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ST.

MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I
LABORATORY MANUAL
FOR YEAR 2015-2016

BY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRON-


ICS ENGINEERING

DHULLAPALLY, KOMPALLY
SECUNDERABAD-500014

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

1. Magnetization Characteristics of DC Shunt Generator


Aim: To conduct an experiment on a D.C shunt generator and draw the magnetization
characteristics (OCC) and to determine the critical field resistance and critical speed.

Apparatus:

S. No Apparatus Type Range Qty


1 Voltmeter M.C 0-250/500V 1
2 Ammeter M.C 0-1/2A 1

3 Rheostats Wire 400/1.7A 1


wound
4 Tachometer Digital 0-9999 1

Name plate details: (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit diagram:

3 point starter
DPST Switch L F A DPST Switch
+ +

+
400/ + (0-2)A
A
(0- MC
230 V DC 1.7A V
500)V DC
Supply F A A
F Excit-
M G er

A A
FF
F

Fuse Fuse

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Shunt Field Resistance (Rsh):-

DPST FUSE
+ +
400/1.7
A A (0-2A)

F
230 V +
DC
V (0-250V)
Sup-
ply FF

Theory:
Open circuit characteristics or magnetization curve is the graph be-
tween the generated emf and field current of a dc shunt generator. For field cur-
rent is equal to zero there will be residual voltage of 10 to 12V because of the
residual magnetism present in the machine .If this is absent there the machine
can not build up voltage to obtain residual magnetism the machine is separately
excited by a dc source from OCC we can get critical field resistance and critical
speed.

Critical field resistance: It is the resistance above which the machine cannot
build up emf.

Critical speed: It is the speed below which the machine cannot build up emf.

Procedure:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Start the motor and bring it to rated speed..
3. The switch SPST is opened and If=0
4. For the different values of excitations (If) the generated voltage (Eg)from
the voltmeter is taken at rated speed, with increasing and decreasing orders.
5. Calculate average Eg from increasing and decreasing orders.
6. A graph is drawn between Avg Eg & If. From the graph (OCC) Critical
field resistance and critical speed are calculated.

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Tabular column:

Field current Generated Voltage (Eg)


S.NO Average Eg
If Increasing Decreasing

Graph:
Eg (V)

R
Rf

O C P If (A)

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Critical field resistance (Rc) = OA/OC

Field resistance (Rf) = OR

The maximum voltage the Generator can induce


With this field resistance. = OM

Critical Speed = PQ/PR * N

Result:

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

2. BRAKE TEST ON DC SHUNT MOTOR. DETERMI-


NATION OF ITS PERFORMANCE CURVES

Aim: To conduct brake test on DC Shunt motor. And to determine its perfor-
mance curves.

Apparatus:

S. No Equipment Range Type Qty


1. Voltmeter 0-250V M.C. 1
2. Ammeter 0-20A M.C 1
3 Ammeter 0-1/2A M.C 1
4 Rheostat 400/1.7A Wire wound 1
5. Tachometer Digital type 1
6. Connecting wires

Name plate details: (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit diagram:

(0-20)A 3 point starter


DPST Switch MC L A F
+ A

400/ + S1 S2
+
1.7A A (0-2)A
230 V V (0-250)V MC
DC MC A

Sup- F
ply M

A
FF

Fuse

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Theory:
When if is required to determine directly efficiency if comparatively small
motors, the motor is loaded directly by means of Mechanical Break. Hence in the
case of shunt motor there is no drastic change in speed. The Torque
T = (S1 ~ S2) g. r Nm. where S1 S2 is the spring balance reading, r = Break drum
Radius and g=9.81.
P = Power developed. Efficiency of DC motor = Po/ Pi x 100

Procedure:-
01. Make Connections as per the circuit diagram.
02. Start the motor with the help of the starter.
03. Then bring the motor to rated speed by adjusting field rheostat.
04. Put the mechanical load on the motor in steps and note down correspond-
ing readings of all meters.
05. Do calculations accordingly.

