (thats over during launch? (S=ut+0.5at2)

200km/hr) in 12s. Find the acceleration Convert the answer into km.

rate. (Use a = (v-u)/t)

2. What distance would the car in Q1 slow an aircraft down from a cruising

cover during this acceleration? speed of 300 m/s to landing speed of

(Use S=ut+0.5at2) 60m/s in a time of 5 minutes?

(5 min = ?? sec) (care: deceleration!)

the driver of the F1 car applies the cover during this deceleration?

brakes to slow down. The brakes

provide an acceleration of -6.0 m/s2

(negative means deceleration) for 4.5s.

What speed does it slow down to?

(Use v=u+at)

accelerates to a final speed of 25m/s.

The rate of acceleration was 2.0m/s2.

How much time did the acceleration

take? (hint: may need to change the

subject of an equation by algebra.)

4. To get into orbit, the Space Shuttle

accelerates at 45m/s2 for 8 minutes.

(Convert this to seconds) What velocity

does it achieve? (v=u+at)

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 14 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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So far in this topic we have been describing movements in terms of

distance, time, speed and acceleration.

Now you will learn what causes acceleration.

club strikes

A force is a push or a pull. the ball, a

force pushes

to make the

Forces are measured in ball move.

units called newtons (N).

When you pull on the rope,

a force is transmitted through the rope

to pull on the box and drag it along

N S N S

Opposite poles attract Some forces, such as gravity and

magnetism, can push or pull on things

N N without touching them.

Same poles repel

If you are riding a bike at constant

speed on a level road, the forces are

equally balanced. Falling at constant Air Resistance

speed, the forces Force

acting on the

Thrust Force parachutist are

Friction Force (from pedalling)

equally balanced.

pulling downwards

is exactly equal to

The force pushing you forward (from the air resistance

you pedalling) is exactly equal to the force pushing

Force

forces of friction and air resistance upwards to stop of

pushing backwards and trying to stop the parachute. Gravity

you.

(i.e. they are equal and opposite, and cancel out)

the object will travel at a constant speed, or remain still.

net force (the total unbalanced force) acts on a mass.

The bigger the force, the greater the acceleration.

However, the bigger the mass, the less the acceleration.

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Sir Isaac Newton (English, 1642-1727) was the first to figure out the

connection between unbalanced forces and accelerations

object will keep moving at a constant

Note that it doesnt mean there has to

be NO forces acting, just no net force. velocity in a straight line.

If not moving, it will remain at rest.

There may be many forces acting on

something, but if they are balanced and This law is sometimes called the Law

all cancel out (because they push in of Inertia. Inertia is the tendency of

opposite directions) then the object will things to keep moving when things

keep moving at constant velocity. around them slow down or speed up.

INERTIA in a Sudden Stop

If the engine force (pushing the car forward) Sudden Loose objects seem

is the same strength as friction (pushing backwards) Deceleration to fly forwards

then the forces cancel out and

the car travels at a constant speed. We feel In fact, our

bodies, and the

Force from the Friction thrown

loose objects,

engine (through (including air forward are simply

the tyres) pushes resistance) pushes

trying to remain

car this way Acceleration

car this way in motion, while

of car the car

decelerates

This is why you must around us.

wear a seatbelt!

Example problems

When a net force acts, it causes an 1.

acceleration in the direction of the force. If a net force of 10N pushes on a 4.0kg

trolley, what is the acceleration rate?

The bigger the force the greater the

Solution

acceleration. The larger the mass the

a = F/m = 10/4.0

smaller the acceleration. = 2.5 m/s2.

This law describes what happens when The trolley will accelerate at 2.5 m/s2.

forces are unbalanced.

Mathematically: 2.

What net force is required to make a

F = ma or a= F 1,000kg car accelerate at 4.0m/s2?

m

Solution

F = net force, in newtons (N). F = ma = 1,000 x 4.0

= 4,000 N.

m = mass of the object the force is

acting on, in kilograms (kg) A 4,000 N net force is required.

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Worksheet 7

Force & Acceleration Student Name.............................................

1. If F = ma, then a = F/m and m = F/a

What net force is needed to make a car

with mass 800kg accelerate at 2.5m/s2. 5.

A small fireworks rocket has a mass of

F = ma = ................. x ................... 500g (=??kg). When fired, it produces a

thrust force of 25N for 5.0s.

= ......................... N

a) What acceleration can it produce?

2.

