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# HYPOTHESIS TESTING

This learning module aims to provide graduate students in Statistical Methods with descriptions and sample problems for every test statistic.
Reproduction and distribution of this material without the consent of the author is highly discouraged.
Examples per Test Statistic
t-test for one sample
Description The one-sample t-test is used to determine whether a sample ( 30) comes from a z-test for one sample
population with a specific mean. This means that when testing for significant This test statistic, like the t-test, is also used to compare a sample mean with its
difference between a sample mean and the population mean, this is the appropriate population mean but is appropriate for sample sizes that are greater than 30, > 30
test statistic to use.

Formula = =

Test Assumptions The sample must be randomly selected The sample must be randomly selected
(What is required in order to Population is normally distributed. Population is normally distributed.
use this test statistic?) The variable must be interval or ratio in nature. The variable must be interval or ratio in nature.
A company which manufactures battery-operated toy cars claims that its
A local gym advertises that with their workout plan you will lose 5 kg of body
products have a mean life span of 5 years with a standard deviation of 2
mass in a month. A consumers group wants to test this claim by getting data
years. A sample of 40 toys was tested and found to have a mean life span of
Problem Sample on 25 people who went through the program and found out that the average
only 3 years. Using a 5 percent level of significance, determine if there is a
weight loss of this sample is 4.21 kg with a standard deviation of 0.78 kg. Test
significant difference between the mean of the randomly selected sample and
the claim of the gym at =5%.
the companys claim.
Steps in Hypothesis There is no significant difference between the mean weight loss of the sample
There is no significant difference between the mean of the randomly selected
Testing and the local gyms claim of a 5-kg weight loss. 0 : = 5
sample and the companys claim. 0 : = 5
There is a significant difference between the mean of the randomly selected
(1) State the null and There is a significant difference between the mean weight loss of the sample
sample and the companys claim. 1 : 5
alternative hypotheses. and the local gyms claim of a 5-kg weight loss. 1 : 5
(2) Determine the appropriate
Since < 30, test statistic will be obtained through two-tailed t-test for one Since > 30, test statistic will be obtained through two-tailed z-test for one
test statistic and the
sample. sample.
sampling distribution.
(3) Identify or select the
Set = 0.05, = 0.05
significance level and
= 24 (Note: = 1) Degree of freedom is unnecessary for this test statistic.
degree of freedom.
From the z-table, we identify the region that is 0.025 from each tail or 0.475
(4) Determine the critical
from the mean, = 1.96.
values and the critical From the t-table, we identify the region to be greater than 2.064.
NOTE: The simplified z-table is found at the bottom part of the t-table
region and formulate the Decision rule: Reject 0 if | | > 2.064
provided for you in class. Notice that we do not consider the sample size.
decision rule.
Decision rule: Reject 0 if | | > 1.96
(5) Compute for the test 4.21 5 35
= 25 = . = 40 = .
statistic. 0.78 2
(6) Decide whether to reject or
There is sufficient evidence to warrant the rejection of the claim that the Since | | > 1.96, we reject the null hypothesis.
not to reject the null
mean weight loss of the sample is not significantly different the local gyms There is sufficient evidence to warrant the rejection of the claim that the
hypothesis. Draw a
claim of a 5-kg weight loss. mean life span of the companys battery-operated toy cars is 5 years.
conclusion.
VC G CHUA, LPT, MST ESSU-GRADUATE SCHOOL, 2ND TERM, AY 2016-2017
Examples per Test Statistic
Test for two dependent samples Test for two independent samples
The dependent t-test (also called the paired t-test or paired-samples t-test) compares
Description The t-test for independent means is used when we want to know whether there is a
the means of two related groups to determine whether there is a statistically
difference between populations. The means are considered "independent" when there
significant difference between these means. A dependent t-test is an example of a
is no overlap between groups. This means that a sample from one group should not
"within-subjects" or "repeated-measures" statistical test. This indicates that the same
be a sample of the other group.
participants are tested more than once.
( )

=

Formula =
+

Test Assumptions The sample must be randomly selected The sample must be randomly selected
(What is required in order to Population is normally distributed. Population is normally distributed.
use this test statistic?) The variable must be interval or ratio in nature. The variable must be interval or ratio in nature.
A professor who teaches Algebra offered his students a two-hour lecture on A local researcher studied the Mathematics achievement of Amerasians and
Math anxiety and ways to overcome it. The following table shows the test Filipinos. According to the study, the mean score on a mathematics test given
score in Algebra of seven students before and after they attended the lecture. to 120 Amerasian freshmen high school students was 68 with a standard
Test at 2.5% level of significance if attending the lecture helped improve the deviation of 5.6. The same test was given to 180 Filipino freshmen high school
Problem Sample score in Algebra. students and the mean score obtained was 68.9 with a standard deviation of
Student Allan Bobby Carlo Dante Efren Frank Gabby 7.8. Using the 5% level of significance, does the data show that Filipino
Before 56 69 48 74 65 71 58 freshmen high school students performed better in Mathematics than their
After 62 73 44 85 71 70 69 Amerasian counterparts?
Steps in Hypothesis There is no significant difference between the Math test scores of the
Filipino freshmen high school students did not perform better in Mathematics
Testing students before and after the Math anxiety lecture. : =
than their Amerasian counterparts. 0 :
=

Filipino freshmen high school students performed better in Mathematics than
(7) State the null and The Math test scores of the students after the anxiety lecture is greater than
their Amerasian counterparts. 1 :
>

alternative hypotheses. their corresponding Math test scores before the lecture. 1 : >
(8) Determine the appropriate
Since < 30, test statistic will be obtained through right-tailed t-test for Test statistic will be obtained through one-tailed z-test for two independent
test statistic and the
paired samples. samples.
sampling distribution.
(9) Identify or select the
Set = 0.025,
significance level and = 0.05
= 6 (Note: = 1)
degree of freedom.
(10) Determine the critical From the z-table, we identify the region that is 0.05 from each tail or 0.45
values and the critical From the t-table, we identify the region to be greater than 2.447. from the mean, = 1.645
region and formulate the Decision rule: Reject 0 if > 2.447 Decision rule: Reject 0 if > 1.645
decision rule.
Student Allan Bobby Carlo Dante Efren Frank Gabby (. )
Before 56 69 48 74 65 71 58 = = .
(11) Compute for the test
statistic.
After 62 73 44 85 71 70 69 . + .
d 6 4 -4 11 6 -1 11

## VC G CHUA, LPT, MST ESSU-GRADUATE SCHOOL, 2ND TERM, AY 2016-2017

4.7147 12.472
= = = = 2.208
5.648 5.648
(12) Decide whether to reject or Since < 1.645, we do not reject the null hypothesis.
There is no sufficient evidence to warrant the rejection of the claim that there
not to reject the null There is no sufficient evidence to warrant the rejection of the claim that the
is no significant difference between the Math test scores of the students
hypothesis. Draw a Filipino freshmen high school students did not perform better in Mathematics
before and after the Math anxiety lecture.
conclusion. than their Amerasian counterparts.