Tabular columns :
S.No Voltage Current Spee Spring Torque= Pout = Pin = Eff =
(V) (I) d Balance 9.8 1(S1 ~ 2 nT/60 Vi - op/ip
(N) Readings S2) .r -Nm -Watts Watts x100.
S1 S2

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

EXPECTED GRAPHS:

T
Tsh

Ta

0 X
Ia
Ta vs Ia.

0 Y
Ia
N vs Ia

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Y
T
N vs T

Y
O/P

Vs O/P

Result:

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

3. BRAKE TEST ON DC COMPOUND MOTOR DE-


TERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CURVES
Aim: To conduct brake test on dc compound motor.

Apparatus:

S. No Equipment Range Type Quantity


1 Voltmeter (0-250V) M.C. 1 No
2 Ammeter (0-20A) M.C 1 No.
3 Rheostat 400/1.7A Wire wound 1
4 Tachometer digital 0-9999 1No
5 Connecting wires

Name plate details (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit diagram:

Cumulative:

(0-20)A 3 point starter


DPST Switch MC L A F
+ A

Y
400/ + S1 S2
+
1.7A A (0-2)A
230 V V (0-250)V MC
DC MC A YY

Sup- F
ply M

AA
FF

Fuse

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Differential:

(0-20)A 3 point starter


DPST Switch MC L A F
+ +
A

YY
400/ + S1 S2
+
1.7A A (0-2)A
230 V V (0-250)V MC
DC MC A Y

Sup- F
ply M

AA
FF

Fuse

Theory:
A Compound motor has a shunt field winding as well as series field winding. If the
series field mmf and shunt field mmf help each other it is a cumulative compound
motor. If the series and shunt fields appose each other it is a differentially com-
pound motor. The operation of differential compound motor is unstable In a cumu-
lative compounded motor the fluxes are add each other at light loads the shunt field
is stronger than series field so motor behaves shunt motor. At high loads series
field is stronger than shunt field so the characteristics like nearly to series motor.

Procedure:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Start the motor with the help of the starter.
3. Then bring the motor to rated speed by adjusting field rheostat.
4. Put the mechanical load on the motor in steps and note down all the meter read-
ings.

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Tabular columns:

s.no Voltage Current Speed Spring Torque= Output Input Efficiency


(V) (I) (N) balance 9.81xS1 power power Pout/P in
readings ~S2xr - 2NT/60- VI- x 100.
S1 S2 Nm Watts Watts

Graph: Draw graphs O/P Vs Speed, Current, Torque, Efficiency.

Cum
Diff

0 X
T
N vs Ia

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Diff
T
Cum

0 Y
Ia
T vs Ia

N Cum
Diff

Y
T
N vs T

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Cum
Diff

Y
O/P

Vs O/P

Result:

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

4. LOAD TEST ON DC SHUNT GENERATOR.


Aim: To conduct a load test on the given DC Shunt generator and to obtain the
performance characteristics.

Apparatus required:

1 Ammeter 0-20A, MC 1
0-1A, MC 1
0-5A MC 1
2 Voltmeter 0-250V, MC 1
0-30V, MC 1
3 Rheostat 400/1.7A 1
4 Rheostat 100/5A 1
5 Load 3 Kw / 220V 1
6 Tachometer 1
5 Connecting wires

Name plate details: (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit diagram:
3 point starter (0-20A)
(0-5A) DPST Switch
DPST Switch L A F
+ +
+ A A
400/
400/ 1.7A
1.7A

230 V
DC A F F A +
Sup- (0-250v)
M G V
ply

AA FF AA
FF Resistive Load

Fuse

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Armature Resistance (Ra):-

DPST FUSE
+ +
100/5A A (0-5A)

A
230 V +
DC
Supply M V (0-30V)

AA

Theory: .
By conducting load test on DC shunt generator we can get load characteris-
tics i.e, Internal & External characteristics. By exciting the m/c, the field current
increases and voltage build up. After the machine has attained 220V the rated load
is switched on. With increase in load, the voltage will be dropped
Procedure:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. Start the machine with the help of starter and bring to rated speed by vary-
ing field rheostat of motor, then by varying field rheostat of the generator
set the rated voltage of the generator.. Then close the DPST switch of the
load and increase the load by step 0.125Kw, up to full load of the generator.
3. Note down all the meter readings at every step.
4. Do necessary calculations.
Observations:

S IL, in If , in Ia= IL+if Vt in Ia Ra in EG = Vt + IaRa


no amps amps in amps volts volts in volts

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Graph:

E&
Internal

External P

Y
I
E& vs I

E&V vs I

Result:

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

5. LOAD TEST ON DC SERIES GENERATOR


Aim: To conduct load test on the given DC series generator and to obtain its per-
formance characteristics.

