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International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IRJIET)

Volume 1, Issue 1, February-2017

Employing wireless sensor networks for early

prediction of volcanic earthquake and eruptions
Sivaranjani.V, 2Rupavathi.N
Assistant Professor, Dept. of ECE, JCET, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India
Associate Professor, Dept. of ECE, JCET, Dharmapuri, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract - The monitoring of volcanoes for risk a) Remote Sensing of Volcano Monitoring
assessment has deployed single sensors for years. This In volcano monitoring, the amount of gas released is
kind of system requires manual supervision to monitor related with the magma tank, which is the key to estimate the
each sensor, which makes the monitoring work not risk of eruption. The traditional approach is to take gas
flexible and efficient enough to adapt to variable volcano samples at the crater. It is a very dangerous method, in which
environments. With the development of wireless sensor people lose their lives each year. Volcanologists have found
networks, the accuracy and coverage of volcano out a better and safer wayremote spectroscopic sensing.
observations can be improved by deploying networked From a spectrum taken far away from the crater, the
sensors. Our project proposes a wireless sensor network concentration of SO2 and HCl can be calculated. Hence the
prototype for volcano monitoring and remote data activity inside the volcano can be estimated by means of
logging. A volcanic eruption early warning has to be studying the two most emitted gases from a volcano. The
launched with effectiveness and within the shortest time current technology in electronics and embedded computer
possible, which imposes the requirement of using real- systems has enabled the development of tiny, low-cost, low-
time (RT) systems. In this setting, volcano-monitoring power, multifunctional sensor nodes. These tiny sensor nodes,
systems using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) may play which consist of sensing, data processing, and communicating
a key role. The aim of this project was to identify the components, leverage the ideas of sensor networks. Given the
optimum number of sensors to be deployed as metrics to development of wireless communication technology, sensors
satisfy the RT requirements. We corroborated the are not separately deployed any longer. Instead sensors are
simulation results obtained by a test-bed deployment connected forming wireless sensor networks, which makes it
within a controlled environment. In this project we easier and more efficient to collect and process information
comprehensive study, including simulation, test-bed, and from the monitored field. Wireless sensor networks are
provide valuable information for the specifications to be widely used in many fields. The sensors might be deployed in
accounted in permanent WSN RT volcano monitoring. the sea, in the air, or on the ground where temperature,
humidity, and other environmental parameters are unstable.
Keywords: WSN, monitoring system, spectral analysis, The working environment of a wireless sensor network is
volcano, volcanic analysis, IEEE 802.15, Zigbee. dynamic.


In recent years, wireless communication technology has

been developed at an extraordinary speed. As a result, the
field of wireless sensor networks has emerged and we have
begun to instrument the world with a large number of
intelligent sensors, which are equipped with a sensor module
(e.g., acoustic, seismic, gas sensor) capable of sensing some
quantity about the environment, a digital processor for
processing the signals from the sensor and performing Figure 1: WSN deployment in a Volcano Mountain
network protocol functions, a radio module for
communication, and a battery to provide energy for operation. In these environments, communication bandwidth and
Smart sensors are designed to be able to work in different energy are significantly more limited than in a tethered
kinds of environments. There are many types of sensors that network environment. Furthermore, dynamic environmental
have been developed and deployed in the field. conditions require the system to adapt over time to changing
connectivity and system stimuli. In most envisioned sensor Page 29
International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IRJIET)

Volume 1, Issue 1, February-2017

network applications, the operation of the network is monitoring. This information was sent to a surveillance
unattended in harsh natural environments. laboratory located 45 km away from the station placed at the
volcano, and WiFi-based long distance technology was used
b) Deploying a Wireless Sensor Network for this purpose.

Due to these advances we are in a position to build 3. Monitoring Volcanic Eruptions with a Wireless Sensor
Communication protocols must be designed to adapt to Network - Geoffrey Werner Allen, Jeff Johnson, Mario
current conditions instead of simply being designed for worst- Ruiz, Jonathan Lees, and Matt Welsh, July 2014. This
case conditions, as worst case may consume much more paper describes the network collected infrasonic (low-
power than the average case. Wireless micro sensor network frequency acoustic) signals at 102 Hz, transmitting data over
protocols should be: a 9 km wireless link to a remote base station. Nodes were
Self-configuring, to enable easy deployment of the time-synchronized using a separate GPS receiver, and our
networks, data was later correlated M with that acquired at a nearby
Energy-efficient and robust, to extend system wired sensor array. In addition to continuous sampling, we
lifetime, have developed a distributed event detector that automatically
Latency-aware, to get the information to the end-user triggers data transmission when a well-correlated signal is
as quickly as necessary received by multiple nodes
Cognitive of the application-specific nature of sensor .
network quality III. RELATED WORK
A seismic signal analysis from registers of events captured The increased scale promised by lighter, faster-to-deploy
by our WSN system and the network, in order to compare equipment will help address scientific questions beyond
qualitatively the main differences between both registers current equipment's practical reach. Todays typical volcanic
systems. data-collection station consists of a group of bulky, heavy,
power-hungry components that are difficult to move and
require car batteries for power design has successfully
II. LITERATURE SURVEY delivered a long-term sustainable sensor network in
challenging environment.
1. On Real-Time Performance Evaluation of Volcano-
Monitoring Systems with Wireless Sensor Networks -
Antonio Caamano, Jose Luis Rojo-Alvarez, Roman Lara,
June 2015. In this paper, it presents Volcano monitoring is a
random topology and the results show that 12 nodes should be
deployed as maximum to satisfy the RT constraints. To test
the system in a real scenario, 10 sensors were deployed in a
strategic area at Cotopaxi Volcano, and information was
collected during three days of continuous monitoring. This
information was sent to a remote surveillance laboratory
located 45 km away from the station placed at the volcano
using WiFi-based long distance technology.

