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396 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL.

13, 2014

A Compact Microstrip-Fed Triple Band-Notched


UWB Monopole Antenna
Debdeep Sarkar, Student Member, IEEE, Kumar Vaibhav Srivastava, Senior Member, IEEE, and
Kushmanda Saurav, Student Member, IEEE

AbstractIn this letter, a novel low-profile microstrip-fed


compact triple band-notched ultrawideband (UWB) antenna
is proposed. Notch bands around the 3.33.8-GHz WiMAX and
5.155.85-GHz WLAN frequencies are obtained by etching out two
elliptic single complementary split-ring resonators (ESCSRRs)
of different dimensions from the radiating patch of the antenna.
Furthermore, by placing two rectangular split-ring resonators
near the feedlinepatch junction of the antenna, rejection for the
7.98.4-GHz X-band frequencies is achieved. Design guidelines for
implementing the notch-bands at the desired frequency regions
are provided. The match between the simulated and experimental
results suggests that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate
for application in UWB communication systems.
Index TermsAntennas, elliptic single complementary split-ring
resonator (ESCSRR), notch-band, rectangular split-ring resonator
(SRR), ultrawideband (UWB).
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic configuration of the proposed triple band-notched UWB
antenna. (b) ESCSRR. (c) Rectangular SRR.
I. INTRODUCTION

I N THE year 2002, the US Federal Communications Com-


mission (FCC) allocated the ultrawideband (UWB) spec-
trum from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz to be used for commercial commu-
band-notch elements. Different multiple (dual, triple,
quadruple) band-notched UWB antenna topologies have
nication purposes [1]. UWB communication systems can sup- also been reported in recent literature [6][9]. Use of
port high data rates with low power consumption and are mainly split-ring resonators (SRRs) and complementary split-ring
used for short-range indoor communication systems. Antennas resonators (CSRRs) to design reconfigurable multiple
spanning the broad frequency range of 3.110.6 GHz are es- band-notched UWB antennas has been presented in [10][13].
sential components of such UWB systems; hence, their design In this letter, we propose a simple low-cost microstrip-fed
problem has become an active topic of research in recent years. half-elliptic monopole antenna similar to [2], with triple
UWB antenna engineers have to simultaneously ensure high band-notched functionality (Fig. 1). The half-elliptic monopole
impedance bandwidth, radiation-pattern stability, miniaturiza- is more compact compared to its complete circular, rectangular,
tion, along with low manufacturing cost in their design works. or elliptic counterparts as used in [10] and [11]. Two elliptic
Apart from these issues, the problem of electromagnetic inter- single complementary split-ring resonators (ESCSRRs) are
ference (EMI) occurring due to existing narrowband communi- embedded in the radiating patch to cancel interferences due
cation systems like WiMAX (3.33.8 GHz), WLAN (5.155.85 to WiMAX (3.33.8 GHz) and upper WLAN frequencies
GHz), or X-band satellite communication links (7.98.4 GHz) (5.155.85 GHz). It can be inferred from [11] that for genera-
is of major concern. Integration of external bandstop filters to tion of narrower and stronger notch-bands, slots/CSRRs with
achieve the desired band rejection increases system complexity shape similar to that of the antenna patch are more effective,
and size. Hence, in order to keep the antenna footprint unal- as the current distribution is mostly concentrated at the edge
tered, designers have resorted to the approach of embedding of the patch. The use of ESCSRRs for providing band-notched
parasitic strips or slots of different shapes in the radiating el- characteristics is not very common, to the best of the knowl-
ement or ground plane of the antenna systems [2][5]. edge of the authors. Thus, a comprehensive and simple design
Moreover, many UWB applications require more than one methodology of elliptic CSRRs most suitable for this antenna is
notch-band, necessitating the use of mutually noninteracting developed in this letter. Also, an ellipse having same area as that
of a circle would have greater perimeter [14], which intuitively
implies that use of an elliptic CSRR or SRR would provide
Manuscript received December 06, 2013; accepted February 12, 2014. Date
of publication February 19, 2014; date of current version March 06, 2014. lesser resonant frequency. This indicates miniaturization of
The authors are with the Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Insti- the band-reject elements. Furthermore, rectangular split-ring
tute of Technology, Kanpur 208016, India (e-mail: debdeep1989@gmail.com; resonators are placed as parasitic elements near the junction
kvs@iitk.ac.in; kushmandasaurav@gmail.com).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this letter are available online
of feedline and radiating element to reject the ITU-speci-
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. fied X-band communication frequencies (7.98.4 GHz). The
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LAWP.2014.2306812 proposed antenna, designed on FR4 substrate, is compact in

