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CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE STUTIES


In this chapter, we will be discussing some of the related
literature about the LPG engine inventions both from local and
foreign lectures. This will help us enlighten you about our idea.

FOREIGN LITERATURE
From Maciej Paczuski Marchwiany, Ryszard Pulawski,
Andrzej Pankowski, Kamil Kurpieland Marcin Przedlacki (2009)
stated that liquefied hydrocarbon gases, containing mostly the
mixture of C3, C4 hydrocarbons. In many countries serve as an
important source of energy, also for internal combustion
engines.. While on a world scale, at present, about 270 million
tons. Poland is one of these countries, where LPG is a popular
engine fuel. Annual consumption of so called auto gas is about
1.7 million tons with increasing tendency. Almost 3 millions of
cars with bio fuel engines, mostly spark ignition ones, are driven
o Polish roads. An extensive logistical infrastructure accompanies
the development of the use of this type of fuel in Poland. There
are numerous production companies in Poland working to meet
the needs of this branch of industry, as well as a modern service
base. Intensive research and development works in this field are
carried out.

The exceptional advantages of LPG as an alternative


engine fuel have been highly appreciated in Poland. These
advantages result mainly from the simplicity of its production.
Relatively low investment costs and energy consumption are
needed to produce high-quality fuel by de gasolining of natural
gas or crude oil stabilization. LPG is produced as a byproduct in
numerous petroleum refining process and its quality is relatively
close to the engine fuel requirements. The source of aliphatic
hydrocarbons failing into LPG range can also be the process.

Environmental advantages LPG are primarily very low


emission of almost all toxic components of engine exhaust gases
compared to gasoline or diesel fuel. The results of research work
aimed at the improvement of exploitation properties, logistics
and LPG combustion processes in spark ignition engines are
presented. In this area, anti-corrosion additives for LPG of very
high effectiveness were obtained and tested. Also, with the help
of additives, the problem of water
separating from LPG during storage and transport in tankers h ad
been solved. A multifunctional additive was obtained giving LPG
adequate lubricity and detergent properties. The influence of
water on the process of LPG combustion in a gasoline fueled
engine as well ways to supply water to the combustion zone are
being studied. A mathematical model is being elaborated,
precisely describing correlations between density and chemical
composition of LPG as well as changes of density as a function of
fuel temperature. In the realization of these plans LPG producing
companies, research and development teams as well as
producers of automobile LPG systems are involve. Successful
completion of research works and design works will result in
elimination of scarce disadvantages of LPG as an engine fuel,
preserving at the same time all its numerous advantages as an
alternative fuel for the future the new era source of energy.

Srinivasan, Francis Luther King and Purushothaman from


the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bharath University,
India Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bharath University,
India (2013). Concluded that the LPG is an alternative fuels for
automobiles. The main source of transportation, its usage
increases day by day, thereby it is necessary to identify a
cheaper fuel for it. The currently existing and widely used fuel
name gasoline also called as petro. The cost of this fuel day by
day increases and also it will be exhausted in future after some
years. The another problem currently using fuels are the exhaust.
The exhaust consists of NO, CO, CO, SO, lead and other
particulates which lead to air x 2x pollution and adverse effect on
human beings. So it is important to opt for alternative fuel, which
are cheaper and less pollutant to environment.

LOCAL
The Department of Energy promotes the use of LPG as
alternative transport fuel. The Auto-LPG program aims to
diversify the countrys fuel sources while contributing to
solutions to air pollution cause by vehicular emission. To ensure
the awareness of the general public, the DOE conducts regular
information, education and communication (IEC) campaign on
the operation and conversion of motor vehicles to auto-LPG
vehicles and dispensing stations in different regions. The DOE,
led by Secretary Jose Rene D. Almendras, and major jeepney and
transport organizations such as the Ligang Transportasyon, at
Operator in Pilipinas Inc. (LTOP), which includes Makati Jeepney
Operators and Drivers alliance (MJODA), the Public Transport
Worker Foundation (PTWF), the Alliance of Concerned Transport
Organization (ACTO), the Federation of Jeepney Operators and
Drivers Association of the Philippines (FEJODAP), Pangkahalatang
Sanguniang Manila and Suburbs Drivers Association National
Wide, Inco. (PasangMasa), Alliance of Transport Operators and
Drivers Association of the Philippines (ALTODAP), and 1-UTAK
Party List jointly committed to support the Adopt and Eco-
Jeepney program and forged a Memorandum of Understanding
(MOU) on March 18, 2011 at the Department of Energy.

Another research from the Faculty of Engineering,


Alexandria University (2001). Discovered that engine uses both
conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as LPG-diesel
dual engines. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines
which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG
dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output
but the performance is less during part load conditions due to
the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by
varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing,
composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge condition, for
improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual
fuel engines. This article reviews about the searcher work done
by the researchers in order to improve the performance,
combustion and emission parameters of an LPG-diesel dual fuel
engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG is diesel
engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx
emission but at same time at part load condition there is a drop
in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

FOREIGN STUDIES
According to Patel (2015) that LPG consist of hydrocarbons,
so it burns clearly without leaving any residue, thus, making it
comparatively less of health harzard, even in case of leakage. It
is easy to manipulate and it is free from Carbon Oxide making it
less hazardous.
LPG has been used as a vehicle fuel worldwide for the past
60 years. It is used in the largest volume in the US, and
estimated to constitute 97% of all alternative fuels use. The
number of vehicle using LPG as fuel has been estimated to be
Tree Hundred Thousand in the U.S. alone. Nearly all the LPG
vehicle are conversion of gasoline vehicle, since the auto
manufacturers have solved very few dedicate LGP vehicles.
Today, auto manufacturers offer a variety of light- and medium-
duty LPG-powered vehicles. (Raihan, 2015).

SYNTHESIS OF RELATED LITERATURE


Based to Maciej Paczuski, Marcin Marchwiany, Ryszard
Pullawski Andrzej Pankowski, Kamil Kurpieland Marcin Przedlacki
(2009) liquefied hydrogen gasses serve as an important source
of energy or serve as a internal combustion engines. This
research is also the same to the internal combustion engines.
This research is also the same to the study of V. Srinivasan, M.
Francis Luther King and T. Purshothaman from Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Bharath University, India Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Bharath University, India the both
researcher approved that LPG powered engine is Eco friendly.
LPG powered engine is promoted by department of energy
in the Philippines because it has a less emission. Our government
is planning to use this engine because of its less consisting price
and it is Eco friendly.
Based on Alexandria Universitys research (2001) this
machine may also have two engines (diesel and LPG), also
known as primary and secondary engines to improve the
performance, combustion and emission.