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www.elsevier.com/locate/commatsci

and nite element simulation for plastic ow

and microstructure of two-phase alloys

R. Ding, Z.X. Guo *, M. Qian

Department of Materials, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK

Received 24 May 2006; received in revised form 27 November 2006; accepted 5 December 2006

Available online 8 February 2007

Abstract

A mesoscopic dislocation-based model was coupled with macro-scale nite element analysis for concurrent study of local plastic ow

and microstructure of two-phase alloys during thermomechanical deformation. The model was implemented in the ABAQUS code to

simulate the thermomechanical processing of a Ti6Al4V alloy in the (a + b) phase eld, with consideration of the eects of local

dislocation density variation, deformation heating and phase volume fraction. The simulation show that the intergranular interaction

results in non-uniform distribution of dislocations within each grain, particularly in the initial stages of deformation. Phase boundaries

pose stronger inuence on deformation than grain boundaries. The onset of shear localization was strongly inuenced by the strain rate

sensitivity parameter, deformation heating, phase volume fraction, and the die/sample friction coecient. Both deformation heating and

phase transformation in the shear-localized region contributes to the ow-stress variation during processing. The phase volume fraction

largely aects the microstructure, distribution of the equivalent stress, but not the equivalent strain.

2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Microstructural modelling; Finite element simulation; Thermomechanical processing; Two-phase alloys; Ti alloys

1. Introduction pensable tool for such purposes, but has not been widely

applied to two-phase materials.

Many engineering alloys are two-phase materials. Their Deformation of single-phase polycrystalline materials

thermomechanical processing is often carried out in the has been investigated by a variety of classic elasto-plastic

two- (major) phase eld to impart optimum microstructure deformation models that consider the interaction among

and mechanical properties. Here, the major concerns are a neighbouring grains [210]. These models treat dierently

balanced grain/phase structure, ow resistance and defor- the two essential deformation constraints of polycrystalline

mability, whereas the issue with preferred crystallographic materials, i.e. intergranular force equilibrium and strain

orientation, or texturing, is not as important as it is in cold compatibility, but none has strictly satised both con-

deformation [1]. Hence, it is of theoretical and practical sig- straints simultaneously. For instance, the full-constraint

nicance to develop easily assessable models for the under- Taylor model assumes an identical strain in all grains,

standing of concurrent plastic ow and microstructural but ignores the intergranular force equilibrium [2,3]. The

variation at the local level for the processing of such alloys. Sachs model satises the force equilibrium but the inter-

Computational mesoscopic modelling has become an indis- grain compatibility is ignored [1,7]. The self-consistent

models consider the equilibrium and compatibility over

an averaged eld [46]. In the past two decades, nite

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 20 7882 5569; fax: +44 20 7882 5154. element (FE) method has been widely used to study

E-mail address: x.guo@qmul.ac.uk (Z.X. Guo). elasto-plastic deformation of crystalline materials. FE

0927-0256/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.commatsci.2006.12.003

202 R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212

modelling is usually combined with classic crystalline method for the FE modelling of multiphase composites,

elasto-plastic deformation theories, where the constraints such as AgNi ber composites and AgNi particulate

of intergranular force equilibrium and strain compatibility composites. The phase boundaries are put inside the ele-

can be strictly satised and specic deformation around ments instead of the normal element edges, and the phase

grain boundaries and in the grain interior can be readily properties are designated to the integration points. Grujicic

simulated [1124]. and Sankaran [48] developed a constitutive model which

Various constitutive models for FE analysis of elasto- describes transformation plasticity accompanying stress-

plastic deformation of crystalline materials have been assisted martensitic transformation in two-phase materials

developed [16,2529]. Most of the models consider defor- consisting of a stable matrix and a transforming dispersed

mation of single-phase crystalline materials. For two- or phase, and the model was used to analyse the uniaxial ten-

multi-phase materials, the mechanical properties and sile behaviour of the two-phase systems. All these studies

deformation behaviour are strongly inuenced by phase that use FE modelling of the deformation characteristics

volume fraction, phase distribution, properties of the con- of two- or multi-phase materials have considered the inu-

stituent phases and interactions across phase boundaries, ence of phase volume fraction and phase distribution, but

particularly when there is a large dierence in their none of these has incorporated the inuence of mesoscopic

mechanical properties. Although various forms of the law dislocation density variation on the deformation behav-

of mixtures have been proposed to predict the mechanical iour. In practice, microstructural evolution of two- or

properties of two- and multi-phase materials [3032], these multi-phase materials during deformation is closely associ-

can only represent a macroscopic approximation of the ated with dislocation activities as well as the phase ratio

macroscopic mechanical properties from the properties of and distribution. The eect of interfacial friction was only

the constituent phases, and are unable to show detailed studied for either single crystals or at the mesoscopic scale

microstructural deformation and interactions at grain [3436].