1536-1225 2014 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission.
See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.
SARKAR et al.: COMPACT MICROSTRIP-FED TRIPLE BAND-NOTCHED UWB MONOPOLE ANTENNA 397

desired notch frequency. The factor used for the calcula-


tion of the circumference of ellipse is related to the ellipticity
) through (2) [14]. The effective dielectric con-
stant is calculated via (3), where , and are the substrate
height, width of the microstrip feed, and relative permittivity of
substrate, respectively [15]. In our design simulations, we have
fixed the width of ESCSRR slots at 0.3 mm, keeping the
limitations of the available fabrication facility in mind. Thus, for
a given value of , we have the option of properly choosing
and from (1) and (2). If ellipticity is specified, we obtain
Fig. 2. Photograph of the fabricated antenna: (a) top view; (b) bottom view. from (2) and solve for using (1). However, for a speci-
fied value of , we can generate a simple quadratic equation
from (1) and (2) and solve for analytically.
size (35 35 1.6 mm ), and it exhibits monopolar far-field
pattern in the radiating band. The details of the antenna design B. Initial Choice of Rectangular SRR Dimensions
procedure and its radiation performance are described in the
following sections. For choosing the design parameters of the rectangular SRR
for a desired , we can use the design guidelines from the
II. ANTENNA DESIGN METHODOLOGY following equation:
The topology of the proposed antenna is shown in
(4)
Fig. 1. The antenna radiator is a half-elliptic patch having
major axis length and minor axis
length and placed on one side of the Here, is the inner perimeter of the rectangular single split
substrate. Here, and functions respectively ring that is a function of ring length , ring width , and
choose the maximum value and minimum value from the strip width , as shown in Fig. 1(c). For the rectangular SRR
arguments. The radiating patch is fed by a 50- microstrip line to resonate at should be approximately equal to half
of width . The ground plane of the antenna is also half-el- of the guided wavelength at that frequency.
liptic in shape having major axis length
and minor axis length . The antenna ground C. Full-Wave Simulation
plane is placed symmetrically about the -axis with respect Fig. 3 illustrates the four different stages of the antenna design
to the patch, on the other side of the substrate. Fig. 2 shows principle adopted in this letter. The variations of VSWR with
the top and bottom views of the proposed antenna fabricated frequency for these design stages are provided in Fig. 4. Case-I
on 1.6-mm-thick FR4 substrate (dielectric constant 4.4, loss shows the reference UWB antenna. In case-II, one ESCSRR
tangent 0.02). [denoted by in Fig. 1(a)] is etched out to obtain a single
First, the reference antenna structure is simulated by finite el- band-notched antenna structure. To get this first band-notch at
ement method (FEM)-based commercial electromagnetic sim- 5.75 GHz within the WLAN band (5.155.85 GHz), we choose
ulator HFSS. The values of , and are paramet- mm, mm, and analytically obtain the
rically tuned to get an impedance bandwidth of required value of ellipticity as 1.64. We take this value of
9.50 GHz (2.2111.71 GHz), which covers the FCC specified ellipticity as an initial guess and carry out HFSS simulations. It
frequency range for UWB systems. Our objective is to obtain the is observed that the notch at 5.75 GHz is obtained for ,
desired triple band-notched performance by using the ESCSRRs while , and are kept fixed at the values used in the
( and in Fig. 1) and rectangular SRRs on the reference UWB analytical prediction step.
antenna. Before proceeding to full-wave simulations, we need Next, we symmetrically place two rectangular SRR elements
to make some initial guesses regarding the dimensions of the of suitable dimensions near the junction of the feedline and
band-notch elements. This issue is addressed in Sections II-A the radiating patch (Case-III) as shown in Fig. 3. The separa-
and II-B. tion between the SRRs and the microstrip feedline has to be
kept small to ensure effective coupling resulting in band rejec-
A. Initial Choice of ESCSRR Dimensions tion. Keeping the available printed circuit board (PCB) fabri-
For an ESCSRR of major axis length , minor axis length cation limitations in mind, this separation is kept at 0.3 mm.
, and width [Fig. 1(b)], the design equations for ob- For obtaining the notch at 8.27 GHz (lying within the band
taining a band-notch at frequency can be written as of 7.98.4 GHz for X-band communication), we start with pa-
rameter values mm, mm and get
(1) mm from the design guidelines in (4). The notch
frequency at 8.27 GHz is obtained at mm from HFSS
(2) simulations.
In the final proposed design (Case-IV), an additional band-
(3) notch at 3.55 GHz within the WiMAX band (3.33.7 GHz) is
provided by using another larger ESCSRR element [denoted by
Here, denotes the inner circumference of the elliptic slot in Fig. 1(a)] having the following parameter values:
of the single complementary split ring, which should be ap- mm, mm, (analytically predicted
proximately equal to half of the guided wavelength at the value of ). Strong concentration of simulated surface
398 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 13, 2014