2. Performance evaluation of a volcano monitoring system

using wireless sensor networks - Diego Benitez
Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ), Antonio
Caamano King Juan Carlos University, Marco Zennaro
Abdus Salam International Centre, November 2014. This
paper presents a volcano monitoring system plays a key role
for launching emergency early warning, and the use of
alternative technologies have proven their effectiveness in this
setting, which is the case of wireless sensor networks. We
used ns-2 as simulation tool, where Random and Tessellation
scenarios were evaluated. Our study identified that the
optimal scenario in volcano monitoring is Random, with
maximum eighteen nodes to satisfy metrics such as Figure 2: Wireless Sensor Network
throughput, time delay, and packet loss. We deployed sixteen
sensors in a strategic area at Cotopaxi Volcano, where the
information was obtained during three days of continuous Page 30
International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IRJIET)

Volume 1, Issue 1, February-2017

To our best knowledge, the issue of real-time quality-

ensured in-network earthquake detection has not been

Figure 3: Sensor Nodes Arranging Method

In the above figure denotes the sensor nodes are placed in

the volcanic area and all sensor nodes connected in any bus
topology method. But in this system sensor nodes are
commonly connected in tree topology method. This sensing
values sensed and converted into digital values after that all
datas encoded and send to the base station via wireless
sensor network (WSN) such as Zigbee used in this paper.


Figure 4: System Monitoring Design
In order of detection & earlier prediction of earthquake Thus here we present a quality-driven approach to
events, seismic and other chemical gases sensory data are to detecting highly dynamical volcanic earthquakes based on in-
be transmitted from each of the wireless sensor node (WSN) network collaborative signal processing. In particular, we aim
to the base station for centralized processing. The network to minimize sensors energy consumption subject to sensing
comprises a base station and a number of sensors distributed quality requirements.
on the volcano.
Here we use Piezo Electric based vibration sensor for
detecting volcanic earthquakes and seismic vibrations.
Volcano constantly releases gases like carbon di oxie, carbon HARDWARE
mono oxide and sulphur di oxide. Those chemical gases
levels are measured here using MQ2 and MQ6 sensors For our application we have to consider the environment
respectively. All sensor data are send to the ATmega16 presented by a volcano wild terrain and lack of energy Supply
microcontroller which has 7 in-built individual ADCs. Each to implement a WSN.
sensors are connected to the multiple ADCs and the program
inside the microcontroller continuously converts the analog a) Zigbee CC2500
sensor values to digital values and send those to the serial CC2500 RF Module is a transceiver module which
output at UART. The wireless RF data modem receives the provides easy to use RF communication at 2.4 GHz. It can be
data from microcontroller UART and transmits them to the used to transmit and receive data at 9600 baud rates from any
receiver at the base station. The base station receiver is standard CMOS/TTL source.
connected to another ATmega16 microcontroller which reads
the sensor values from the serial data and separates each
sensor data. Then each sensor values are converted, calibrated
and displayed in a LCD display unit or any PC connected at
the base station. The microcontroller also checks the input
values with the preset threshold values. If the received values
cross the limit of the threshold the controller sends signal to
the warning system producing immediate alerts about the
volcanic activity. Figure 5: Zigbee CC2500 Page 31
International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IRJIET)

Volume 1, Issue 1, February-2017

This module is a direct line in replacement for your serial every oC rise/fall in ambient temperature, i.e., its scale factor
communication it requires no extra hardware and no extra is 0.01V/ oC.
coding to works in Half Duplex mode i.e., it provides
communication in both directions, but only one direction at e) ATMEGA16 Microcontroller
same time. The ATMEGA16 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit
microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced Reduced
b) Gas Sensors MQ- 2 & MQ-6 Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture. By executing
They are used in gas leakage detecting equipments in powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega16
family and industry, are suitable for detecting of LPG, i- achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing
butane, propane, methane, alcohol, Hydrogen, smoke. the system designed to optimize power consumption versus
Sensitive material of MQ-6 gas sensor is SnO2, which with processing speed.
lower conductivity in clean air. When the target combustible
gas exist, The sensors conductivity is more higher along with
the gas concentration rising. Please use simple electro circuit,
Convert change of conductivity to correspond output signal of
gas concentration.