Apparatus required:

S.NO Equipment Range Type Qty


1 Ammeter. 0-20A M.C. 1
0-5A MC 1
2 Voltmeter. 0-250V M.C 1
0-30V MC 1
3 Rheostat 400/1.7A Wire wound 1
100/5A Wire wound 1
4 Load 5,Kw 1
5 Tachometer 0-9999 Digital 1

Nameplate Details: (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit diagram:-

3 point starter (0-20A)


L A F DPST Switch
DPST Switch +
+ A
400/ YY
1.7A

Y
230 V
DC A F A +
Sup- (0-250v)
M G V
ply

AA AA
FF Resistive Load

Fuse Armature Resistance (Ra):-

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

DPST FUSE
+ +
100/5A
A (0-5A)

A
230 V +
DC M (0-30V)
V
Sup-
ply AA

Series Field Resistance (Rse):-

DPST FUSE
+ +
100/5A
A (0-5A)

Y
230 V +
DC
Sup-
V (0-30V)
ply YY

Theory:
The load characteristics curve of DC series generator shows the relation
b/w its terminal voltage and load current. The characteristics are rising in
nature and excitation increases with load. At large values of load current,
the terminal voltage must be start decreasing owing to the saturation of the
machine iron & rapidly increasing voltage drop of armature and armature
resistance.

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Procedure:
1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Adjust the speed of the motor to its rated value using field rheostat.(motor).
3. Connect the load to generator with the help of load box, and increase the
load 0.125Kw at every step and note the corresponding readings.
4. Plot the graph b/w terminal voltage Vs current and generated voltage Vs
armature current.

Observations:
Speed of the motor, N =
Sno Terminal volt- Load current, IaRa IaRse Eg=V+IaRa+IaRse
age, in volts IL=Ia=Ise in amps In volts In volts In volts

Graph:
Plot the graph b/w terminal voltage and load current by taking V on Y-
axis and IL on X-axis, and Eg on Y axis and Ia on X axis.

OCC
Eg & V Internal

External

Y
Ia = Ise
Eg & V vs Ia= Ise

Result:

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

6. SPEED CONTROL OF DC SHUNT MOTOR

Aim: To conduct speed controls on DC shunt motor.


The methods are
1. Armature voltage control method 2. Flux control method

Apparatus:

S.No Equipment Range Type Qty


1 Ammeter 0-5A MC 1No
0-2A MC 1No
2 Voltmeter 0-250V MC 1No
3 Rheostats 100/5A Wire wound 1NO
400/1.7A Wire wound 1No
4 Tachometer 0-2000rpm Digital 1No
5 Connecting Wires LS

Nameplate Details (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit diagram:

DPST FUSE L A F
+

100/5A 400/1.7A

+
+
A A (0-2A)
230 V (0-5A)
DC

Supply
+ A F

(0-250V) V M

AA
FF

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Armature Resistance (Ra):-

DPST FUSE
+ +
100/5A
A (0-5A)

A
230 V +
DC M (0-30V)
V
Sup-
ply AA

Theory:
i) Armature voltage control method:
For a load of constant Torque, the speed is proportional to the applied to the arma-
ture. Therefore speed voltage characteristic is linear and is a straight line. As the
voltage is decrease across the armature the speed falls. This method gives speeds
less than rated speeds.

Eb N Eb N
V-Ia(Ra+R) N
As the voltage is decreased speed decreases.

ii) Flux Control Method:


With rated voltage applied to the motor, the field resistance is increased i.e field
current is decreased. I t is observed that speed increases.
Eb/ N N Eb/If
The characteristics If Vs N is inverse (or) if it is hyperbola.
Procedure:
i) Armature Voltage Control Method

1) Make connections as per the circuit diagram.


2) Show the connections to the lab instructor.
3) Keeping both rheostats at minimum, Start the motor with the help of starter and
by adjusting field rheostat bring the motor to rated speed.
4) By increasing armature circuit rheostat in steps note down voltage, Ia and speed
at every step.
5) The corresponding graph is draw between armature Voltage Vs speed.

