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Chapter 1



Construction materials or building materials are an item, material or

supply used in construction projects and integrated in the constructed building

or structure. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand

and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart

from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some

more and some less synthetic. The manufacture of building materials is an

established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is

typically segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry insulation,

plumbing, and roofing work. They provide the make-up of habitats and

structures including home.

They are typically organized by these groups: compress earth block,

mud brick, rammed earth, concrete, conveyor systems, composites, thermal

protection , moisture protection, doors, electrical system and equipment,

surface finishing, fire suppression equipment, furnishings HVAC (Heating,

ventilation and air conditioning), Masonry, mortar (masonry), grout, Metals,

Plastics, Plumbing fixtures and equipment, Building safety, Security systems,

Telecommunications equipment, Wood, carpentry, and Windows. In history


there are trends in building materials from being: natural to becoming more

man-made and composite; biodegradable to imperishable; indigenous (local) to

being transported globally; repairable to disposable; and chosen for increased

levels of fire-safety. These trends tend to increase the initial and long term

economic, ecological, energy, and social costs of building materials.

In economic costs, the initial economic cost of building materials is the

purchase price. This is often what governs decision making about what

materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings

or durability of the materials and see the value of paying a higher initial cost in

return for a lower lifetime cost. In ecological costs, there is a life-cycle analysis

also includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste. Two

concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building

materials are green building and sustainable development. In energy costs,

initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce, deliver

and install the material. The long term energy cost is the economic, ecological,

and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for

its use, maintenance, and eventual removal.

Non-biodegradable materials are materials that which cannot decay

because it is not being affected by the action of bacteria thus it is present on the

surface for several years. Example of which are plastic products, metals, metal

cans, tins, metal scraps, construction waste, rubber tires, nylon, computer

hardware, CDs, DVDs, cellophane, processed woods, cable wires, Styrofoam,

and etc. They are being considered useful for us in a way that we use for easier

lifestyle and that is because it is engineered to become durable, not easy to

break and to withstand and natural processes like bacteria decomposition.

However, there are disadvantages with the use of them and that they

themselves contain substances and/or components which are harmful to the

environment, considered being unaffected by bacteria decomposition, it will last

on the surface of the earth for several years.

Non-biodegradable materials, considering it is durable, flexible, long-

lasting and non-decay characteristics can be engineered and used as an

alternative source of construction materials. In this research, it is like to found

which non-biodegradable materials can have the potential to be used as

construction materials, also the ways, methods and procedures to be done in

those materials in order to make themselves as construction materials and also

it is likely to found the effectiveness and efficiency to the alternative material.

Background of the Study

The number of non-biodegradable materials is increasing gradually.

Many people are using these materials on their daily living.

Examples of these are: For materials made of plastic, people are using it

as bags to carry several things as long as the certain material can hold it like

those used in supermarkets, groceries, department stores and etc. Also,

people are using it as disposable utensils such as spoon, fork, knife, and glass

like those used on birthday parties, gatherings and other events. Furthermore,

people are using it as packaging for a certain product sold in market like those

in detergent powders, instant noodles, and other products.

For other materials just like aluminum cans, people are using it also for

packaging a certain product like those in sardines, evaporated or condensed

milk, and other products which made use of aluminum cans for packaging.

Another material is glass, people are using as windows, kitchen wares,

plates, drinking glass which later on are being broken due to several conditions

and reasons. Also people use it for packaging as well like those in soy sauce,

vinegar, cooking oil, soya milk and other products.

Other materials concerned like scrap metals like those used in

construction and even worn out nails, bolts, hinges and other materials which

are made of iron. Also, appliances like televisions, refrigerators, air-conditioner

units, even cellphone and other gadgets, computer hardware and other

appliances or gadgets.

When all of these are being thrown into garbage cans and into the dump

sites, these are considered thrash, junks, garbage and wastes. Considering the

fact that the examples of ways people are using non-biodegradable materials, it

is tantamount to prove that the number of non-biodegradable materials is

increasing and these may result into a bigger problem.

In the composition of the Earth, nearly 25 percent of the world is

composed by land, and almost of this land are being used in commercial

purposes like high-rise buildings and establishments, malls, shopping centers,

food center and many more. Also are being used as residential areas, some are

preserved because of tourist spots and for habitats of animals. Meaning to say,

that the allotted space for the landfills, the land which garbage are thrown and

disposed, is very minimal and considering the condition that the non-

biodegradable wastes are gradually rising, those landfills cannot handle or

cannot hold up that volume of garbage.

But why does it still that landfills are capable of handling such number of

non-biodegradable materials? This is because of the fact that some people are

burning their garbage instead of disposing it which may be considered fatal for

both people and the environment. This is because non-biodegradable materials

are composed of chemicals which can be harmful if being burnt or being kept

intact with humans. Also, the smoke of those burning garbage is harmful to

ones respiratory system. Last but not the least, the air pollution caused by the

burning of garbage stays on the Earths atmosphere for a long period of time.