A bullet with a mass of 20g (=0.020 kg)

is accelerated through the gun barrel at

50,000 m/s2. What net force was pushing

it? b) Starting from rest (u=0), what final

velocity could it reach? (v=u+at)

3. accelerating for 5.0s?

A truck with mass 5,000kg was travelling

at 3.0 m/s. It then accelerated to a final

speed of 25 m/s over a time of 11s.

6.

A car was travelling at 20 m/s when the

brakes were applied for 5.0s. This

slowed the car down to a final speed of

5.0 m/s.

b) What was the size of the net force

which caused the acceleration? a) What was the acceleration rate?

measured to be -1,200N. What was the

4. mass of the car?

A bow accelerates a 50g (=??kg) arrow

at a rate of 800m/s2. What force does the

bow provide?

the force having a negative value?

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Up until now, we have been using these words as if they mean the same thing.

Now (finally) you will find out the difference.

Constant Speed, but Changing Velocity?

Turning a Corner To go around the corner a net force

must have acted on the car. (If no net

Imagine you are travelling in a car and force acted, it would have continued on

you watch the speedo carefully as in a straight line... Newtons 1st Law)

you go around a smooth corner. Your

speed stays exactly the same. A net force pulled the car sideways so it

would turn the corner. It did not speed

That is constant speed, but it is NOT up or slow down, but it changed

constant velocity. direction, so its velocity changed.

The difference is direction.

change of velocity even if the speed

Speed means how fast you are going. remains the same.

Any change of direction requires a

Velocity means how fast you are net force to act and involves

going in a particular direction.

acceleration.

All forces are balanced, so no acceleration.

This is constant velocity and constant speed. As you might

guess, the

turning force is

due to friction

of the tyres on

the road when

the steering

wheel is

Looking From Above turned.

at a Turning Car

make the car turn the corner. Constant

This change of direction is an Net velocity

acceleration, so the velocity is Force and

changing. However, the speed constant

remains constant. speed

again

While going around the corner you The ball is trying to obey Newtons 1st

might see another good example of Law and keep travelling at constant

inertia, as well. velocity in a straight line. As the car

turns the corner to the right, the ball

A tennis ball (or an orange) on the rolls to the left side of the car. If the

dashboard seems to roll sideways as window is open it may fly out and go

the car turns the corner. straight ahead at a tangent to the curve.

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 18 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Sir Isaac Newton didnt stop at just 2 laws describing the effects of forces.

Action - Reaction

another equal & opposite force Newtons 3rd Law is best explained by

pushes back. example, and by considering why

rockets move and guns kick back.

Walking would be

impossible without Reaction

Newtons 3rd Law.

You push on the

ground, and the Action

ground pushes back.

Reaction force thrusts the rocket forward.

Action

Reaction out of a boat thats

Action

not secured?

always a recoil or kick-b

back.

1st Law: Inertia 3rd Law: Action-Reaction

Sudden Acceleration Loose

Forward in a Car objects

seem to fly

We feel pressed-b

back backwards

in the seat

In fact, our bodies,

and the loose Reaction Action

Car accelerates objects, are simply

trying to stay where

they were, while the Reaction force Person on

car accelerates pushes person roller blades

forward. pushes on wall.

backwards

maximum = less acceleration

engine force 2nd Law: F = ma

more mass,

less

acceleration Same car towing heavy trailer

with max. engine force.

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 19 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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The force of gravity holds the planets in their orbits.

It causes things to fall down, and it is what causes things to have weight.

Gravity is a force, so according to Gravity pulls on all objects because of

Newtons 2nd Law it can cause falling their mass. Mass is a measure of how

objects to accelerate. much matter, or how much substance,

an object contains.

If there was no air resistance, any object

near the Earth would accelerate Mass is measured in kilograms (kg).

downwards at close to 10m/s2.

Unfortunately, in everyday life there is

We call this value g - the acceleration confusion about mass and weight.

rate due to gravity.

really should say My mass is 65 kg... my

Air resistance force

weight depends on where I am.

In reality, there is

air resistance, so

Weight is the force of gravity acting on

these skydivers do

your mass. Since weight is a force it is

not keep

accelerating measured in newtons (N).

downwards, but

reach terminal The strength of this force depends on

Gravitational force

velocity and do where you are within a gravitational field,

not go any faster. so the same object can have different

weights in different places.

Calculating Weight Astronaut in Orbit in Space Shuttle

Mass = 100 kg

Weight = zero N

Newtons 2nd Law Equation is F = ma. (Weightless in free-ffall)

the acceleration of gravity g. Mass is always Astronaut on Moon

Mass = 100 kg

the same.