and phase boundaries. In this paper, a meso-scale dislocation-based constitu-

Friction at die/sample interfaces plays an important role tive model was integrated with a micro-scale rate-depen-

for stressstrain relationships at medium to high levels of dent plastic ow equation, and then coupled with nite

plastic deformation [38,33], particularly at the macroscopic element analysis for accurate study of both the stressstrain

scale [3436]. In an example, friction-induced rapid hard- relationship and microstructural evolution during thermo-

ening for single crystal deformation can lead to 25% incre- mechanical deformation of two-phase alloys, with due con-

ment of the ow stress [37]. So it is essential to consider sideration of thermal softening as a result of deformation

friction in the analysis of polycrystalline deformation. heating. Die/sample interface friction has also been consid-

FE modelling is a powerful tool for simulation of plastic ered for both sticking and slipping frictions, and the

deformation of two- or multi-phase materials. The inu- coecient of slipping friction varies from 0.1 to 0.01. The

ence of phase volume fraction, phase distribution, size model was implemented into the commercial FEM package

and properties of constituent phases on the deformation ABAQUS through the user subroutine UMAT. The inu-

behaviour of two- or multi-phase crystalline materials can ence of thermomechanical processing parameters, such as

be investigated with great insight if FE modelling is cou- strain rate, temperature, and phase volume fraction on

pled with more elaborate constitutive models for polycrys- the deformation characteristics of an (a + b) Ti6Al4V

talline deformation. alloy was studied as an example. The simulated stress

Several FE investigations have been carried out for two- strain curves and grain structure were compared with

or multi-phase composites and crystalline materials. Karls- experimental results for the Ti6Al4V alloy deformed in

son and Linden used FE modelling to study the yield and the (a + b) phase eld.

work hardening of ferritepearlite aggregates with a con-

tinuous ferrite matrix [39]. Ankem et al. [4043] used FE 2. Constitutive modelling

modelling to investigate the stressstrain relationship of

two-phase materials at dierent particle sizes and phase An isotropic constitutive model based on the dislocation

distributions. According to their results, most of the strain theory was originally developed by Estrin et al. [27,49]. The

is carried by the softer phase and the stress by the harder model uses the dislocation density as a state variable to

phase, and transverse stresses are generated as a result of characterise the microstructural state of a single-phase

the interaction between the phases. The stress and strain material. The one-parameter KM model developed by

distribution and the magnitude of the transverse stresses Kocks and Mecking [5053] is used to describe the disloca-

depend on the phase volume fraction and the strength dif- tion evolution during deformation, and the macro ow

ference between the two phases. Bolmaro et al. [44] used stress is related to the microstructural evolution through

FE analysis to study the inuence of volume fraction, the dislocation density. Here, a model based on Estrins

geometry, phase distribution, strain hardening and yield approach was developed, by further considering the inu-

stress ratio on the deformation behaviour of two-phase ences of grain orientation, phase volume and the tempera-

materials. Steinkop et al. [4547] developed a reasoning ture variation, to simulate the microstructural evolution

algorithm for net-adaptation and the multiphase element and viscoplastic deformation of two-phase materials.