Another reason is that these non-biodegradable materials are not

disposed properly, they are found in lying in the streets, roads, and drainage

systems, which may result to clogged canals and waterways and thus result to

flooding when a moderate to heavy rain has come.

The most painful reason is that these materials were found on bodies of

water: rivers, streams, lakes, creeks, bays, and even seas. These bodies of

water are now being covered by garbage made up these materials. This is

because of improper waste disposal of many people. This may lead up to water

pollution and may cause acid rain, which is due to the precipitation held by the

clouds that came from the bodies of water contaminated by accumulating

number of non-biodegradable materials on the bodies of water, and the effects

of this acid rain is the destruction unto where the precipitation has fallen and

those destruction include: the withering of crops and soil nutrient reduction, the

informality of certain architectural structure designs of some buildings or

structures and the little by little defects on the soundness or the strength of a

certain building or structure.

Another cause is the lack of oxygen and deprivation of access of sunlight

onto the bodies of water thus results to fish kill and other killing of under-the-sea

life forms.

There is also one major problem that is very alarming due to the

increasing number of non-biodegradable materials and that is climate change.

Climate change is defined as the abnormal change of climate on a

specific region or area. It is a change in the statistical distribution


of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time.

Climate change may refer to a change in average weather conditions, or in the

time variation of weather around longer-term average conditions.

This are primarily characterized by abnormal phenomena like: the

increasing temperature of the Earth or what refer to as the global warning, the

gradual increment of the number of storms experienced by a certain region or

country, the gradual increment on the intensity or the level of destruction of

those storms, irregular change of weather and seasons and other phenomena


This is caused by natural factors such as: as biotic processes,

variations in solar radiation received by Earth, plate tectonics, and volcanic

eruptions. However, further studies have shown that this climate change is

being mainly caused by human activities. Certain human activities have also

been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, often referred to

as global warming. In the context of climate variation, anthropogenic factors

are human activities which affect the climate. The scientific consensus on

climate change is that climate is changing and that these changes are in large

part caused by human activities, and it is largely irreversible.

The human activities that are being described are what people are doing

on the disposal of non-biodegradable materials. Some ways people are doing in


disposing these non-biodegradable materials greatly affects the environment

and is producing not so very good effects.

Several studies determine the process of people in disposing these

materials which are the most delicate reason for the climate changing of the

Earth. The most fatal process is the improper disposal of people in their non-

biodegradable waste materials. That process includes burning of garbage,

incineration of other wastes, throwing them anywhere or elsewhere, throwing

into bodies of water.

Evidences are proven that these processes are inside the ranges of

reason why the climate change is happening. Just like what has been stated,

the burning of garbage and/or incineration of wastes is harmful to both people

and environment. That is because those non-biodegradable materials contain

chemicals and/or substances which are harmful or have a bad effect when

being burnt. Like for example, a plastic is being burnt, the smoke comes out of

the burning garbage lasts for a long period of time on the Earths atmosphere,

therefore the chemicals that are contained in that smoke destroys the Earth for

a long period of time.

One factual example is that those machines used refrigerators and car

air-conditioner. In order to remodel it, the manufacturers are burning the old

ones to make new ones. However, in the process of burning, there is a certain

chemical that diffuses into the air when the machine is being burnt. That

chemical is called CFCs or chlorofluorocarbons. This chemical slowly depletes

the ozone layer, the layer in the atmosphere that blocks almost of the radiation

that is being rayed off by the sunlight. Furthermore, the smoke accumulates a

layer which envelops the heat inside the earth thus leads to the increase in

temperature of the Earth and that layer is called the greenhouse gases.

Scientists, engineers and the government work hand in hand to make a

solution to this climate change. Scientists are developing various techniques for

producing biodegradable plastics are being explored, developed, and marketed.

In some cases, organic compounds like sugar, corn starch, silk, and bamboo

are being incorporated into the plastic production process. This allows large

pieces of plastic to break down into smaller units, but on a molecular level,

however, many of these plastics remain non-biodegradable. Engineers are

working their own to found a way to make this materials decrease and the

government imposes programs which lead to the development and restoration

of our environmental standing and decrease the possibility of climate change on

the whole planet.

This study aims to make or to find ways to use these non-biodegradable

materials into building or construction materials and that the potential of those

non-biodegradable materials may be found and be maximized so that instead of


using commercial construction materials. The people will be using the non-

biodegradable materials that is converted or transformed into construction


This work can help the reduction of the increasing number of non-

biodegradable materials as wastes found on landfills, other parts of the land

and other bodies of water.

Also in this study, it is likely also to find if the potential of these non-

biodegradable materials when converted into construction materials exceeds

the commercial construction materials into different factors like: strength,

durability, effectiveness, efficiency and production costly.

Conceptual Framework

The concept of the study is based on the concept of 3Rs which is

Reuse, Reduce and Recycle wherein the non-biodegradable are being reuse

into something new, which is construction materials, and reduce the increasing

number of waste non-biodegradable and thus recycle. This could not be done

without these things : the number of non-biodegradable materials in the

Philippines to be considered, different of construction materials used in

construction that are being given alternatives and the concepts, theories,

equipment and facilities needed for the 3Rs concept.