Weight = 160 N

So the equation becomes F = mg. (Moons gravity is

Weight changes. much less than

Earths)

This is the force due to gravity, acting

on the mass... the weight of the object.

Astronaut on Earths Surface

Example Calculations Mass = 100 kg

What is the weight of a 65 kg person on Weight = 1,000 N

Earth?

What would a 65 kg person weigh on the

Solution F = mg = 65 x 10 Moon, where g = 1.6 m/s2?

= 650 N. Solution F = mg = 65 x 1.6

= 104 N.

The person weighs 650 N on Earth. Person weighs only 104 N on the Moon.

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 20 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Worksheet 8

Newtons Laws Student Name.............................................

If the forces acting on something are

Fill in the blank spaces.

h)............................. then a net force will

act and cause i)..................................... in

the same direction as the j)......................

The forces acting on an object are said

to be a) ................................... if they

This is k)...................................... Law.

cancel each other so that the b).............

force is zero.

The bigger the force, the l).......................

the acceleration, but the bigger the

If this is the case, the object will

mass of the object, the m).......................

continue moving with a c).......................

the n).................................. will be.

........................... If it is stationary, it will

d)................................................. This is

Newtons o).................................... states

Newtons e).............. Law, which is

that whenever a force acts, another

sometimes called the Law of Inertia.

forces pushes back. This reaction

force is p)..................... and ....................

An example of inertia is the tendency of

to the action force. This Law explains

things to continue f)........................

why rockets work, why guns q)................

forward when a vehicle stops. It is the

when fired, and even why you can walk

reason why g)............................... and

forward by r)............................ on the

air bags are needed for car safety.

ground.

Mass, Weight, Gravity 3. A person has a mass of 82kg. What is

1. Fill in the blank spaces. their weight:

a) on Earth? (g=10m/s2) (use F = mg)

Mass means the amount of a)...............

an object contains and is measured in

b)....................... Weight is a c).................. b) on the Moon? (g=1.6m/s2)

due to gravity pulling the mass towards

the Earth. Weight is measured in

d)............................... c) on planet Jupiter? (g=27m/s2)

e)................................ downwards at a

rate of almost f) .............. m/s2, if there is 4. An alien weighs 1,600N on the Moon.

no g).................. resistance. a) What is its mass?

downward speed would you reach if b) What is its weight on Earth?

falling under gravity for 30s? (v=u+at)

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 21 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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The key idea of the Scientific Method is that we do not accept anything as fact

unless it has been thoroughly tested by observation and experiment.

About 300 years ago, Sir Isaac Newton If the evidence had shown that his

proposed his Laws of Motion and also Laws didnt work, they would have

a Law of Gravitation which described been rejected long ago.

the force of gravity mathematically.

Even though we believe

His ideas were not simply Newtons Laws to be correct,

accepted as correct just there is still the possibility that

new evidence will prove them

because he said so!

wrong.

A good scientist always

Careful experiments have keeps an open mind.

been carried out by

thousands of scientists to In fact, we now know

test his ideas. that these laws are only

approximations which work

In the case of gravitation, Sir Isaac Newton well in the ordinary world. At

1642-1 1727 extreme high speeds, or down

careful observation of the

orbiting movements of the planets were at the atomic scale, Newtons

the test. If his idea was right it would Laws do NOT work properly.

have to fit perfectly with the

observations... and it did! Science has developed other theories

to explain things that Newtons Laws

cannot cope with. For example,

The many experiments and observations Einsteins Theory of Relativity has

of forces and accelerations, orbiting been tested again and again by

satellites, etc. have confirmed that experiment and observation. So far, we

Newtons Laws are correct. believe it works!

You might test the F = ma law in the laboratory as suggested below.

Glass rod

taped to

You can experiment by:

Lab. trolley accelerates bench

masses. This increases the

gravitational force pulling on

Bench the string.

How does this change the

acceleration?

What would confirm 2nd Law?

more force on the string Adding a large mass to the

causes greater acceleration. trolley, but leave the same

Slotted masses amount of mass hanging on

are pulled down by the string.

More mass on the trolley gravitational force How does this change the

causes less acceleration, for the acceleration?

same force pulling the string.

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 22 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Forces & Motion

Useful Equations

Answer all questions v = S/t a = (v-u

u)/t F = ma

in the spaces provided.