R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212 203

According to the theory of plastic deformation of poly- where h0 is the strain hardening rate, and rs is the saturated

crystalline solids, the total strain rate tensor e_ is determined stress. h0 and rs can be obtained from experimental results

by the sum of the elastic and plastic components, e_ e and e_ vp , at given processing conditions.

respectively: According to previous investigations [5456], most of

the plastic work during deformation is converted to heat,

e_ e_ e e_ vp 1

which causes the temperature of a deforming material to

The elastic strain rate is related to the stress tensor through rise. If the deformation rate is suciently high, and/or

the Hookes law: the deformation is under well-insulated conditions, the

process can be considered to be adiabatic. According to

r_ L : e_ e 2 the energy balance for adiabatic process, the temperature

where L is the tensor of elastic moduli, the colon : de- increase can be calculated by

notes the tensor dyadic product, i.e. L : e_ e Lijkl e_ elk . The qcp T_ b

re_ 14

plastic strain rate is expressed by the Levyvon Mises equa-

tion for isotropic materials [49]: where q is dislocation density, cp the specic heat, and b a

coecient that represents the ratio of the amount of plastic

e_ vp pe_ 3 work to the corresponding heat generated (assumed to be

3 r0 0.9 in the current case). The mechanical properties of con-

p 4 stituent phases, such as shear modulus and strain harden-

2 r

ing strength vary with increasing temperature.

where e_ is the von Mises equivalent plastic strain rate, r

is

0

the equivalent stress, and r is the deviatoric stress tensor. 3. Model implementation in ABAQUS

2

e_ 2 e_ vp : e_ vp 5 The commercial FEM package ABAQUS was employed

3

3 in this study. The constitutive equations described above

r2 r0 : r0 6 were implemented into the package through the user

2

1 subroutine UMAT [57]. For such implementation, the

r0 r r : II 7 Jacobian matrix [oDrij/oDeij] and the updated stress state

3

expression need to be derived from the above constitutive

where I is the identity tensor. Combining Eqs. (1)(3) yields equations. Because the constitutive equations is numeri-

the relationship between stress and viscoplastic strain rate: cally sti, which usually causes instability and poor conver-

r_ L : _e pe_ 8 gence in numerical calculations, a tangent modulus method

for rate-dependent materials proposed by Peirce et al. [58]

The equivalent plastic strain rate can be calculated through was adopted here to increase numerical stability, as shown

a power-law viscoplastic strain rate relationship [11,14]: in the following.

n The increment of the equivalent viscoplastic strain is cal-

r

_e e_ 0 9 culated using a linear interpolation over a time increment:

g

De Dt1 he_ t he_ tDt 15

where e_ 0 and n are materials constants, g characterizes the

strain hardening strength which is associated with the where h is the interpolation parameter and chosen to be

dislocation density and can be calculated using the follow- 0.5, following Peirce et al. [58]. According to Eq. (9), the

ing equation [49] : equivalent strain rate e_ is a function of the equivalent stress

p and the hardening strength. The term e_ tDt can be approx-

g Malb q 10 imated using a Taylor series expansion:

where M is the Taylor factor of grains, a is a constant, l is oe_ oe_

the shear modulus, b is Burgers vector, and q is the dislo- e_ tDt e_ t r Dg

D 16

o

r og

cation density. Variation of the dislocation density during

deformation can be described using the KM model [5053]: From Eqs. (5)(8), D

r can be derived as

dq p r Dtp : L : e_ Dep : L : p

D 17

k1 q k2q 11

de

For isotropic materials, the elastic constant L can be

where k1 is the strain hardening parameter and k2 is the expressed in the index notation as

softening parameter which is a function of deformation

2m

temperature and strain rate. k1 and k2 are determined by Lijkl l dik djl dil djk dij dkl 18

1 2m

k 1 2h0 =Malb 12

where m is the Poissons ratio, dij is the Kroneckers delta.

k 2 2h0 =rs 13 Eq. (17) can be simplied to

204 R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212

3lDt 0 Table 1

r

D r : e_ 3lDe 19 Values of material parameters used in the model [65]

r

ba = 2.95 1010 m bb = 2.86 1010 m

From Eqs. (10) and (11), Dg can be expressed as

la = 4.36 1010 N/m2 (at 300 K) lb = 2.05 1010 N/m2 (at 300 K)

Dg A De 20 qa = qb = 4429.0 kg/m3 C ap C bp 965 J=kg K at 1173 K

p e_ 0 1:0 s1 n = 100 ma = mb = 0.27

A alb k 1 k 2 q De=2 21 a = 0.2 b = 0.9

Combining Eqs. (16)(21), Eq. (16) can be expressed as

De e_ t gt materials, the rate of evolution of dislocation density varies

rt Br0 : e_

22

Dt C with the constituent phases due to their dierent mechani-

where cal properties. The saturated stress and hardening rate of

each constituent phase need to be determined in order to

B 3lhmDt= r 23 calculate the dislocation density variation of the phases.