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

ii) Flux Control method:


1) The machine run at its rated speed and rated voltage obtained.
2) The voltage is kept constant and for different values of field current the
speed are noted.

Tabular Column:
Armature Voltage Control Method:

S.No Armature Armature Speed Eb=V-IaRa in


Voltage in current=Ia in RPM volts
volts in amps

Flux Control Method:

S.No Field Current in amps Speed in RPM

Expected graphs:-

O
X
If(I)

N Vs If

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

O
X
Va(V)

N Vs Va

N vs Va(Armature voltage)

Result:

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

6. SWINBURNE S TEST ON DC SHUNT MACHINE


PREDETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCIES
Aim: To perform no load test on dc motor and to predetermine the efficiencies of
the machine acting as a motor and generator.

Equipment:

S.No Apparatus Type Range qty


1 Voltmeter MC 0-250v 1
2 Voltmeter MC 0-30V 1
3 Ammeter MC 0-5A 1
4 Ammeter MC 0-2A 1
5 Rheostats Wire wound 400/1.7A 1
Wire wound 100/5A 1

Name plate details: (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit diagram:
(0-5)A 3 point starter
DPST Switch MC L A F
+
+ A

400/ +
+ 1.7A (0-2)A
A
230 V MC
V (0-250)V
DC MC A
Supply F
M

AA
FF

Fuse

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Circuit diagram to find out Ra:


DPST Switch
+

100/5A +
A (0-5)A
MC
230 V

DC Sup- A
ply +
M (0-30)V
V
MC
AA

Fuse

Theory:
It is simple indirect method in which losses are measured separately
and the efficiency at any desired load can be predetermined. This test applicable to
those machines in which flux is practically constant i.e. shunt and compound
wound machines. The no load power input to armature consist iron losses in core,
friction loss, windage loss and armature copper loss. It is convenient and economi-
cal because power required to test a large machine is small i.e. only no load power.
But no account is taken the change in iron losses from no load to full load due to
armature reaction flux is distorted which increases the iron losses in some cases by
as 50%

Procedure:

1. Make connections as per the circuit diagram.


2. Show the connections to the lab instructor.
3. Keeping both rheostats at minimum, Start the motor with the help of starter and
by adjusting field rheostat bring the motor to rated speed.
4. Note down all the meter readings at no load..
5. Do necessary calculations and find out the efficiency of the Machine as a motor
and as a generator.
6. Draw the graphs between output Vs efficiency of the Machine as a generator and
as a motor.

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Observations:

IL IF IA V N

For Ra

S.NO V I Ra=V/I

Expected graphs:-

(%) Generator

Motor

O
Out-

Efficiency Vs Output

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Tabular Column to find out efficiency:

GENERATOR:

S.No Voltage Load Armature Armature Total losses Input- Output- =


in volts Current Current Ia = Cu loss= Wt=Wc+ VxIL Input-total Output
in amps (IL+If) Ia XIaXRa IaXIaXRa losses= Input.
VxIL-Wt

Motor:

S.No Voltage Load Armature Armature Total losses Output= Input=output =


in volts Current Current Cu loss= Wt=Wc+ VxIL +total loss- Output
in amps Ia =(IL-If) Ia XIaXRa IaXIaXRa es= Input.
VxIL+Wt

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Model calculations:

No load input=V IL

No load armature copper losses =Ia 2 Ra =(Il If)2 Ra


Constant losses Wc=V l(Il-If )2 Ra

Efficiency as a motor:

I= Assumed load current


Motor i/p=VI
Ia=IL-If
Motor armature losses=I2a .Ra
Total losses=I2a Ra+ Wc
Efficiency of motor= VI- I2a Ra+ Wc / VI x 100

Efficiency as generator:

I=assumed load current


Generator O/P =VI

Generator armature cu. Losses= I2a .Ra


Total losses= I2a Ra+ Wc
Efficiency of generator=VI / VI+ I2a Ra+ Wc

Results:

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

7. LOAD TEST ON COMPOUND GENERATOR

Aim: To conduct load test on DC compound generator and to determine its


characteristics.

