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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2017, pp. 519531, Article ID: IJCIET_08_01_060

Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=1
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
IAEME Publication


A. Asokan
Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering,
Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. N. Balasundaram
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

Urban planning as majorly practiced in India is mainly concerned with the development of land in
cities. Urban traffic congestion being a major problem in large cities which has a negative impact
on mobility, environment, local economy and quality of life. The aim of this thesis is to develop an
efficient transport with good and better facility for the Salem city. The roads and public
transportation areas should be developed and maintained clean. Salem was a municipal town till
2007 and is developed to city in 2008 with heavy area expansion to more than ten times. A detail
including all the elements like sustainable urban transport strategies for Salem city is not carried
out in the past. To achieve this, development of Salem should meet all the three strategies i.e.
social, economic and environmental sustainability goals. Hence sustainable development for
Salem city is necessary.
Key words: environment, mobility, strategies, sustainability, transportation.
Cite this Article: A. Asokan and Dr. N. Balasundaram, Development of Sustainable Urban
Transport Strategies for Salem City. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology,
8(1), 2017, pp. 519531.

1.1. Need and Importance for Preparation of CMP for Salem
Salem was a municipal town till 2007 and upgraded to city Corporation in 2008 with an area expansion to
more than ten times. Due to this recent urbanization and being a major transport hub in the western part of
Tamil Nadu, Salem City cater to high urban transport demand to the people of Salem and nearby districts.
Though Salem offers an affordable public transport, the city faces a major transport crisis that is marked by
lack of facilities for pedestrian and cyclists, increasing personal vehicle use, congestion, pollution; road
accidents, etc. The National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) that is formulated by the ministry of Urban
Development in 2006 aims to transform the current urban transport system into a safe, convenient and
efficient transportation system across all urban areas in India. Every individual or commuter of Salem
should be able to fulfill his or her mobility needs in a quick, affordable, safe, reliable, comfortable, energy
efficient and environmentally benign manner. To achieve this, the transportation system of Salem should

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A. Asokan and Dr. N. Balasundaram

meet all the three i.e. social, economic and environmental sustainability goals. Comprehensive Mobility
Plan for Salem will be able to guide the sustainable growth of the transport sector. This will be the tool to
guide the future growth of transport in Salem.
The sustainability indicators that should be addressed include the following:

1.1.1. Access and Mobility

Proper allocation of road space for sustainable modes including public transport and non motorized transport
Promoting connectivity of slum. Urban poor residential areas
Special recommendations for mobility of the physically challenged, women, children and elderly
Integrated land use and transport development and promoting balanced regional growth
Reduce the need to travel
Encourage walkable / cyclable communities
Promote transit oriented growth
Promote balanced spatial growth, social cohesion and community liveability

1.1.2. Safety and Security

Segregated rights of way for cyclists and pedestrians
Safe environment for mobility of all traveler categories
Ensuring strict enforcement to reduce encroachment of footpaths
Specific recommendations for security of women, children, elderly and vehicles

1.1.3. Environmental friendliness and low energy use

i) Promoting mass transport

Proposals for public transport systems serving the entire population

Recommendations to improve access to public transport nodes
Proposals to integrate IPT as a support / feeder to public transport systems
Suggests measures to improve quality of public transport services
Promotes a multi- modal public transport system
Recommends use of ICT to improve delivery of public transport services
ii) Promoting NMT

Creating safe bicycle parking spaces, facilities like shade giving landscaping.
Provision of drinking water and resting stations along bicycle corridors and
Pedestrian pathways
Public bicycle program rent and use a bicycle
Preference in the allocation of parking space for non - motorized modes
iii) Effective traffic demand management principles and systems

Congestion free movement on roads by traffic management measures

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Development of Sustainable Urban Transport Strategies for Salem City

Proposals to establishments to implement staff incentives for collective transport modes (carpooling, van
pooling etc.) and encourage virtual commuting using video conferences and other latest techniques
iv) Promoting use of clean alternative fuels like electricity from clean / renewable sources in public ,
private and IPT vehicles
v) Subsidies / concessions on vehicle technology
vi) Provision of supporting infrastructure to promote use of alternative fuel technology

1.1.4. Promoting efficient movement of freight traffic

CMP implementation mechanism also should clearly spell out covering the target years strategy for
financing and institutional strengthening and capacity building.