4. (7 marks)

1. (5 marks)

Match each description to an item from the Suzie goes Cycling

list. To answer, write the letter (A,B,C, etc)

12

of the list item beside the description. B

10

C

Description matches with List Item

Distance (km)

8

a) A change of velocity. D

A

.............

6

b) The tendency of things to keep

moving when a car stops. .............

E

4

c) What forces cause to happen. .............

2

0

e) A force due to 3rd Law ............. Time of day

List Items Not all will be used. a) Calculate Suzies speed for the first

Some may be used more than once.

half-hour. Show working.

A. newton D. inertia

B. acceleration E. reaction

C. speed F. kilogram

2. (1 marks)

Here is part of a ticker-tape record of the

b) What was she doing in graph section D?

motion of a trolley.

Describe what the trolley was doing.

c) Describe what she was doing in section E.

3. (3 marks)

What force is needed to accelerate a 900kg

car at 3.0m/s2?

e) Calculate her average speed for the entire

journey. (show working)

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 23 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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5. (4 marks) 7. (5 marks) P

a) Why is it scientifically incorrect for The diagram shows an

someone to say my weight is 55 kg. aircraft in flight.

S Q

Four forces are acting

on it, labelled P,Q, R & S. R

b) What is this persons weight?

(g =10 m/s2) Show working. a) Which pairs of forces must be equal for

the aircraft to fly at a constant velocity

and height?

Which of Newtons Laws are involved in

each of these situations? b) Which 2 forces would have to be

increased for the plane to fly faster and

a) When the brakes were applied a truck higher?

slowed down and stopped. ....................... and ...................

.............................

b) When the cannon fired, it jumped c) A passenger jumps from the plane to

backwards. parachute down. As he jumps, the pilot

............................. notices that the plane climbs to a new

c) In a sudden stop, a book on the car height, even though none of the controls

seat slid forward onto the floor. were moved. Explain why the plane

............................. climbed.

Refer to 2 of the forces in the diagram.

Your teacher will tell you whether or not to attempt this question.

8. (6 marks) b) Use v=u+at to find the final speed

A bicycle and its rider (total mass of the bike.

80kg) were travelling at an initial

speed of 5.0 m/s on a level road.

Then, by pedalling harder, the rider

applied an net force of 120 N for 6.0s.

a) Use F=ma to find the acceleration c) Use S=ut + 0.5at2 to find how far

of the bike. the bike travelled during the

acceleration.

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 24 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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a) how fast b) m/s or km/hr

Worksheet 1 c) distance d) time

1. e) distance f) time

v = S/t = 120/1.5 = 80 km/hr g) journey h) instant

2. i) instantaneous j) ticker-timer

k) speed/velocity l) m/s2

v = S/t = 200/25 = 8.0 m/s

m) negative

3.

v = S/t = 4,000/5 = 800 km/hr Worksheet 4

4. 1.

v = S/t = 50/0.08 = 625 m/s a = (v-u)/t = (35-0)/20 = 1.75 m/s2.

5. 2.

v = S/t = 440/8 = 55 km/hr a = (v-u)/t = (0-35)/7 = -5.0 m/s2.

6. Negative accel. means slowing down.

S = vxt = 80 x 3.5 = 280 km 3.

7. a = (v-u)/t = (800-0)/0.05 = 16,000 m/s2.

S = vxt = 120 x 0.2 = 24 m 4.

8. a = (v-u)/t = (0-52)/1.6 = -32.5 m/s2.

t = S/v = 42/15 = 2.8 hr 5.

a = (v-u)/t = (30-5)/10 = 2.5 m/s2.

9.

S = vxt = 330 x 8 = 2,640 m = 2.64 km Worksheet 5 - see next page

10.

t = S/v = 3,000/7.5 = 400 s (almost 7 min.) Worksheet 6

1. a=(v-u)/t = (60-0)/12 = 5.0 m/s2.

Worksheet 2

2. S=ut+1/2at2 = 0 + 0.5 x 5 x 122

Freds Hike = 360 m.

6

v=0

3. v=u+at = 60 + (-6.0x4.5)

r

= 60 - 27 = 33 m/s.

/h

km

5

v=

Distance (km)

4

= 21.6 km/s

v=

v=

hr

2

m/

3

4k

km

4k

m/

/h

r

= 5,184,000 m

hr

v=

2

= 5,184 km

1

6. 5 min = 300 s.

a=(v-u)/t = (60-300)/300 = 0.80 m/s2.

0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Time (hours) 7. S=ut+1/2at2

= 300x300 + 0.5x(-1.80)x3002

= 90,000 - 81,000

= 9,000 m (9 km)

8. v=u+at, so t = (v-u)/a

= (25-5)/2.0

= 10 s.