These are the things that should be done for the study. Data gathering is

one of the basic step for a research and/or study. The process of data gathering

involved are reading books or textbooks, magazines and other related

literatures and resources with relation to science and technology and browsing

the Internet using reliable websites that is based on conferences and forums for

which has discussions, articles and blogs related to study. After data gathering,

the next step is the organization of data gathered and editing to avoid

plagiarism, grammatical errors and improper format of the research.

The desired result of the study is the presentation of newly-invented

construction materials that came from non-biodegradable using concepts and

theories combined with the procedures to be done. In addition to that, those

newly-created construction materials has its quality as same as those on

commercial ones. Furthermore, this study is also desired to be a proposal which

later on be approved on the use of these materials to increase efficiency and

maximize profit.

Research Paradigm

Statement of the Problem

This study attempted to determine the potentials of non-biodegradable

materials as alternative source of construction materials. Specifically, it seeks

answers on the following questions.

1. Are all non-biodegradable materials can be converted or be an alternative

source of construction materials?

2. What are the characteristics of the non-biodegradable materials that can be

used to make these materials as an alternative source of construction

3. What are the ways and procedures that should be done in order for these non-

biodegradable materials be converted or be used as an alternative source of

construction materials?
4. Do the materials needed aside from the non-biodegradable materials present

and are enough to convert the non-biodegradable materials into construction

5. What construction materials can be made out of non-biodegradable materials?

Significance of the Study

The significance of the study relatively encompasses environmental care

and awareness. The study is concerned about green construction. Green

construction is an advocacy in which the construction materials that are to be


used are environmental-friendly and human-friendly, meaning that is both

beneficial to human and environment.

The study is concerned with the increasing number of non-biodegradable

materials and their potentials of being reusable again in the form of construction

Scope and Limitations of the Study

The researchers are pertaining to the non - biodegradable materials that are

fondly found in small communities. This means that the researchers only

discuss in domestic wastes. So this thus means that the research are only

focusing to the wastes that are not toxics, its compatibility to be reused, and

how these materials contribute as alternative source in construction.

Although there are a lot of domestic wastes that could be use as

alternative source in materials that can be used in construction, the researchers

choose to study waste that could be possibly determine the strength, durability,

effectiveness, efficiency and production costly. This also thus means that the

research has broad possibilities in finding non - biodegradable wastes such as

polymers and etc.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are hereby presented and defined in accordance

with the purpose of the study.


Air Pollution - Is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car

emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and mold spores may be

suspended as particles. Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities.

When ozone forms air pollution, its called a smog

Anthropogenic Factors - Human activities which affect the climate.

Biodegradable - Capable of being slowly destroyed and broken down

into very small parts by natural processes, bacteria, etc.

Bioengineered / Bioengineering - The design, manufacture, and

maintenance of engineering equipment used in biosynthetic processes, such as


Climate Change - Is a change in distribution of weather pattern and it

last for a long period of time.

Computer Hardware - It is a physical part of a computer such as

monitor, mouse, keyboard, etc. Everything that can be seen or touched by the

hands is part of computer hardware.

Construction Materials - Is any material which is used for construction

purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and

wood have been used to construct buildings.


Contaminated - Something dirty, polluted or poisonous by adding a

chemical waste or infection.

Decay- To be slowly decomposed or destroy through the action of the


Drainage It is an artificial removal of surface and substance water from

an area. This thing is also useful to control water from a flood.

Environment - The surroundings or conditions in which a person,

animal, or plant lives or operates.

Garbage - Things that is no longer useful or wanted and that have been

thrown out.

Global Warming - Is an increase in the earth's atmospheric and oceanic

temperatures due to an increase in the greenhouse effect resulting from


Greenhouse Gases - Are gases in an atmosphere that absorbs and

emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.

Incineration - Waste materials that converts into ashes.

Landfills - Is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is

the oldest form of waste treatment.


Non-biodegradable - It refers to a material that cannot be decomposed

or dissolved by the bacteria, fungi or any living organisms.

Organisms - Any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or


Petroleum - It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights

and other organic compounds.

Precipitation - Is the water that falls to the ground. It is the product of


Pollutants - Are the substance or energy introduced into the

environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a


Scientific Consensus - Is the collective judgment, position, and opinion

of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.

Solar Radiation - Is radiant energy emitted by the sun, particularly

electromagnetic energy.

Temperature - A measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or

substance with reference to some standard value.


Water Pollution - Is the impurity of bodies of water. This form of

environmental pollution is caused by improper waste disposal into the bodies of

water. This can be triggered when there is insufficient treatment to eliminate

harmful components.