The National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) has been formulated by the ministry of Urban Development
in 2006 to transform the current urban transport system into a safe, convenient and an efficient
transportation system across all urban areas in India. The objectives of the NUTP are:
Integrating land use and transport planning
Priority to the use of public transport
Integrated public transit system
Pedestrian facilities and pathways
Non motorized vehicles facilities
Parking and freight traffic management
Capacity building
Road safety
Pollution Reduction
The CMP essentially will suggest various actions that lead towards the vision and also conform to the
general objectives of the NUTP.


3.1. Sustainable Urban Transport
Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without sacrificing the ability of future generations
to do the same. The strategies include goals related to economic development, social and human
development and environmental and ecological health. Sustainable transport may be defined as a system
Allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies and societies to be met safe and in
a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health and promises equity within and between successive
Is affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers choice of transport mode and supports a competitive
economy, as well as balanced regional development
Limits emissions and waste within the planets ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below
their rates of generation and uses non renewable resources at or below the rates of developmentof
renewable substitutes while minimizing the impact on land and the generation of noise.

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A. Asokan and Dr. N. Balasundaram

3.2. Sustainable Urban Transport for Salem

Public transport is available through mofussil bus services operated by TNSTC and also by private and
mini buses. Service coverage exists to various places in city, but many areas still lack public transport
facility. The combined effect of all the above is the extreme congestion leading to high air and noise
pollution and increased fuel usage. Salem has a radial road network. The three national highways, NH-7,
NH47 and NH 68 form the regional mobility linkages along with the railway network. The bypass
connecting NH 68 (Trichy road) and NH 7 (Omalur road) via: NH 47 encircles about two third of the
city. The bypass helps to reduce traffic congestion on the city roads to an extent as it segregates the city
traffic from intercity traffic. Two wheelers, cars and auto rickshaws form the main share of rivate modes,
with two wheelers population having a significant share of 85%.
The transport strategies developed primarily focus on the following:
Public transport: Comprehensive Mobility Plan to provide a strategy to enhance the quality, security,
integration and accessibility of public transport services, covering infrastructure, rolling stock and services.
Non motorized transport: Projects to raise attractiveness, safety and security of walking and cycling.
Existing infrastructure will be assessed and improved where it is necessary. The development of new
infrastructure will be envisaged along the itineraries of motorized transport. Dedicated infrastructure will be
considered for cyclists and pedestrians to separate them from heavy motorized traffic and to reduce travel
distances, where appropriate.
Inter modality: Schemes that contribute to a better integration of the different modes and identify measures
aimed specifically at facilitating scam less and multi modal mobility and transport.
Urban road safety: Projects to improve road safety based on an analysis of the main road safety problems
and risk areas in the concerned urban area.
Road Network: Measures to improve the efficiency of urban logistics, including urban freight delivery,
while reducing related externalities like emissions of GHG, pollutants and noise.
Mobility management: Actions to foster a change towards more sustainable mobility patterns. Citizens,
employers, schools and other relevant actors should be engaged.
Intelligent Transport Systems: ITS being applicable to all transport modes and mobility services, both for
passengers and freight they can support strategy formulation, policy implementation and monitoring of each
of the measures designed under the framework of comprehensive mobility plan.