c) Vibration Sensor
This sensor buffers a piezoelectric transducer. As the
transducer is displaced from the Mechanical neutral axis,
bending creates strain within the piezoelectric element and
generates voltages. The Vibration Sensor Detector is designed
for the security practice When Vibration Sensor Alarm Figure 7: ATMEGA16 microcontroller
recognizes movement or vibration, it sends a signal to either
control panel Developed a new type of Omni-directional high The AVR core combines a rich instruction set with 32
sensitivity Security Vibration Detector with Omni-directional general purpose working registers. All the 32 registers are
detection. Piezo Vibration Sensor is suitable for directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU),
measurements of flexibility, vibration, impact and touch. The allowing two Independent registers to be accessed in one
module is based on PZT film sensor. When the sensor moves single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting
back and forth, a certain voltage will be created by the voltage architecture is more code efficient while achieving
comparator inside of it. Therefore, outputs high & low levels. throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC
In spite of the fact that it has a high receptivity for strong microcontrollers.
impacts, a wide dynamic range (0.001Hz~1000MHz) also
guarantees an excellent measuring performance. Finally, you
can adjust its sensitivity by adjusting the potentiometer with a VI. REQUIREMENTS OF SOFTWARE
Software is used to simulate the performance of volcano
and analysis the system function. Many CAD users dismiss
schematic capture as a necessary evil in the process of
creating PCB layout but we have always disputed this point of
view. With PCB layout now offering automation of both
component placement and track routing, getting the design
into the computer can often be the most time consuming
element of the exercise.

a) Proteus 7 Professional ISIS

Figure 6: Vibration Seismic Sensor ISIS provides the development environment for PROTEUS
VSM, our revolutionary interactive system level simulator.
d) Precision Temperature Sensor- LM35 This product combines mixed mode circuit simulation, micro-
LM35 is a precision IC temperature sensor with its output processor models and interactive component models to allow
proportional to the temperature (in oC). The sensor circuitry is the simulation of complete micro-controller based designs.
sealed and therefore it is not subjected to oxidation and other ISIS provides the means to enter the design in the first place,
processes. With LM35, temperature can be measured more the architecture for real time interactive simulation and a
accurately than with a thermistor. It also possess low self system for managing the source and object code associated
heating and does not cause more than 0.1 oC temperature rise with each project. In addition, a number of graph objects can
in still air. The operating temperature range is from -55C to
150C. The output voltage varies by 10mV in response to Page 32
International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IRJIET)

Volume 1, Issue 1, February-2017

be placed on the schematic to enable conventional time,

frequency and swept variable simulation to be performed. c) Execution- Gas Sensor Response-SO2
Major features of PROTEUS VSM include:
True Mixed Mode simulation based on Berkeley
SPICE3F5 with extensions for digital simulation and
true mixed mode operation.
Support for both interactive and graph based
CPU Models available for popular microcontrollers
such as the PIC and 8051 series.
Interactive peripheral models include LED and LCD
displays, a universal matrix keypad, an RS232
terminal and a whole library of switches, pots,
lamps, LEDs etc.
Virtual Instruments include voltmeters, ammeters, a
dual beam oscilloscope and a 24 channel logic
analyzer. Figure 10: Gas Sensor Response-SO2


In this article we have got the output from proteus
simulation software. This software is used for mainly for all
A simulation of the designed volcano monitoring system
embedded based design. First of all we will draw schematic in was conducted through the Proteus software with the
schematic page after drawn schematic and to upload source designed schematic for continuous monitoring through
program to microcontroller by using source program. And wireless sensor network. We have attempted to understand
output executed by varying the input values by adjust the how well a wireless sensor network can serve as a scientific
sensing value and monitored the output of result in LCD instrument for volcano monitoring. We have presented an
display. evaluation of the data fidelity and yield of a real sensor
network deployment. We find that wireless sensors have great
a) Schematic Design potential for rapid and dense instrumentation of active
volcanoes, although challenges remain including improving
reliability and validating the timing accuracy of captured
signals. The volcanic eruption is a natural event in which
monitoring should consider technical, scientific and social
aspects. By this purpose we emphasise just in designing a
network platform and signal processing issues. A reliable
transmission system is required, it must be robust and
remotely managed therefore, and we used WSN for long
distance technology.

Figure 8: Schematic Design in Proteus IX. FUTURE WORK

As future work, we will model this system considering the

b) Execution- Temperature Sensor Response
value of processing data and lifetime extension of sensors. A
primary concern for future work is reducing power
consumption to extend network lifetimes. The results can
guide the choices of batteries for both coordinator and
sensors. So, we can greatly reduce the radio bandwidth
requirements and scale up to much larger sensor arrays.


[1] On Real-Time Performance Evaluation of Volcano-

Monitoring Systems With Wireless Sensor Networks
Roman Lara, Member, IEEE, Diego Benitez, Senior
Figure 9: Temperature Sensor Response
Member IEEE, Antonio Caamano, Member IEEE, Marco Page 33
International Research Journal of Innovations in Engineering and Technology (IRJIET)

Volume 1, Issue 1, February-2017

Zennaro, Member IEEE, and Jose Luis Rojo-Alvarez, [8] Deploying a Wireless Sensor Network on an Active
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