Apparatus:

S. No Equipment Range Type Qty


1. Voltmeter 0-250 V M.C. 1
2. Ammeter 0-2A M.C. 1
0-20A M.C. 1
3. Rheostats 400/1.7A Wire wound 2
4. Tachometer Digital 1
5 Connecting wires

Name plate details: (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit diagram for cumulative compound generator:

3 point starter (0-20A)


(0-2A) DPST Switch
DPST Switch L A F
+ +
+ A A
400/
400/ 1.7A
1.7A Y

230 V YY
DC A F F A +
Sup- (0-250v)
ply M G V

AA FF AA
FF Resistive Load

Fuse

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Circuit diagram for differential compound generator:

3 point starter (0-20A)


(0-2A) DPST Switch
DPST Switch L A F
+ +
+ A A
400/
400/ 1.7A
1.7A YY

230 V Y
DC A F F A +
Sup- (0-250v)
ply M G V

AA FF AA
FF Resistive Load

Fuse

Armature Resistance (Ra):-

DPST FUSE
+ +
100/5A
A (0-5A)

A
230 V +
DC M (0-30V)
Sup-
V
ply AA

Series Field Resistance (Rse):-


DPST FUSE
+ +
100/5A
A (0-5A)

Y
230 V +
DC
V (0-30V)
Sup-
ply YY

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Theory: D.C. Compound generator consists of both series and shunt field wind-
ings. The shunt and series fields can be connected in two ways.
1. Short shunt.
2. Long shunt.
When the MMF of series field opposes the MMF of shunt field, the gener-
ator is differentially compound. The terminal voltage decreases sharply with in-
creasing load current. Evidently this connection is not used.
In cumulative compound the connections of the two fields are such that
their MMFs added and help each other. If the series field is very strong, the termi-
nal voltage may increase as the load current increases and it is called over com-
pounding. When terminal voltage on full load and no load are equal, it is known as
flat compounded generator. If the series field is not strong, the terminal voltage
will decreases with increase in load current (under compound)

Procedure:
1. Connections are made as per the circuit diagram.
2. The machine is run at rated speed and the rated voltage is obtained by vary-
ing field excitation
3. There the switch is closed so that load is connected across the generator.
4. Increase the load step by step with 0.125Kw and note down all the meter
readings and calculations are made accordingly and the characteristics are
obtained.
5. Plot graph for internal external characteristics.

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Tabular Column:-

S.No IL , Amps VL Volts If , Amps Eg = vl+IA (rn+rsc)

Model graphs:-

Internal characteristics

Cumulative

Differential

E (V)

O
X
Ia (A)

E (V) Vs Ia

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

External characteristics

Cumula-

Differential

O
X
Ia (A)

V Vs Ia

Result:-

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

8. FIELDS TEST ON TWO IDENTICAL DC SERIES


MACHINES
Aim: To determination the efficiency of two mechanically coupled series ma-
chines by conducting fields test.

Apparatus:

S.No Equipment Range Type Qty


1. Voltmeter 0-250V M.C. 3
2-30V MC 1
2 Ammeter 0-20A M.C. 2
0-5A M.C. 1
3. Resistive load 5Kw
4. Connecting wires

Name Plate Details (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit diagram:

2 point starter (0-20A)


(0-20A)
L A DPST Switch
DPST Switch +
+ +
A A

Y Y

230 V +
DC YY A
V (0-250v) +
Sup- A
YY V (0-250v)
ply
M G

AA
AA Resistive Load

Fuse

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Armature Resistance (Ra):-

DPST FUSE
+ +
100/5A
A (0-5A)

A
230 V +
DC M (0-30V)
V
Sup-
ply AA

Series Field Resistance (Rse):-

DPST FUSE
+ +
100/5A
A (0-5A)

Y
230 V +
DC
V (0-30V)
Sup-
ply YY

Theory:
This test is applicable for two series machines which are coupled mechani-
cally. Series machines cannot be tested on no load conditions due to dangerous
high speeds. One machine normally run as motor and drives generator whose out
put is wasted in a variable load R. The fields of two machines are connected in se-
ries in order to make iron losses of both the machines equal.