3.3. Public Transport Strategy

Bus Transport: One of the strategies identified as part of the vision is to segregate city bus services from
mofussil services. At present, few local city services are only available. Hence the main strategy adopted is
to segregate the mofussil buses from the local city service. Strategy will also be evolved to provide new
bus routes to the places which are not connected by bus in the city.
There are two bus terminals present in the city. The city bus stand and New Bus Stand. The city bus
services are opening from the city bus stand located in the CBD and the access roads are very narrow, even
made one ways and the bus stand is also very old.
Mass Transport: Public transport corridors for low / medium capacity systems can be on existing
transport network system either at grade or grade separated, depending upon the demand and right of
way (RoW) available. Various parameters such as performing capacity, geometric constrains, capital &
operating costs, alternative analysis etc. would determine the mass transit option on a corridor. Choices on
public transit options are choices about a citys future. Multiple choices exist in mass transit industry. The
type of public transit system will have a big impact on:
Traffic demand
Road geometrics

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Development of Sustainable Urban Transport Strategies for Salem City

Transport affordability
Air and noise pollution
Service availability to all
The Mass Rapid Transit Systems (MRTS) can be broadly into a Rail based system and a Bus based
system classification. The bus system can have its own dedicated guide way, but these vehicles are able to
leave the guide way and use city streets. This distinction is important in areas where limited right of way
(ROW) is available, such as Central Business Districts (CBD).Within these rail and bus systems, different
technologies have different performance characteristics and requirements to be implemented.
Comparison of different types of transit systems is presented below. It provides a preliminary guidance
in deciding upon the type of system to be selected for a city.

Table 1 Different types of transit systems

Metro LRT Tramways HCBRT BRT Bus City Bus
Line Capacity ( 40,000- 15,000- 5,000-15,000 20,000- 7,500-15,000 5,000- Below 1,000
PAX / hr/dir.) 75,000 45,000 35,000 7,500
Cost per km Very high High Medium / high Medium / Medium Low Very Low, only
( Infrastructure, high bus stops and
vehicles , OCC, maintenance
Maintenance) shop required
Alignment Double Double Double track 4 Bus lanes ( 2 to 3 Bus 2 Bus Use public
track track railway, tramway, at- 2 per lanes Lanes roads
railway elevated, a grade direction)
grade or in
Segregation 100% High degree Uses public All bus lanes Bus lanes Bus None
segregated of roads, but may must be must be in priority
in tunnels, segregation have reserved segregated to general lanes must
elevated or preferred, but right of way on achieve high segregated, be
at grade sections with sections with capacity exceptions exclusivel
shared right higher demand possible, y for buses
of way reduce
possible capacity and
Road space None None in case 2 lanes, 4 Lanes more 2 Lanes, 2 to 3 Shared with
required of elevated additional space linear space possibly 3 or Lanes ( 3 cars and
and tunnel may be required for 4 at stations to $ Lanes pedestrian
alignment, 2 for stations and interchanges and at Bus
lanes at terminals, tracks and terminals interchanges stops)
grade, can be shared and
additional with public terminals`
space roads or
required for pedestrian roads
stations and
Vehicles High Medium to Trams, Special Articulated Standard Standard City
capacity high articulated articulated buses City Bus Bus

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A. Asokan and Dr. N. Balasundaram

Capacity EMUs And or with Bus with at Pre-paid Articulated as

(upgrade trams wagons as an floor boarding option
as an option option boarding and required
wide doors
Passengers per 1,200- 250-1,500 Depends on 180-240 150-180 75-100 75
Vehicle / Train 2,500 length
Traction Electric Electric Electric Diesel Diesel Diesel Diesel
(Electric as an
Feeder system Necessary Necessary Non Necessary Necessary Desired Non Necessary Non
Flexibility of Very Low Low Low Very low Medium Medium Very high
route changes
Ticketing Closed Closed Open Closed Closed or open Open Open
Source : MoUD tool kit for CMP preparation