Chapter 2


This chapter present a discussion of some relevant facts and significant

findings of both local and foreign literatures as well as foreign and local which

are very relevant in this study. Reading from various books, publications, and

related research studies are presented here, serve as a bases and

conceptualizing the research problem. It likewise gave direction to the study

and substantially supported the major thrust of this study. Economically, social

and technological forces continue to change the global economy and the way of

life organizations in the world. In specific, these forces have continued to

revolutionize teaching and learning in organization.

The focus of the study is to use non-biodegradable materials as an

alternative source for construction materials and that concept is being

introduced to recycling. According to MacBride (2011) stated that Recycling is


widely celebrated as an environmental success story. The accomplishments of

the recycling movement can be seen in municipal practice, a thriving private

recycling industry, and widespread public support and participation.. According

to her, recycling is a worldwide trend that is followed by millions of nature lovers

to be a legacy that present generation can give to the future generation. Same

as with the research, the research aims to recycle the non-biodegradable

materials to construction materials for the number of non-biodegradable

materials is increasing thus the research serves as a legacy which can be given

to the future generations.

Meanwhile, Blackburn (2015) believed that Sustainability is an issue that

increasingly concerns all those involved in the apparel industry, including textile

manufacturers, apparel designers, retailers and consumers. According to his

statement, Sustainability is an issue that has increment concerns, thus means

that it is being prioritized today and that his major of sustainability is on the

apparel industry and comparable to the research, the major of sustainability of

the study is the construction materials by providing non-biodegradable materials

as a substitute.

Recycling is one of the best way to help the sustainability of the

environment which is primarily benefited by humans. One of the aims of

recycling is to lessen the pollution caused by non-decaying materials, which


may cause global warming. According to McKibben (2011) argued that Multiple

lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is warming. Although

the increase of near-surface atmospheric temperature is the measure of global

warming often reported in the popular press, most of the additional energy

stored in the climate system since 1970 has gone into ocean warming. and

also Haley (2012) holds that Future climate change and associated impacts will

differ from region to region around the globe. Anticipated effects include

warming global temperature, rising sea levels, changing precipitation, and

expansion of deserts in the subtropics. they only argued that global warming is

now happening in the world, and the effects of it are such drastic.

That is why, the advocacy of green construction is being introduced. As

Kubba (2012) believed that The concept of green construction is not just about

limiting the use of commercial construction materials but to exercise

environmental awareness towards better future He explains that the concept of

green construction is all about exercising environmental awareness thus by

providing alternate solutions just like ones on the research.

And here are the examples. Broome (2013) stated that Whether you

want a turf roof, solar-powered hot water, or a super-insulated (and cost-

efficient) house, you need to know the essential elements of the selfbuild

process. Furthermore; Lehmann (2010) argued that How can we transform


and future-proof the post-industrial city through strategies of architectural and

urban design? The answer is to use an energy-efficient, zero-carbon model

based on renewable energy sources and renewable building typologies.

Furthermore; someone suggested that BHUBANESWAR: To rid the twin

cities of Bhubaneswar and Cuttack of plastic waste, the Odisha State Pollution

Control board (OSPCB) has asked the respective civic bodies to provide

segregated waste to public works department (PWD) for use in construction of

roads. Nowadays plastic is a very common material. It is used for packaging,

serving, and even disposing of all kinds of consumer goods. With his studies

the use of plastic to build road pavements is for the good of our environment

since disposal of plastic is one of our major problems. The durability of the

roads laid out with shredded plastic waste is much more compared with roads

with asphalt with the ordinary mix. The binding property of plastic makes the

road last longer besides giving added strength to withstand more loads.

Also, Froese proved that Waste bottles for construction? Yes, it is

difficult to think of a bottle as a brick. But a mud-filled bottle is as strong as a

brick and whatever you can do with a brick, you can do with a bottle too. Plus it

has got lots of advantages too. This kind of engineering is an effective solution

for reusing the plastic. Bottles have the following advantages over bricks and

other construction materials. It is easily to find used plastic bottles. Non-brittle


unlike bricks or hollow blocks which means it can absorb shocks. It can help

reduce waste by recycling.

Another one, Walker concluded that At the foot of what used to be the

Smokey Mountain dumpsite in Tondo, Manila stands an unusual but amazing

school it is made out of container vans. Shipping container architecture is a

form of architecture using shipping containers as structural element. The use of

containers as a building material has grown in popularity of the past several

years due to their inherent strength, wide availability, and relatively low

expense. We have also started to see people build homes with containers

because they are seen as more eco-friendly than traditional building materials

such as brick and cement.

Other example in which someone recommended that Rose-Marie Finlay

of Bridport, Dorset, is the proud owner of a converted railway carriage. The

property is near the beach and consists of a 1905 Great Western Railway

(GWR) carriage with a bedroom and bathroom attached. The carriage still has

its original doors. The process of taking a structure apart and recycling it is

called deconstruction. Instead of demolishing an entire existing structure why

not use artistic skills to convert it to a house or other building. Dismantle the

structure piece by piece in an attempt to save and reuse as many of the


building's components as possible. In some ways it can attract and influence

others to make their own dream house from recycled items.