Model calculations:
Generator output = V3.I2 Watts. - - - - - - - - - (1)
Total input = V1.I1 Watts. - - - - - - - - (2)
Total losses Pt of both machines = ( V1.I1)-(V3.I2) Watts - - (3)
Motor Field Cu loss = I1.I1.Rsem - - - - - - - - - - (4)
Motor Armature Cu loss = I1.I1.Ram - - - - - - - - - - -(5)

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Generator Field Cu loss = I1.I1.Rseg - - - - - - - - - - (6)


Generator Armature Cu loss = I2.I2.Rag - - - - - - - - - - - -(7)
P2,Total Ra and Se ,Cu losses
Of both machines = (4)+(5)+(6)+(7)- - - - -- - --(8)
Ps, Stray losses of both m/c = (Pt-P2) Watts - - - - - - - - -(9)
Ps/2, Stray losses of each m/c = (Pt-P2)/2 Watts- - - - - - - - -(10)

Efficiency calculations for Generator:-


Output of Generator =V3 . I2 Watts---------------(11)
Stray losses of Generator = (Pt-P2)/2 Watts ----------(12)
Field Cu loss of Generator. = I1 . I1 .Rseg----------------(13)
Armature Cu loss of Generator. = I2 .I2 .Rag------------------(14)
Input to Generator. = (11)+(12)+(13)+(14)-------(15)
Efficiency of Generator =Output/Input =(11)/(15)
Efficiency calculations for Generator:-
Motor in put . =V2 .I1 Watts----------------(16)
Motor Field Cu loss = I1 .I1.Rsem-----------------(17)
Motor Armature Cu loss =I1 . I1 .Ram-----------------(18)
Motor Stray losses =(Pt-P2)/2 Watts------------(19)
Motor Output =(16)-(17)+(18)+(19)------(20)
Efficiency of Motor =Output/Input=(20)/(16)

Model graphs:-

(%) Genera-

Motor

O
Out-

Result:
By conducting the fields test we found the efficiency of series machines
(motor and generator).

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9. REGENERATIVE (OR) HOPKINSONS TEST


Aim : To conduct a Hopkinsons test on a two similar D.C shunt machines and
find out the efficiency.

Apparatus Required:

S.no Equipment Range Type Qty


1 Volt meter 0-250V M.C. 1
2 Ammeter 0-20A M.C 2
0-2A M.C 2
3 Rheostat 400/1.7A Wire wound 2
4 Connecting wires

Name Plate Details (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit Diagram:
3 point start-
+ (0-2A)
DPST Switch L A F A MC
+
400/
V
1.7A + + 400/
(0-500)V (0-20)A 1.7A
+ MC A MC
230
(0-230)V + F
V MC (0-2)A
V A A MC
A
DC M FF
F M
Sup-
AA AA

FF

Fuse

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Armature Resistance (Ra):-

DPST FUSE
+ +
100/5A
A (0-5A)

A
230 V +
DC M (0-30V)
Sup-
V
ply AA


Theory:

Hopkinsons test is also called as regenerative test or back-to-back test. It is


an indirect test or full test, which is used to determine the efficiency of the two
identical shunt machines. The two machines are mechanically coupled and are also
adjusted electrically that are of then run as motor and other as a generator. The
two-shunt machines are connected in parallel. The power input from the mains is
only that needed for supplying the losses of the two machines. The two machines
can be tested under full load conditions (for determining the efficiency and maxi-
mum temperature rise).

Procedure:
1. Connected the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the field regulator minimum resistance position and start the motor by
using starter, Keeping S.P.S.T switch open.
3. Adjust the regulator on generator side until the rated voltage equal to both
in magnitude and polarity as that of main supply. i. e; voltmeter reads zero.
4. The S. P. S.T switch is closed to parallel the machines, by adjusting the re-
spective field regulators, any load can how be thrown on to machines.
5. Calculate efficiency by applying load.(changing excitation)

Observations:
Input Volt-
Input Cur- Gen If=I3
S. No age in volts Gen Ia=I2 Motor If=I4
rent=I1

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To find out efficiency:


Motor:
S. No Motor Motor Motor Stray Total Out put of Mo-
input Armature Field loss losses Of Mo- tor
Cu loss Cu loss of mo- tor
tor

Generator:
S. Generator Generator Generator Stray Total Input of
No output Armature Field Cu loss losses of Of generator
Cu loss loss generator generator

Calculations:
Armature Resistance of each machine =Ra
Generator Armature cu loss =I1 x I2 x Ra Watts.
Motor Armature cu loss =(I1 + I2)(I1 + I2)Ra Watts.
Armature power input to the set. =VL x I1 Watts.
Ps, Stray losses of both machines = VL x I1 Armature Cu loss of
(Gen +Motor)
Stray losses of each machine = Ps/2

Efficiency of Generator:
Generator output =VL . I2 Watts
Generator Losses Pg = V.I3 + I2 x I2+(Ps/2)
Efficiency of Generator =( VL .I2 )/ (VL .I2 +Pg)

Efficiency of Motor :

Motor in put: =VL (I1 +I2 +I4).