Cr t gt Be_ t 3lgt A

rt 24 In many cases, the property values of the constituent

phases cannot be readily obtained from experiment, but

The subscript t in the above equations refers to the values the properties of two-phase materials and of one constitu-

of the corresponding parameters at the time t. Substituting ent phase can be determined from experiment. In this case,

Eq. (22) into Eq. (8), using a tensor index notation, leads to the mechanical properties of the alpha phase titanium were

the following: from our experiments. The stress of the beta-phase was

2lm estimated using an extended law of mixtures approach

Drij 2lDeij dij Dekk Dr0ij r0kl Dekl

1 2m proposed by Fan and Miodownik [60].

1 In order to consider the eects of dierent crystallo-

H rij rkk dij 25 graphic orientations of grains in polycrystalline materials,

3

the Taylor factor is set to a value between 2.0 and 3.5, ran-

where parameters D and H are domly for each grain, and kept constant for each simula-

3lBe_ t gt tion. Grain orientation rotation is not considered in this

D 26 model, and hence relative slip along grain boundary is

C rt

not allowed in the current model. The sticking friction con-

3le_ t gt Dt

H 27 dition is assumed in most of the calculation where there is

C no relative displacement between the die/sample interface.

The Einsteins summation rule [59] is used in the model. For comparison, slipping friction was also considered for

The Jacobian matrix can be obtained from Eq. (25) as cases with friction coecient l = 0.010.2 (l = f/p, where

2 f is the frictional stress and p is the normal pressure). The

oDrxx 2lm 1

2l D rxx rii 28 microstructural evolution, stressstrain relationship and

oDexx 1 2m 3 dislocation density variation were investigated at dierent

oDrxx 2lm 1 1 thermomechanical processing conditions and the results

D rxx rii ryy rii 29

oDeyy 1 2m 3 3 are shown in the following section.

oDrxy 2l Dr2xy

30

oDexy 2 4. Simulated results and discussion

It should be noted that during the derivation of Eq. (30)

The phase volume fraction of the Ti6Al4V alloy varies

ABAQUS uses the engineering shear strain cxy, instead of

according to the processing temperature in the (a + b)

the shear strain exy (cxy = 2exy).

phase eld. The simulation was carried out at dierent

During calculation, the dislocation density, its rate of

temperatures in the range of 850950 C. Fig. 1a shows a

variation, shear modulus, and temperature of each integra-

sample simulated at 900 C, where the volume fraction of

tion point are saved as the solution dependent state vari-

the a-phase is 42%. The sample includes 26 grains. The a

ables in ABAQUS. The strain increment, time increment,

grains are shown in white and the b grains in grey.

stress and solution dependent state variables are passed

Fig. 1b shows the corresponding FE mesh, which includes

to the subroutine UMAT from ABAQUS at the beginning

1714 quadrilateral elements. The simulation was carried

of each increment. UMAT calculates the materials Jaco-

out under the 2-D plane strain condition.

bian matrix, updates the stress and the solution dependent

state variables, and returns the results to ABAQUS at the

end of each increment. 4.1. Local stress and strain distribution

The model derived above was used to simulate polycrys-

talline viscoplastic plane-stain deformation of a two-phase Fig. 2 shows the predicted distribution of the von Mises

Ti6Al4V alloy in the (a + b) phase eld. The parameters equivalent stress and the equivalent strain for two overall

used in the model are listed in Table 1. For two-phase compression strains of 0.06 and 0.5, at the deformation

R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212 205

Fig. 1. Schematic of a model sample (a) and the corresponding FEM mesh (b) used in the simulations: the white area in (a) represents the a-phase and the

grey area the b-phase. The area represents a real space of 8 8 mm2.

temperature of 900 C and the strain rate of 0.05 s1. It is dence is relatively weak when the friction coecient is

noted that the equivalent stress of the a-phase is higher large. This point will be further claried in Fig. 6 in the

than that of the b-phase for both cases because both the study of the inuence of phase volume fraction on the

initial yield stress and the strain hardening strength of deformation behaviour.