Also, someone suggested that Bruce Campbell, of Portland, Oregon, has

turned a recycled Boeing 727 into a living space, complete with furniture,

shower and cooking facilities Anyone who has used recycled materials in the

construction of their home will probably have made big savings. But it is

important to approach recycling in a hard-headed, practical way, not just to go

with the eco-friendly flow.

Furthermore, someone concluded that Decommissioned ships and

boats can be brought on land and transformed into unusual residences that

become the talk of the town. While its looking a little worse for the wear, The

Ship House of Dalmatia, Croatia is certainly a creative example of a recycled

house. The sight of The Ship Residence, top right, might just cause you to run

your own boat aground as you stare. Located on South Bass Island in Lake

Eerie at Put-in-Bay, Ohio, the home consists of a former Great Lakes Shipping

Boat that was built by Henry Ford and saw 50 years of service before it was

moved onto the lot.

Another suggested that Recycled glass windows, plexiglass panels and

even waste glass are transformed into light-filled homes. Its made entirely out

of used plexiglass panels, which the artist colored to create a stained glass


Then another recommended that A couple spends two years building a

massive, yet light and airy, home out of old tires. Tires are the main building

component of ecological houses known as earthships. These homes, common

in the deserts of the United States, are also ideal as low-cost housing in third

world countries. Tires are plentiful and, when packed with mud, provide thermal

mass to regulate the buildings internal temperature. They are often plastered

over with a mud mixture that resembles adobe, though sometimes, theyre left


In addition, someone concluded that The Pallet House, by I-Beam

Design, was conceived as a transitional shelter for refugees returning to

Kosovo. Shipping pallets are often made of hardwood? Once theyre used a few

times to transport heavy loads, theyre cast aside, but this wood can make up

the building blocks of a home. Unmodified pallets could even be used to create

quick and cheap disaster housing, used for everything from the front deck to the

furniture inside.

Last but not the least , another one has proved that House built out of

25,000 recycled glass bottles cemented together is situated in Cap-Egmont,

Prince Edward Island, Canada. Glass bottles do not decompose easily.


Although glass can be crashed to make another purpose for it. We can use it as

construction materials. It can be cemented together to make walls for a house

and natural light can pass through easily which makes it more efficient since we

can decrease the usage of electricity to provide indoor lightings.

Provided with all these related literatures and studies, the research being

developed would incur great legacy for a good development. Having a

sustainable environment because of proper environment care and good

exercise of environment awareness would be of great help to bring back what is

lost to our Mother Nature.

Starting by making nothing into something, the purpose of the research

will continue to flourish as to the advancement the society have thereof.

Chapter 3


This chapter contains the methods of research used, source of data, and

data gathering procedures used in this study. It explains the method used

whether historical, descriptive or experimental method. It includes how the

researchers able to get ideas contained by previous chapter and enhancing the

study, gathering data, collection of related information and the designs used in

this study.

Method of Research Used

This study uses the descriptive method of research. The process of

descriptive method goes more than getting information. It involves

interpretation of the meaning or significance of what is described. It is a

purposive process of gathering, classifying and tabulating of data about

prevailing condition, beliefs, trends and process and then making adequate and

accurate interpretation about such data with or without the aid of statistical


This method is often combined with comparison and contrast involving

measurement, classification, interpretations and evaluation. The general

methodology is based on library and net surfing. In order to gets knowledge

regarding the study. The researcher went to different libraries and look for

related studies, literature, articles and serials. The data is mainly printed

materials, internationally and locally published. The researchers also searched

in the internet for supplementary information about the study.

Source of Data

To make this research more precise, different data are gathered. Books,

articles, researchers, magazines, newspapers, and library materials are used

for getting information. But this is not enough to rely on the library. To have

further research about the potentials of non-biodegradable materials as an

alternative source of constructions materials, the rich vastness of the internet is

used. By the means of web search, the needed information is easily found.

Some part of this study is from the internet because some topics in a related

book, magazines, and newspapers can also be found in the internet. The

researchers found broad information about the topic in the internet and the

obtained only the necessary topics related to this study. By means of web

searching, the researchers found those topics easily and in a lesser effort,

especially those foreign and local studies and foreign and local literature. These

sources of data help us a lot in finding the needed information about this topic


Data Gathering Procedure

To endeavor this study, the researchers looked for helpful resources by

visiting several libraries especially the national library and Technological

Institute of the Philippines Library to find related topics. The researchers used

related books, magazines, and articles from libraries and at home as sources of

information for the research by taking notes or having a copy of the topics

related to the research. The researchers also used the internet through web

searching to make the research more complex, vivid, and understandable by

the readers. Through web searching, published articles related to the study

were critique. It easily helps the researchers to find and gather the needed

information and topic related to the study, web searching is finding information

from broad to specific topic through the use of internet or also known as world

wide web. The world wide web helps the researcher to gather more information

needed on this subject. It makes the researchers used the internet and the

information that was found has provided the researchers additional and relevant

information significant to the development of this research.