Motor losses Pm =(I1 +I2)(I1 +I2)Ra +VxI4 +Ps/2 .
Motor Efficiency = {VL (I1 +I2+I4)}-Pm/ VL (I1+I2+I4)

Plot the following graphs:-


(a) Output Vs Efficiency for Generator.
(b) Output Vs Efficiency for Motor.

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Model graphs:-

(%) Genera-

Motor

O
Output

Result:

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10.SEPARATION OF STRAY LOSSES IN A DC


MACHINE
Aim :
To conduct the No-load Test at various speeds at two different excitations on a DC
shunt machine and to determine following losses:-
(a) Hysteresis Loss (b) Eddy Current Loss (c) Mechanical Loss.

Apparatus Required:

S.no Equipment Range Type Qty


1 Volt meter 0-250V M.C. 1
0-30V MC 1
2 Ammeter 0-5A M.C 2
0-2A M.C 2
3 Rheostat 400/1.7A Wire wound 1
100/ 5A Wire wound 1
4 Connecting wires
5 Tachometer digital 0-9999 1

Name Plate Details (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit Diagram:
DPST FUSE L A F
+

100/5A 400/1.7A

+
+
A A (0-2A)
230 V (0-5A)
DC

Supply
+ A F

(0-250V) V M

AA
FF

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Circuit diagram to find out Ra:

DPST FUSE

+ +
100/5A A (0-5A)

A
230 V +
DC
Supply M V (0-30V)

AA

Procedure:
1. Connected the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep both field and armature rheostats at minimum position and start the
motor by using starter, and bring to rated speed by adjusting field rheostat.
3. Note down all the meter readings, repeat this by varying armature rheostat.
The field current to be kept constant.
4. Adjust the field to another suitable value and repeat step -3
5. Find the armature resistance by conducting the experiment.

Observations: Field current (if)=


Armature Armature Back Armature
S. Speed Armature
Voltage= Current= EMF Cu loss Stray loss
No N input
Va Ia Eb

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Evaluation of friction, Hysterisis and Eddy current losses(Different speeds)

Speed Friction loss Hysterisis Loss Eddy current loss


S. No
N AN+BN2 CM DN2

Calculations:-

Stray losses (Ps)= Mechanical loss + Eddy current loss + Hysterisis loss
At constant normal excitation:
Ps=AN+BN2 +CN+DN2 ----------------------------- (1)

At constant reduced excitation


(Ps/N)=(A+C1)+(B+D1)N --------------------------------- (2)

Plot the graph between speeds Vs Ps/N


From the graph at two different speeds determine the values of Ps/N, for normal
and reduced excitations and find the values (A+C),(B+D),(A+C1) and (B+D1)
And from these values calculate the values of C-C1,D-D1.

The co-efficient of hysteresis loss C is proportional to 1.6, and the co-efficient of


eddy current loss D is proportional to 2. If and are the fluxes corresponding
to the normal and reduced excitation ,the:-

(C/C) = (/)1.6
(D/D) = (/)2 at the same speed
Also,
(/) = (E,E) at any speed.

From the above equations evaluate the equations the constants A,B,C&D. Hence
evaluate the friction, Hysteresis and Eddy current losses at various speeds up to the
rated speed and tabulate the results in the table:-

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Model graphs:-

Y
Normal Excitation

PS / N

3/4 Excitation

O
X
Speed (N)

Ps/N Vs N

Result

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

11. Brake Test On DC Series Motor

AIM: To draw the performance characteristics of DC series motor by performing


Brake

APPARATUS:

S.no Equipment Range Type Qty


1 Volt meter 0-250V M.C. 1

2 Ammeter 0-20A M.C 1


3 Connecting wires
4 Tachometer 0-9999 digital 1

Name Plate Details (To be noted Down from the Machine)