Table 2 Suggested Approach for selecting Appropriate MRT options

MRT Options City Requirements
BRT Cities with a medium to high density urban area
BRT should be one of the first considerations in MRT system development in any city.
BRT system can be developed as trunk systems as well as feeders to an existing ( or planned) MRT
Suitable for cities where an MRT system needs to be developed quickly and incrementally as
conditions and funding allow
A well developed traffic planning / management capability should be available ( this may be
brought in initially)
Existing bus and paratransit operations can be regulated / restructured
Road space is available for BRT development ( 2 4 lanes existing roads)
LRT Cities with a medium to high density urban area
Cities where environmental issues are critical and there is a need to attract car users to use public
transport systems. However, if the core requirements are operational effectiveness, BRT system
should be developed that is more flexible and costs less
Appropriate for cities with an existing tram operation, this may be cost effectively enhanced.
A well developed traffic planning / management capability should be available
Existing bus and paratransit operations can be regulated / restructured
Road space is available for LRT development ( 2-3 lanes from existing road) or existing tram track
can be converted to an LRT route.
Preferable a national / provincial capital city or a major regional commercial centre
Existing public transport flows on the main corridor of the order of 10,000-15,000 passengers per
hour per direction with more than 15 km trip length
City incomes that are not low ( typically at least USSI, 800 per person)
Prospects for sustained economic growth and an expanding centre
Existence of a low cost metro alignment
Fares policy a fares policy on metro and bus systems to encourage ridership yet limit the need for
financial support
A well developed traffic planning / management capability should be available
Existing bus and paratransit operations can be regulated / restricted
Strong and largely autonomous
Source :MoUD tool kit for CMP preparation

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Development of Sustainable Urban Transport Strategies for Salem City

3.4. Non Motorized Transport Strategy

Bicycling and walking are the most efficient and environmentally sustainable means of making short trips.
Thus bicyclists and pedestrians are more efficient users of scarce road space than private motor vehicles,
helping to combat congestion.
Cyclists sharing the carriageway along with motor vehicles, cause hazards for themselves. This is
particularly true when cycle traffic is more. Under such circumstances, it is necessary to segregate cyclists
from other traffic taking safety into consideration. Provision bi cycle lanes of at least 2m width would
improve the overall traffic flow. To provide separate NMT facilities sometimes the shoulders and
carriageway may need to be widened within the ROW. Parking may need to be relocated to make way for
the NMT facilities at certain locations. Cycle path is needed at all junctions crossing the roads suggested
with cycle lanes.
At present there exists no facilities for pedestrians and cycle traffic in Salem and the CMP strategies
towards NMT are:
To segregate pedestrians from fast modes by providing safe facilities like designated and well maintained
footpath of minimum2.0m width on major urban roads in the I.P.A. The footpath should be provided with
hand rails at the junctions.
To ensure safe pedestrian crossings at junctions and mid blocks, grade separation(preferably subways),grade
crossings (zebra crossings, striping, pedestrian flashing signals) and pedestrian signal phase should be
Exclusive cycle path (2 m wide) near schools and colleges should be provided where cycle traffic is marked.

Figure 1 Pedestrians and cycle traffic

3.5. Parking Management Strategy

Presently most of the roads in the city have free on street parking. The main consequence of this is the
loss in the through out of the adjacent street due to parking interference and interference to the free
movement of pedestrians. A part of the principles upon which the CMP is being developed, it is envisaged
such that:
Regularization of on street parking by designating parking bays with bay marking, introducing parking fee,
banning parking on the streets with lower width and heavy traffic.
Development of off street parking sites and integrates it with other CMP elements. The parking structures
will be either isolated or integrated with the public transport terminals to facilitate the public transport.

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A. Asokan and Dr. N. Balasundaram