the a-phase is greater than that of the b-phase. The equiv-

alent stress decreases in the shear-localized region because 4.2. Variation of the dislocation density

of deformation heating. Fig. 2b and c shows that the equiv-

alent strain is quite uniform in the sample except in the The local dislocation density variation during deforma-

shear-localized region, where the equivalent strain is rela- tion was calculated using the KM model. The rate of

tively high as the increase in temperature facilitates disloca- variation of local dislocation density depends on two

tion slip and climb in the region. competing processes: work hardening, due to dislocation

The gradient of the equivalent stress around the phase accumulation, and softening, due to dynamic recovery.

boundaries is much greater than that around the grain These two processes are related with the local strain of each

boundaries of the same phase (Fig. 2). The phase bound- grain, which is inuenced by intergranular interactions in

aries are more inuential to deformation than the grain polycrystalline deformation. Fig. 4 shows the dislocation

boundaries, because the dierence in the deformation density distribution at dierent overall strains of 0.06, 0.2

behaviours of two phases at the phase boundary comes and 0.5. It is noted that the distribution of the dislocation

from two sources: dierent mechanical properties and density is not uniform at the interior of each grain. The

dierent crystallographic orientations of the two phases. dislocation densities of some grains reached the saturated

For a grain boundary, only the latter eect exists. The value at very early stages of deformation, e.g. grain 9, 11,

non-uniformity of the stress and the strain at a phase 13 at the overall strain of 0.06, but the dislocation densities

boundary is more severe than at a grain boundary. The of some grains have not reached the saturated state even at

deformation behaviour and the stress distribution of the the overall strain of 0.5, e.g. grain 2, 3 and 12. Fig. 4 also

whole sample are much inuenced by the distribution of shows that the average dislocation density of the a-phase is

the phase boundaries in order to maintain force equilib- lower than that of the b-phase because the level of defor-

rium and strain compatibility at the phase boundaries. mation of the a-phase is less than that of the b-phase. In

The larger the dierence between the mechanical properties the region of shear localization, the dislocation density

of the two constituent phases, the more important is the decreases because of the increase of temperature. When it

inuence of the phase boundaries. This is further conrmed reaches the saturated value, the dislocation density of a

by the rate of dislocation density variation in the following grain remains constant during further deformation, if there

section. is no inuence of the deformation heating or occurrence of

The friction between the sample and the die inuences dynamic recrystallization.

the deformation behaviour of the sample. Fig. 3 shows Fig. 5 illustrates the distribution of the rate of disloca-

the distribution of the equivalent strain after an overall tion density variation dq=de at dierent overall strains.

compression strain of 0.06 at three dierent friction coe- It is shown in Fig. 5a that the dislocation density increases

cients of 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2. Compared with Fig. 2c, the rapidly in both the a- and the b-phase when the overall

equivalent strain distribution depends on the phase distri- strain is 0.01, but the rate of increase in the a-phase is

bution when the friction coecient is small, but this depen- greater than in the b-phase, especially in grains 8 and 17.

206 R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212

Fig. 2. Distribution of the von Mises equivalent stress and strain at dierent overall strains: (a) equivalent stress at a strain of 0.06; (b) equivalent stress at

a strain of 0.5; (c) equivalent strain at a strain of 0.06; and (d) equivalent strain at a strain of 0.5.

The dislocation densities of both the a- and the b-phase has not reached the saturated value in these areas even at

grains have not reached the saturated values at this stage. the overall strain of 0.2 because the dislocation accumula-

When the strain reaches 0.2, Fig. 5b, a negative rate is tion rate is relatively slow.

noted in most of the area of the a-phase and the b-phase It is also noted that the phase boundaries pose greater

grains. The reason is that the temperature rise due to defor- inuence on the dislocation density and its variation rate

mation heating enhances dynamic recovery and reduces the than the grain boundaries because of a relatively severe

saturated dislocation densities of both phases. The varia- non-uniformity of deformation at the phase boundaries.

tion rate is still positive in the area of the deformation The gradients of the dislocation density and the variation

dead zone, but the value is much smaller than that at rate at the phase boundaries are higher than those at the

the strain of 0.01. It shows that the dislocation density grain boundaries. For example, the phase boundaries

R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212 207

the variation of dislocation density. For further simulation

of the microstructural evolution and the dislocation varia-

tion involving, e.g. static recrystallization and dynamic

recrystallization, the KM type model should be coupled

with the polycrystalline viscoplastic constitutive model

with further consideration of the crystallographic orienta-

tion and intergranular interactions. In the recent years, sev-

eral investigations have been carried out in this eld but

only for single-phase alloys [22,6163].