Chapter 4


The Potential of Non-Biodegradable Materials

Non-biodegradable materials are substances that do not break down to a

natural, environmentally safe condition over time by biological processes. It

means that they will be present on Earth for more than a hundred years.

Figure 2. Non-biodegradable materials


These materials can be seen anywhere and everywhere because they

are being used by people every day. There are different types of non-

biodegradable materials and they are: paper, polystyrene or Styrofoam, metals,

foams, glasses, silicon-based materials/circuit boards, rubber, oil, ashes, and

plastics. Although, they are all non-biodegradable materials, it is not tantamount

to say that all of them can be converted to construction materials or has the

potential to be construction materials.

First type of non-biodegradable materials is paper. Paper is a thin

material produced by pressing together moist fibers of cellulose pulp derived

from wood, rags, or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets. It is a

versatile material with many uses, including writing, printing, packaging,

cleaning, and a number of industrial and construction processes.

Figure 3. Paper

Next type is polystyrene or Styrofoam, Polystyrene or Styrofoam is a

synthetic aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene. It is currently

made for thermal insulation and craft applications. It is composed of 98 percent

air, making it lightweight and buoyant. Due to its insulating property, they are

used in disposable coffee cups, coolers or cushioning material in packaging

which is typically and is made of expanded polystyrene beads. Polystyrene can

be solid or foamed. General purpose of polystyrene is clear, hard and rather

brittle. It is rather poor barrier to oxygen and water vapor and has a relatively

low melting point. Polystyrene is one of the most widely used non-

biodegradable materials providing that the scale of its production being several

billion kilograms per year.

Figure 4. Polystyrene or Styrofoam

The third one is metals. A metal is a material that is typically hard,

opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are

generally malleable, that is they can be hammered or pressed permanently out

of shape without breaking or cracking as well as fusible and ductile.

Figure 5. Metals

Next is foams, Foam is a substance that is formed by trapping pockets of

gas in a liquid or solid. A bath sponge and the head on a glass of beer are

examples of foams. In most foam, the volume of gas is large, with thin films of

liquid or solid separating the regions of gas.

Figure 6. Foam

The fifth one is glasses. Glass is a non-crystalline solid which is often

transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage

in things like window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

Figure 7. Glass

Next, A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically

connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other

features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate.

PCBs can be single sided (one copper layer), double sided (two copper layers)

or multi-layer (outer and inner layers). Multi-layer PCBs allow for much higher

component density. Conductors on different layers are connected with plated-

through holes called vias. Advanced PCBs may contain components -

capacitors, resistors or active devices - embedded in the substrate.


Figure 8. Circuit board

The seventh one is rubber. Rubber is a specific type of polymer called an

elastomer: a large molecule that can be stretched to at least twice its original

length and returned to its original shape. Early forms of rubber had many

gluelike properties, especially in hot weather. In cold temperatures, rubber

became hard and brittle. It was only after an accidental discovery by Charles

Goodyear in 1839 that modern rubber became possible.


Figure 9. Rubber

And last but not the least, plastics, Plastic is a material consisting of any

of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organics that are malleable and

can be molded into solid objects of diverse shapes. Plastics are typically

organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other

substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from

petrochemicals, but many are partially natural. Plasticity is the general property

of all materials that are able to irreversibly deform without breaking, but this

occurs to such a degree with this class of moldable polymers that their name is

an emphasis on this ability.

Figure 10. Plastics


Given the types of non-biodegradable materials, all are qualified or has

the potential to be converted into construction materials because of their

qualities such as:

Non-decayable, it means that the non-biodegradable materials do

not decomposed by means of a living organism thus it prolongs its life

Brittleness or deformable, it means that the non-biodegradable

materials have quality strength thus make itself long-lasting

However, with proper procedures can only those non-biodegradable

materials achieved its full potential to have the qualities or characteristics of

construction materials such as :

Longevity being a construction material, it is expected that its

material life last stronger

Durability the quality of the strength of the construction material

Compressive and/or elastic strength the two types of strength

the construction material can be adapted

Ways and Procedures of Transforming Non-biodegradable materials to

Construction Materials

There are many ways and procedures that should be done in order for these

non - biodegradable materials be converted or be used as an alternative source

of construction materials as our technology today rapidly progress and a lot of

researches and studies that lights up the path of developing wastes into useful


There are many proofs that this kind of technology is really useful and be

applied into our community though the implementation itself should be very

effective and efficacious.

Some of these are:

Water waste Recycling.

Plastic Recycling
Concrete Recycling
Metal/Steel Scrap Recycling
Paper Recycling
Product Recycle
E-waste Recycling

These categories of recycling are contributing to the good of our

environment. These are the proofs that we can save our planet from a

terrible destruction

Some Ways and Procedures that involve in recycling waste into construction


Producing Bricks from Waste

Combination of vegetable oil based binders which are mixed with

waste aggregates.
Then the mixtures is shaped into bricks and blocks
During the heating process the oil undergoes a number of

complex chemical reactions which transforms it from a viscous

liquid into a solid binding matrix.