Figure 2 Road side parking

3.6. Road Network & Mobility corridor Strategy

Salem has a radial road network provided by NH7, NH 47, SH 159, NH 68 and SH 188 and a partial ring
road between NH 7 and NH 68. The city is the district head quarter as well as the center of commercial and
market activities for the district and the region, resulting in very high travel demand within the city and for
the floating population ( daily about 2. 0 lakhs). Hence it is essential to improve the mobility of people
within the city and outside. Presence of forest area limits the continuous developments, mainly in south
east and north east quadrants. Yercaud is an important tourist place in the district, for which the road
connectivity is through Salem. Considering these aspects, the network strategy of the CMP is evolved. The
strategy considers strengthen of the radial network and completion of the existing ring road through the
north east quadrant of the city and a new partial ring between NH 7 ( Rasipuram road) and NH 7 (
Bangalore road) passing through the towns.
Functionally urban roads are classified as Arterial, Sub arterial, collector / distributor and local
streets. Functional classification of the urban roads is an important step wherein design and management of
roadways would be standardized by designating certain roads as mobility. Corridors, these corridors get
priority for increasing the throughput as well as speeds would then be focused and appropriate solutions
would be identified.
Experience indicates that as speeds of a public transport vehicle reduce travel times increase to such an
extent that commuters look for personalized modes of travel. In addition to the user travel preferences the
road design and operations also have bearing on the traffic congestion.
The above strategy is sought to be implemented through the following policies:
Identification of trunk mobility corridors.
Integration with public transport
Roads to bypass the city
Integrating with master plan and CDP plans
Since vehicle ownership will not come down immediately in a developing economy, highly congested
junctions would continue to witness large delays and traffic jams even after trying traffic management
measures. Hence this may lead to lay augmentation by grade separation of traffic movements. Intersection
grade separation may be considered if the following criteria are met.
Low cost traffic management measures have been tried but not effective
The grade separation reduces the pollution and junction delays for the overall corridor and more importantly
for public transport commuters

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Development of Sustainable Urban Transport Strategies for Salem City

A TEFS has been prepared by a professional and competitive agency

The flyover design must take into consideration the comprehensive plan for the corridor including public
transport systems.

3.7. Fright Management Strategy

Leigh Bazar area, Shevapet and market station area are the main goods distribution areas in Salem.
Absence of truck terminals force trucks to park on the roads, creating safety and mobility issues. Various
strategies of increasing the efficiency of freight and commercial transport in Salem include.
Segregation of long distance commercial vehicles from city roads
Shifting of CFS ,godowns and yard from Salem market station
Freight terminals development close to ring roads
Use of small and medium size vehicles with modern emission controls in the central city areas
Restricted movement of commercial vehicles in the city core area(8 AM - 8 PM prohibition) and other
mobility corridors (morning and evening peak periods)

3.8. Traffic Management Strategy

Significant benefits can ensue the Traffic Management. The improvement schemes are of low cost but yet
can use existing infrastructure at the optimum. Key traffic management measures are.
Road Improvements
Pavement strengthening
Provision of shoulder,footpaths,drain etc.
Provision of road furniture
Provision of bus shelters
Intersection Improvements
Signal Retiming
Intersection Channelization and Geometric Improvements
Pedestrian crossing facilities
Area Traffic Control &ITS
Policy Related
Parking management
Regulation of Auto rickshaws
Hawker Management

3.9. Travel Demand Management Strategy

In addition to the supply oriented strategies as indicated earlier, demand oriented strategies are also
required for Salem. These strategies would also contribute to indirectly shift the travel patterns of the study
area. To further increase in public transport modal shares additional demand management interventions
may be implemented as necessary such as.

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A. Asokan and Dr. N. Balasundaram

Corridor Densification
Parking Management
Congestion pricing for commercial vehicles in the core area
The Development plan must anticipate the increase in value of land due to the public transport
investments and must capture the land value. The transport plan for the study area must orient itself
towards densifying parts of the city that are not transit oriented due to the low density developments.
Mechanisms must be brought in to increase the density/FSI. This would, in addition to controlling
transport demand in favor of public transport. The air quality in Salem should also be improved.

3.10. Parking Management Plan

As prevalent in various cities across India, the road in Salem is having free on-street parking. Parking
management achieves the following strategic objectives.
Reduces development costs and increases affordability
Enables multi-modal community planning (smart growth)
Reduce motor vehicle use (thereby reducing traffic congestion, accidents an pollution)
Improves user options and quality of service
Ability to accommodate new uses and respond to new demands
Related environmental and aesthetic benefits
Off street parking Measures: As a long term measure to improve parking facilities in Salem, off
street parking sites need to be identified. The off street parking structures, either isolated or integrated
with the public transport terminals, should meet some or all of the following requirements before
The parking plaza must preferably discourage other commercial uses in the same premises to the extent
The parking plaza must facilitate public transport
The parking plaza must facilitate non motorized transport
The parking plaza should off set removal of on street parking
Comprehensive Mobility Plan focuses on mobility of people to achieve cost effective equitable urban
transport measures within an appropriate and consistent methodology for the coming decades ( 2013 to
2033). The study furnishes various proposals for improving the usage for public transport modes and non
motorized modes. The scenario tests the impact of CMP proposals along with the do minimum scenario.
Major public transport network improvements include:
Addition of new bus routes connecting developing areas
Mass Rapid Transport System
The proposals are tested to measure the impact in terms of vehicle Kilometers travelled, Passenger
Kilometers travelled, average network speed, mode split and congestion levels.