shear localization and shear bands depends on many

factors, such as the friction coecient between the sam-

ple/die interface, the strain rate sensitivity parameter, m

(=1/n), the deformation heating and the phase volume

fraction. Fig. 6a1, a2 and c illustrates the deformed meshes

at a strain rate of 0.05 s1 and an overall strain of 0.5 at

900 C, but with dierent rate sensitivity parameters. It

shows that when the rate sensitivity parameter is 0.2, the

shear bands are not formed during deformation, only a

very weak shear-localized region is observed. When the

rate sensitivity parameter decreases to 0.01, shear localiza-

tion becomes much pronounced. This agrees with the

experimental results showing considerable shear localiza-

tion at the processing temperature of 900 C [1]. The

formation of shear bands is directly related to the von

Mises equivalent strain rate. It is understandable because

the magnitude of the equivalent strain rate at each element

determines its equivalent strain, which is represented mac-

roscopically through the non-uniformity of deformation of

the sample, e.g. shear localization. Fig. 6a2, b2 and c shows

the inuence of the friction coecient on the formation of

the shear localization. It is clear that a large friction facil-

itates slip-banding in the samples.

Fig. 3. Distribution of von Mises equivalent strain at an overall

compression strain of 0.06 under dierent friction coecients: (a) 0.01; Fig. 6d shows the distribution of the von Mises equiva-

(b) 0.1; and (c) 0.2. lent strain rate under the same condition as in Fig. 6c. It

can be seen that the shear localization corresponds to the

area where the von Mises equivalent strain rate is relatively

among grains 9, 10 and 16 are one of the regions with the high.

lowest rate of dislocation density variation, whereas the

phase boundaries among grains 16, 17 and 23 show rela- 4.4. Inuence of deformation heating

tively high rates.

Clearly, the variation of the dislocation density is very Fig. 7 shows the temperature distribution at dierent

complex inside each grain and at the grain boundaries, strains, where the temperature is noted to increase with

and is inuenced not only by the material properties of strain in the area of shear localization. The maximum

each phase, but also by the grain interactions. The disloca- increase of temperature is 48 C at the overall strain of

tion density is always changing before reaching the satu- 0.2 and 92 C at the overall strain of 0.5. The temperature

rated value, but remains steady once the dynamic balance outside the shear-localized region remains the same as the

between strain hardening and dynamic recovery is reached. ambient processing temperature (heat conduction across

The deformation heating reduces the dislocation density the sample is not considered in the model). The increase

and inuences its distribution. The KM type model is in temperature because of the deformation heating in the

commonly used to calculate the mean dislocation density shear-localized region may also lead to phase transforma-

variation in the whole sample during thermomechanical tion, especially when the temperature reaches the b transus

processing, but cannot treat the inuence of the intergran- of 995 C at a high strain. Fig. 8 shows the simulated ow

208 R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212

Fig. 4. Dislocation density variation at dierent overall compression strains: (a) 0.06; (b) 0.2; and (c) 0.5.

curves with and without the consideration of deformation cessing of two-phase materials. The simulated results agree

heating at two dierent strain rates, 0.05 and 0.5 s1, well with existing experimental observations [64,65].

respectively. The simulated results were compared with

experiments [1]. The experimental results show that the 4.5. Inuence of phase volume fraction

ow stress decreases with strain. The simulated ow-stress

curves also decrease with strain at all the simulated strain Phase volume fraction and distribution inuence the

rates when the deformation heating is considered, but the deformation of two-phase alloys. In order to single out

magnitude of decrease is less than that of the experiment. the inuence of phase volume fraction, simulated process-

The discrepancy may be attributed to the fact that the ing was carried out in silico at 900 C under a given strain

a ! b-phase transformation due to local temperature rate of 0.05 s1 to an overall strain of 0.5 for two dierent

increase may cause further reduction of the ow stress, phase volume fractions of the two-phase (a + b) Ti6Al

which has not been considered in the simulation. Fig. 8 also 4V alloy: (a) 62% and (b) 33%. Fig. 9ad illustrates the

indicates that the ow stress increases with strain because corresponding simulated equivalent stress and strain distri-

of strain hardening if the deformation heating is not con- butions for the two cases, respectively. It can be seen that

sidered in the simulation, as is the case in many previous the maximum equivalent stress decreases with decreasing

simulations. From the simulated results, it may be inferred the volume fraction of the a-phase. The average stress

that there are two causes for the decrease of the ow stress of the a-phase is higher than that of the b-phase in both

during thermomechanical deformation, one is the increase cases. The maximum stress is located in the a-phase grains.