Producing the products produces no water and creates no waste.

Figure 11. A brick that is recycled from a household wastes such as

The WastePAC Matrix Waste Densifier

WastePAC Densifier compresses materials into bricks that can be

easily stacked and palletized for recycling, transporting, or

Figure 12. WastePAC Densifier

This machine is widely used in converting waste materials into

construction material such as brick; It is an integrated part of procedures

and ways in recycling.

Figure 13.Brick Bale-opener machine

The function of this machine that is involved in ways of recycling is to

remove the mud from bottles after opened from pet (polyethylene

terephthalate ) bottle compressed brick.


A complete process of converting a waste into a useful material.

Figure 13. The transformation process

The truck directly put the waste, that it carries, into the machine ;

the magnetic separator separates the wastes that are recyclable

and eliminates the residues specially, metals ; then the process


continue to separate the wastes and crushes it into pieces and

then combines it together with the brick.

Taking a view of its full functions are:
Tipping floor
Dump trucks deliver mixed recyclables to the facility and pile them

on the floor. The driver checks to make sure no oversize objects,

such as a car engine, are in the mix.

Drum feeder
A mechanical claw grabs a handful of material from the tipping

floor and drops it into a spinning drum, which evenly distributes

the recyclables onto a conveyor belt.

Initial sorters
Workers extract plastic bags, coat hangers, and other items that

might jam up the line, as well as anything that won't fit through the

Large star screens
A series of offset star-shaped discs called star screensoriginally

invented by the Dutch in the 1950s for sorting tulip bulbslift out

corrugated cardboard. Smaller items fall through the screens and

continue down the conveyor belt.

Second sorters
As the material travels away from the star screens, human

workers positioned along the line remove smaller contaminants.

"This is where we pull out people's wallets," says John DeVivo, a

co-owner of Willimantic Waste Paper.

Medium star screens


Three smaller star screens lift out different grades of paper, which

makes up two thirds of recycled material at Willimantic Waste

Paper. Plastic, glass, and aluminum fall through the screens and

roll back down onto the main belt.

Glass sorter
Glass, which is heavier than plastic and aluminum, falls through

the star screens and lands in bins below. A separate system of

conveyors moves the material to a different area on-site, where

it's ground into a coarse sand for shipment to glass recyclers.

Magnetic metal sorter

A 3,900-gauss magnet passes above the conveyor and attracts

anything magneticusually only 4 percent of the total recyclable

Eddy current separator
A magnetic field induces electrons in aluminum to create a

magnetic field of their own, known as an eddy field. By interacting

with the machine's magnetic field, the eddy field pushes aluminum

off the main conveyor onto another one.

Infrared lasers
At this point, only plastic remains. Infrared laser beams shine on

the plastic items, and a sensor detects the signatures of different

grades of plastic. Strategic puffs of air separate the recyclable and

nonrecyclable kinds into different bins.


Every 70 seconds, the last machine on the conveyor belt makes a

bale of recycled paper, plastic, cardboard, or metal. A single bale

of paper is five feet by four feet by three feet and weighs

approximately one ton.

Whatever items are leftjar lids, shoes, Happy Meal toysgo

into a landfill.

Technology finds its ways to bring back the beauty or saves the life of our


Furthermore studies will definitely somehow solve a lot of problems regarding

waste management and recycling. Our country has also technologies that

recycle our wastes into useful materials and it is very optimistic to tell that it

really works. People should have their own efforts to save our environment for

these technologies would be very effective.

The Newly Construction materials made out of Non- biodegradable


Things that are non- biodegradable cannot break down or dissolve for

many years. Instead, they become useful once more thats why we call them

recyclable. So, any wastes that are thrown in the garbage can be dumped in a

recycling centre or factories that can make them useful for other things.

Figure 14. Walls made of glass bottle.

This is a building construction style which usually uses glass bottles

although mason jars, glass jugs, and other glass containers may be used also

as masonry units and binds them using adobe, sand, cement, stucco, clay,

plaster, mortar or any other joint compound. This results in an intriguing

stained-glass like wall. Although bottle walls can be constructed in many

different ways, they are typically made on a foundation that is set into a trench

in the earth to add stability to the wall. The trench is filled with rubble of pea

gravel and then filled in with cement. Rebar can be set into the foundation to

add structural integrity. Bottle walls range one bottle to two bottles thick.

Primitive mixture, such as cob or adobe can be used as mortar to bind the

bottles. It is thickly spread on the previous layer of bottles followed by the next

layer which is pressed into the mixture.


Figure 15.

Building made of container vans.

With the green premise growing in popularity across the globe, more and

more people are turning to cargo container structures for green alternatives.