Circuit Diagram:
(0-20)A 2 point starter
MC
DPST Switch L A
+ +
A

+ S1 S2
230 V V (0-250)V
DC A MC A YY
Supply
M

AA

Fuse
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THEORY : DC series motor is having high starting torque and its speed will be
decreases by increasing of load .series motor runs on load only. It implies that the
motor starts only when the load is applied on it. If S1, S2 are spring balance read-
ing force

T= (S1-S2)*G*r
r- brake drum radius
o/p power P=T*W
= 2NT/60
Input power Pin =VIL
efficiency = Pout/Pin*100

SPECIFICATION RATINGS OF DC SERIES MOTOR :

PROCEDURE:

1) Construct the circuit as shown in the figure


2) Apply some load and then switch on DPST switch
3) Take down the readings of N,S1,S2,IL
4) Calculate the efficiency under different loads
5) Plot the graph between o/p and i/p

Efficiency vs o/p
Torque vs IL
Speed vs IL
Speed vs T

PRECAUTIONS:

1) See that before switching on DPST whether some load is applied or not. If not
apply some load

2) Pour water on brake drum whenever you are changing the load

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TABLE:

S.NO. VOLTAGE LOAD SPEED S1 S2 TORQUE P=2NT/60 Input =


CURR (out put power Pout/Pin
ENT power)

1) - - - - - - -
- -

2) - - - - - - -
- -

3) - - - - - - -
- -

Model Graphs

Tsh

Ta

0 X
Ia

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

0 Y
Ia
N vs Ia

Y
Ta
N vs T

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ST.MARTINS ENGINEERING COLLEGE ELECTRICAL MACHINES-I LAB MANUAL

Y
O/P
vs O/P

RESULT:

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12. Parallel Operation of Two DC Shunt Generators

(0-250V)MC
+
(0-20A)MC V
3 point starter S (0-20A)MC A F
DPST L F A +
A
+ A
+ MC
400/
400/ 1.7A
F 1.7A A A
A 1.7A 230 V
230 1.7A F F
V M G1 G2 F M DC
DC F DPD Supply
A T A A
F OFF F
A F A
F

Fus + Fuse
e Field REV Switch
(0-250V)MC A (0-20A)MC Machine
Machine
+
V

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12. Parallel Operation of Two DC Shunt Generators

AIM:
To run two DC shunts generators in parallel and study the load sharing.

Name Plate Details (To be noted down from the machine):

Apparatus:

S.no Equipment Range Type Qty


1 Volt meter 0-250V M.C. 2

2 Ammeter 0-20A M.C 3


3 Rheostat 400/1.7A Wire wound 2
4 Resistive Load 5 KW 1
5 DPDT Switch 2
6 SPST Switch 1
4 Connecting wires
5 Tachometer digital 1

PROCEDURE:

1. Ensure that the paralleling switch S1 is OFF positions .open and the change
over switch S IS IN
2. Start machine NO1 and adjust the field excitation so that it generates the rated
voltage and record the reading.
3. Put switch S in the positon-1 and the gradually increase in the load in the
steps.
4. Note the load current of machine-1 and its terminal voltage.
5. Repeat the step [d] till the machine one is fully loaded.
6. Bring the load to zero and the stop the machine-1.
7. Put change over switch in OFF position. Now start machine-2 and adjust the
voltage to rated value and repeat the steps done for machine-1.
8. Stop the machine and put the change over switch in OFF position.
9. Run both machine keeping parallel switches S1 open.
10. Adjust the voltage each machine to its rated value and if the polarity is correct the
parallel volt meter V2 will read zero if not reverse the polarity of any one machine.
when parallel volt meter reads zero , close the parallel switch S1 by keeping the

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change over switch in either voltmeter reads zero , close the parallel switch S1 by
keeping the change over switch in either position 1or 2. Load the machine and note
down the individual machine load current, the total load current and the busbar
voltage.
11. Change the excitation of one of machine and observe the changes in ammeter
readings of each machine.

Observation Table:

S.no Generator 1 Generator 2 Gen1 & Gen 2 Parallel Total C, Bus


Current Bar vol

Voltage Current Voltage Current Load Current Load Current


Gen 1 Gen 2

Result:

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