Years 9-10 Topic 13 Forces & Motion 25 Usage & copying is permitted according to the

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Worksheet 5

200

Q1. 188mm Q2. 1.5 s Accelerating trolley

Q3. v = S/t = 188/1.5 = 125 mm/s

Q4. No, because it sped up and slowed

ion

180

rat

down, so the average doesnt tell you

ele

much about the motion at all.

cc

-a

Data Table 1

160

Total Time Total Distance

from start from start

(s) (mm)

0 0

140

d

spee

0.1 4

0.2 10

tant

0.3 18

Cons

0.4 28

0.5 40 120

0.6 54

Distance (mm)

0.7 70

0.8 88

100

0.9 108

1.0 128

1.1 148

1.2 164

80

1.3 176

1.4 184

1.5 188

60

Data Table 2

Total Time Distance in Instant.

from start this 0.1s Speed

40

on

0.1 4 4/0.1= 40

ati

0.2 6 6/0.1= 60

ler

ce

0.3 8 80

ac

20

0.4 10 100

+

0.5 12 120

0.6 14 140

0.7 16 160

0

0.8 18 180 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6

0.9 20 200 Time (s)

1.0 20 200 Q5. a) Yes, between 0.9-1.1s same speed.

1.1 20 200 b) straight line c) on graph

1.2 16 160

1.3 12 120 Q6. a) Yes from start to 0.9s.

1.4 8 80 b) upward curve c) on graph

1.5 4 40

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Q7. 1.

a) Yes, from 1.2s to the end. a) matter b) kg

b) downward curve c) on graph c) force d) newtons (N)

e) accelerate f) 10

Q8. g) air

a) straight line b) evenly spaced 2. v=u+at = 0 + 10 x 30 = 300 m/s.

c) upward curve d) spreading apart 3. a) F =mg = 82 x 10 = 820 N.

e) downward curve f) getting closer b) F =mg = 82 x 1.6 = 131 N.

c) F =mg = 82 x 27 = 2,214 N.

Worksheet 7 4. a) F=mg, so m= F/g = 1,600/1.6

1. F= ma = 800 x 2.5 = 2,000 N. = 1,000 kg.

b) F =mg = 1,000 x 10 = 10,000 N.

2. F= ma = 0.020 x 50,000 c) 1,000 kg (always stays the same)

= 1,000 N.

Topic Test

3. a) a=(v-u)/t = (25-3)/11 = 2.0 m/s2. 1.

b) F=ma = 5,000 x 2.0 = 10,000 N. a) B b) D c) B

d) A e) E

4. F= ma = 0.050 x 800 = 40 N. 2.

Slowing down, decelerating.

5. a) a=F/m = 25/0.5 = 12.5 m/s2. 3.

b) v=u+at = 0 + 12.5 x 5.0 = 62.5 m/s. F =ma = 900 x 3.0 = 2,700 N.

c) S=ut+1/2at2 = 0 + 0.5 x 12.5 x52 4.

= 156 m. a) v = S/t = 12/0.5 = 24 km/hr.

b) stopped

6. a) a=(v-u)/t = (5.0-20)/5.0 = -3.0 m/s2. c) Moving back to starting point.

b) F=ma, so m = F/a = -1,200/-3.0 d) 12 km each way, so 24 km.

= 400 kg. e) v=S/t = 24/4 = 6.0 km/hr.

c) Negative force means it is pushing 5.

against the motion, so it slows the car a) Weight is a force so its units should be

down. newtons, not kg.

b) F = mg = 55 x 10 = 550 N.

Worksheet 8 6.

a) balanced b) net a) 2nd b) 3rd c) 1st

c) constant velocity 7.

d) remain at rest e) 1st a) S&Q and P&R

f) moving g) seatbelts b) P and Q

h) unbalanced i)acceleration c) When the passenger jumps, the weight

j) force k) Newtons 2nd of the plane decreases, so force R is less.

l) bigger m) less Force P is still the same, so it lifts the

n) acceleration o) 3rd Law plane up.

p) equal & opposite 8.

q) recoil r) pushing back a) F=ma, so a = F/m = 120/80 = 1.5 m/s2.

b) v=u+at= 5.0 + 1.5 x 6.0 = 14 m/s.

c) S=ut+1/2at2 = 5.0x6.0 + 0.5 x 1.5 x 6.02

= 30 + 27

= 57 m.

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