3.11. Per capita Trip rate (RCTR) & Travel Demand

The per capita trip rate (all modes) has been complied the observed trip rate along with the projections has
been illustrated. PCTR has been expected to grow to 1.26 by the horizon year 2033. The trips assigned in
horizon year estimated based on the planning variables forecast and the PCTR values are presented in
Table 3.

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Development of Sustainable Urban Transport Strategies for Salem City

Table 3 Per capita Trip Rate Trips and Daily Travel Demand - 2033
Scenario PCTR (All PCTR Daily Travel Demand
Vehicles) (Motorized) (Motorized)
Business as Usual scenario 1.26 0.93 2,761,108
CMP 1.26 0.86 2,553,282
The anticipated trips are assigned for the morning peak and the scenarios are evaluated against the
identified parameters. The following figures present the results of the two scenarios.

3.11.1. Major forecast assumptions:

Average Vehicle Ownership will grow at 6% per annum
Per Capita trip rate PCTR will grow to 1.26 by 2033
Average per capita income will grow at +2% per annum
Vehicle operating cast will grow at +1% per annum ( to take into account the efficiency due to improved
vehicle technology)
Value of time will grow at 2% per annum ( n line with per capita income growth)
Auto fare grow at 2% per annum

Figure 3 Traffic Flow CMP scenario

Mode Split: In comparison, the share of public transport will improve to 55 % in 2033 and the share of
private modes will come down to 30 %.

Table 4 Percentage of Scenario

Item Base Year ( 2013) Business as usual CMP Scenario ( 2033)
Scenario ( 2033)
Pubilc Transport 32% 26% 55%
IPT 13% 15% 15%
Private Transport 54% 59% 30%

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A. Asokan and Dr. N. Balasundaram

Figure 4 Mode split in the scenario

Table 5 Mode split in the scenario

Business as usual scenario Project Scenario
Bus 9.1 10.3
Car 8.5 8.1
Two Wheeler 7.9 7.1
Auto Rickshaw 3.2 3.4
Average 7.6 8.4
Passenger/Vehicle Kilometers of Travel: There is a substantial reduction of 33% to vehicle
kilometers in the CMP scenario in comparison with the do something scenario is presented in Table 6 and
passenger Kilometers is presented in Table 7.

Table 6 Vehicle Kilometres in Lakhs -2033

Mode Business as usual scenario Project scenario
Two wheeler 79.79 43.76
Car 16.37 14.49
Auto Rickshaw 13.06 12.97
Bus 2.73 2.85
Total 111.95 74.06

Table 7 Passenger Kilometers in lakhs 2033

Mode Business as usual scenario Project scenario
Two wheeler 103.00 42.29
Car 25.16 10.95
Auto Rickshaw 12.80 12.42
Bus 62.86 138.00
Total 203.82 203.66
Network Speed: Commuters desire to travel is readily related to travel speeds on the network.
Average network speed will increase to 28 kmph from 14 kmph for the year 2033 in the project scenario (
refer Table 8).

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Development of Sustainable Urban Transport Strategies for Salem City

Table 8 Project scenario for the year 2033

Average Journey Speed in Base year 2013 Do something 2033 Project 2033
kmph (city) 20 14 28

Nowadays, to full fill our day to day need people need transport to reach the needs of them. In these terms,
sustainable development creates better conditions for driving people. This system has many advantages
such as pollution, improving health, reducing the spending and transportation cost. It is better that the
responsible take a better look if the modern texture of Salem is formed based on the principles of
sustainable development.

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