of temperature because of deformation heating, and the It is noted from Fig. 9b and d that the distributions of the

other is the a ! b-phase transformation during hot pro- equivalent strain are quite similar: the area of the high

R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212 209

Fig. 5. Distribution of the rate of dislocation density variation at dierent overall compression strains: (a) 0.01 and (b) 0.15.

Fig. 6. Shear localization vs. the strain rate sensitivity parameter and friction at 0.05 s1 and 900 C and an overall strain of 0.5. The eect of strain rate

sensitivity parameters (m = 1/n) under sticking friction are noted in: (a1) 0.2; (b1) 0.03; and (c) 0.01; and the inuence of sample/die friction (under

m = 0.01) are compared in: (a2) 0.1; (b2) 0.2; and (c) sticking friction. The distribution of the von Mises equivalent strain rate of (c) is shown in (d).

equivalent strain corresponds to the region of relatively the initial grain geometries are identical, the deformed

high temperature due to deformation heating. Although microstructures of the two samples are very dierent at

210 R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212

Fig. 7. Temperature distribution at a strain rate of 0.05 s1, 900 C and an overall strain of: (a) 0.2 and (b) 0.5.

Simulated without deformation heating leading to large variation in their deformation.

300

Flow stress (Mpa)

250 5. Conclusions

200 Simulated with deformation

heating A simulative model for high-temperature deformation

150 and microstructural evolution of two-phase materials is

established by direct coupling of meso-scale dislocation

100 density variation and micro-scale nite element analysis

50 Experimental using the ABAQUS code. The model was successfully

applied to the thermomechanical processing of an (a + b)

0 Ti6Al4V alloy. The inuence of dislocation density var-

0 0.1 0. 2 0.3 0. 4 0.5 0. 6 0.7 iation on the deformation and microstructure was investi-

True strain gated. Deformation heating and phase volume fraction

are noted to aect the overall plastic ow characteristics

450

of the material. The simulated ow curves were compara-

400 Simulated without deformation heating tively analyzed with experimental results. The following

Flow stress (Mpa)

300

Simulated with deformation

250 heating (1) Intergranular interactions considerably inuence the

dislocation density, leading to non-uniform distribu-

200

tion of dislocations within each grain, especially at

150

the initial stages of deformation.

100 (2) Phase boundaries play a more important role in the

50

Experimental deformation of two-phase alloys than grain bound-

0 aries, and the equivalent stress and the dislocation

0 0.1 0. 2 0.3 0. 4 0.5 0. 6 0.7 density are more inhomogeneous near phase bound-

True strain aries than near grain boundaries.

(3) The onset of shear localisation or shear banding

Fig. 8. The experimental and simulated stressstrain curves at 900 C is inuenced by the strain rate sensitivity parameter,

under dierent strain rates: (a) 0.05 s1 and (b) 0.5 s1.

the deformation heating, the phase volume fraction,

and the friction coecient between the sample

dierent phase volume fractions. For example, both grain a and the die. Shear bands are less likely to form at a

in Fig. 9a and grain b in Fig. 9c have identical initial geom- higher strain rate sensitivity with a lower friction

etry, but because their surrounding grains are of dierent coecient.

R. Ding et al. / Computational Materials Science 40 (2007) 201212 211

Fig. 9. Inuence of phase volume fraction on equivalent stress/equivalent strain at 900 C under a strain rate of 0.05 s1 and an overall strain of 0.5,

respectively for: (a) and (b) 62% a-phase and (c) and (d) 33% a-phase.

(4) The reduction in the ow stress of two-phase alloys [16] S.R. Kalidindi, C.A. Bronkhorst, L. Anand, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 40

comes from two sources: enhanced dynamic recovery (1992) 537.

[17] H. Takahashi, H. Motohashi, M. Tokuda, T. Abe, Int. J. Plast. 10

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[22] D. Raabe, R. Becker, Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 8 (2000) 445.

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