Fig. 3. Four different stages of antenna design. Case-I: reference UWB


monopole antenna with elliptic patch and ground plane. Case-II: configuration
for UWB antenna with rejection of single band by etching out one ESCSRR
from the radiating patch. Case-III: dual band-notched antenna by use of one
ESCSRR and two rectangular SRRs. Case-IV: proposed triple band-notched
antenna using two ESCSRRs and two rectangular SRRs.
Fig. 5. Distribution of surface current vector on the antenna structure for the
three notch frequencies (a) 3.55, (b) 5.75, and (c) 8.27 GHz.

Fig. 4. Variation of the VSWR with frequency for the four different cases as Fig. 6. Variation of the VSWR with frequency for proposed antenna.
mentioned in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2. Fig. 6 illustrates a comparison between the simulated


current vector is observed in the vicinity of the outer ESCSRR and measured VSWR values of the proposed antenna with
for 3.55 GHz, inner ESCSRR for 5.75 GHz, and the rectangular respect to frequency. The fabricated antenna has an impedance
SRRs for 8.27 GHz (Fig. 5), clearly indicating the respective el- bandwidth from 2.21 to 12.83 GHz with notch-bands in the
ements responsible for the band-notch characteristics. The final frequency ranges of 2.953.72 GHz (
design parameters of the antenna are as follows: mm, at 3.54 GHz), 5.126.07 GHz ( at 5.73
mm, mm, mm, mm, GHz), and 8.048.65 GHz ( at 8.56 GHz).
mm, mm, These three notch bands correspond to WiMAX, WLAN, and
mm, mm, . Here, sub- X-band communication frequencies, respectively. It is ob-
scripts and denote the smaller (Inner) and larger (Outer) served that, for the fabricated antenna, the third notch-band for
ESCSRRs, respectively. rejecting the high frequency band for X-band communication
is shifted by almost 300 MHz as compared to simulation. This
III. MEASUREMENT RESULTS AND DISCUSSION can be attributed to the fact that the high frequency bands are
The proposed antenna is fabricated on low-cost FR4 substrate more sensitive to fluctuation in relative permittivity of the sub-
dielectric constant loss tangent as shown in strate used [11]. Moreover, with respect to the first resonance
SARKAR et al.: COMPACT MICROSTRIP-FED TRIPLE BAND-NOTCHED UWB MONOPOLE ANTENNA 399

three desired bands, confirming the fact that the subwavelength


resonators (ESCSRRs and rectangular SRRs) provide excellent
intrinsic filtering without the need of external circuitry. Also, it
can be seen that, in the radiating band, the gain variation is al-
most the same as that of the reference antenna structure.

IV. CONCLUSION
In this letter, a compact triple band-notched UWB monopole
antenna is realized by embedding elliptic complementary split
rings and rectangular split rings in the antenna structure. The
proposed antenna has impedance bandwidth covering the en-
tire UWB range (3.110.6 GHz), along with notch-bands in the
WiMAX (3.33.8 GHz), WLAN (5.155.85 GHz), and X-band
(7.98.4 GHz) frequencies. The design guidelines and relevant
equations are described and validated via HFSS simulations. A
prototype antenna is fabricated in PCB lab using low-cost FR4
substrate. The VSWR and far-field measurements of the fabri-
cated antenna exhibit good match with simulation predictions.

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