There are countless numbers of empty, unused shipping containers around the

world just sitting on shipping docks taking up space. Shipping containers are

self-supporting with beams and stout, marine-grade plywood flooring already in

place, thereby eliminating time and labor during the home-building process. It

is cheaper and less energy to build a similarly scaled structure using common

building materials. Shipping container homes makes sense where resources

are scarce, containers are in abundance, and where people are in need of

immediate shelter such as, developing nations and disaster relief. Container

Housing is a feasible solution for Low-Cost Housing.


Figure 16. Walls made of plastic bottles.

Plastics are made from petro-chemicals. These chemicals dont fit back

into the ecologies around us. Scientific studies show that these chemicals are

toxic to humans we know this when we smell plastics burning. Eventually,

plastics that are littered, burned or dumped degrade into these poisonous

chemicals. Over time, these chemicals leach into the land, air and water, and

are absorbed by plants and animals. Eventually they reach us, causing birth

defects, hormonal imbalances, and cancer. An ecobrick is a plastic bottle

stuffed solid with non-biological waste to create a reusable building block.

ecobricks are used to make modular furniture, garden spaces and full scale

buildings such as schools and houses. ecobricks are a collaboration powered


technology that provides a zero-cost solid waste solution for individuals,

households, schools and communities. All that is needed to make an ecobrick

is a plastic bottle or container of some sort and a stick to stuff and compress a

whole bunch of random everyday plastic materials inside of it. To start an

ecobrick, take a plastic bottle, rinse it out and leave it to dry. Use a stick to stuff

it layer by layer with all of the plastics, non-biodegradable, and synthetics that

would otherwise be thrown into a waste bin and eventually the landfills. Plastics

need to be either eliminated, or put in the right place. PET bottles will last for

300500 years if they are kept from sunlight. When packed tightly with other

non-biodegradable, they make an amazing brick that can be used over and

over for building.


Figure 17. Junk ship recycled to be a house.

Decommissioned ships and boats can be brought on land and

transformed into unusual residences that become the talk of the town. While its

looking a little worse for the wear, The Ship House of Dalmatia, Croatia is

certainly a creative example of a recycled house. The sight of The Ship

Residence, top right, might just cause you to run your own boat aground as you

stare. Located on South Bass Island in Lake Eerie at Put-in-Bay, Ohio, the

home consists of a former Great Lakes Shipping Boat that was built by Henry

Ford and saw 50 years of service before it was moved onto the lot. Or, you

could just craft recycled wood into an amazing house that just looks like a ship.

Figure 18. Building made of used tires.


Tires are the main building component of ecological houses known as

earthships. These homes, common in the deserts of the United States, are

also ideal as low-cost housing in third world countries. Tires are plentiful and,

when packed with mud, provide thermal mass to regulate the buildings internal

temperature. They are often plastered over with a mud mixture that resembles

adobe, though sometimes, theyre left visible. The top image shows a school in

construction in Guatemala; the second depicts a wall in a Virginia earthship.

The third image illustrates how tires have been used to make strong,

inexpensive houses in earthquake-ravaged Haiti.

Figure 19. House made of pallets.


A pallet is a flat transport structure that supports goods in a stable

fashion while being lifted by a forklift, pallet jack, front loader, work saver or

other jacking device. A pallet is the structural foundation of a unit load which

allows handling and storage efficiencies. Once theyre used a few times to

transport heavy loads, theyre cast aside, but this wood can make up the

building blocks of a home. In Curacavi, Chile, a large modern home was given

cladding made of pallets painted white, which provide natural cooling and

ventilation, and let in light. Unmodified pallets could even be used to create

quick and cheap disaster housing, used for everything from the front deck to the

furniture inside.

Chapter 5


Summary of Findings

All non-biodegradable materials have the potential to be converted into

construction materials. That is due to the properties of non-biodegradable

material which is non-decayable and brittleness that suffice the properties of

construction materials which is longevity, durability and compressive and/or

elastic strength. However, with following a proper procedure thus only the non-

biodegradable materials attain the full potential being a construction material


There are various ways which non-biodegradable materials can be

converted into construction materials. These are : Water waste Recycling,

Plastic Recycling, Concrete Recycling, Metal/Steel Scrap Recycling, Paper

Recycling, Product Recycle, and E-waste Recycling.

Concerning the materials needed for the conversion of non-

biodegradable materials into construction, it is found that the materials aside

from non-biodegradable materials are truly present and are sufficient for the

process of conversion. Furthermore, here are the examples of structures of

converted non-biodegradable materials: Walls made of glass bottle, Building

made of container vans, Walls made of plastic bottles, Junk ship recycled to be

a house, and House made of pallets


It is therefore conclude that all non-biodegradable materials have the

potential to be converted into construction materials. There are various ways

which non-biodegradable materials can be converted into construction

materials. And, concerning the materials needed for the conversion of non-

biodegradable materials into construction, it is found that the materials aside

from non-biodegradable materials are truly present and are sufficient for the

process of conversion.


It is recommended that this study must be proposed to all society of

engineers to be studied and checked for approval of the truthfulness and

validity of study. Hence, it is qualified thereof, the study must be integrated to

makers of construction materials and that will be practiced throughout the

construction industry


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