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Aiza A.

Estenzo V-BS Accountancy

Humanities (Electives)
1. How did Chinese art influence the Philippines?
Chinese influence over ancient Filipinos has proved to be holistic in nature
in a sense that they have affected the Filipinos in terms of economy,
clothing, language, and more importantly, values and beliefs.
Archeological relics of ancient Chinese pottery and jewelry were found in
the Philippines. Consequently, it was from them that Filipinos learned the
use of porcelain as well as methods of mining. Furthermore, the loose style
of clothing of early Tagalogs and the sleeved jackets and loose trousers of
the Moro women revealed the Chinese influence in Filipino dress. Some
words Filipinos still use today like tanghoy (lamp), susi (key), tsa (tea), tiani
(tweezers), mangkok (bowl), sangko (eldest brother), and ditse (eldest
sister) originated from the Chinese language (Zaide 1937). Evidently, as
Chinese has influenced Filipinos language, its not very hard to believe
then that they have also transmitted some values to Filipinos as well; if
language is transmitted through learning as part of enculturation, then
more so in values and beliefs (Macionis, 2003); especially when the fact is
that there were already 150 Chinese settlers in the country in 1571, as
seen by the Spanish colonizer, Legaspi. These immigrants intermarried
with the Filipinos and settled in permanently as the present time still
proves. Some of the early Filipino customs originated from China such as
arranged marriages by the parents, the hiring of go-between to negotiate
marriages between two parties, and respect given to parents and elders.
Also, through the mixed marriages, Filipino people acquired Chinese
sterling traits such as love of family, industry, frugality, humility, fortitude,
and kindness. Chinese traders- They arrived in the Phils in the 13th
Century and displaced Arab traders. Some Chinese customs and traditions
adopted by Filipinos are the following use of blouses and loose trousers;
respect for elders; parental agreement or arrangement for children's
marriage; use of white clothing for mourning; use of fireworks during

2. Choose a chinese painting and show how it expresses the spirit

of Taoism

Seeking the Tao in the Autumn Mountains, 9001000, by Juran, China,

Northern Song dynasty (9601126), "The title of Juran's Seeking the Tao in
the Autumn Mountains fully expresses the meaning of this remote and
dynamic landscape. Situated in a ravine, sitting under the eave of a thatched
dwelling and entertaining a guest, a recluse contemplates the vital energy
(qi) of the mountains that visibly swirls around his retreat. The landscape in
this painting is a symbol of cosmic process, and simultaneously a symbol of
the inner spirit-landscape of the human body. 'Seeking the Tao' here
suggests that the adept is aware of the numinous life-force that creates and
gives form to the terrestial landscape, and of the fact that what seems solid s
actually in fluxa flux generated by the flow of qi through the earth. these
ideas lay at the heart of the Chinese discipline known as fengshui
(geomancy)" (Stephen Little)
3. How was the art of the
prehistoric period related to

Prehistoric artwork is believed to be

studies about real existence pursuits
equivalent to a hunt or a famine or a
brand new star within the sky. It's
believed that this can be a historic
record of activities. Due to the fact
that there was once no type of written
language, people used pix to exhibit

4. What were some of the

Roman architectural
The ancient Romans developed many
new techniques for buildings and
construction of all types including concrete, Roman roads, Roman arches,
aqueducts, grid based cities, roads, highways, sewers and sanitation.
Because of those inventions, the Romans built extraordinary architectures
such as the Maison Carre at Nmes in France, one of the best
preserved Roman temples; and the Roman Pantheon was the largest dome in
the world for more than a millennium.

5. What qualities relate the Renaissance to modern period?

Renaissance art did, after all, develop many of the basic ideas of modern art,
such as perspective, as well as utilizing objects of focus which are often still
present today. In modern art, there has been a small shift back towards the
objects of focus of Renaissance painters. Paintings of Greek gods have
become more common in modern art than in periods before, but not to the
same level as the Renaissance. In many cases, in fact, the painting of such
gods are entirely intentioned to remind the viewer of Renaissance style

6. Why was the Renaissance painter interested in perspective?

During the Renaissance, from roughly the 14th to 16th century, there were
many advances in science, math, philosophy, and art. One of the most
monumental advances in art was the development of linear perspective.
Linear perspective uses principles of math to realistically portray space and
depth in art. Renaissance artists were largely concerned with painting
realistic scenes, and linear perspective gave them a reliable method to
accomplish this realism, which helped make their paintings all the more

7. What are the qualities of baroque?

The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used

exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama,
tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture,
literature, dance, theater, and music. The style began around 1600
in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe. Baroque art manifested in
Europe during the 17th century. Baroque painters wanted to create emotion
through their artwork in dramatic ways. This type of art is associated with
the cultural movement between the Catholic revival and the Counter
Reformation. Those who wanted to reform belonged to the Protestant
movement and believed in personal self-determination. Church authorities
used religious artwork to display Catholic theological dogma while reformers
supported decorative artwork.
Artists such as Caravaggio, Rembrandt, Rubens and Poussin contributed to
the Baroque period by using chiaroscuro lighting to dramatize scenes. Unlike
the artwork of the Renaissance, Baroque artwork often showed action at the
moment it happened. An example of Baroque art can be seen in Rembrandt's
"Descent from the Cross," which portrays a dramatic religious scene
emphasized by the use of light and shadow.

A common theme artists used during the Baroque period was divine figures
intervening on earth. These scenes were described as miraculous and were
intended to be emotionally persuasive to their viewers.

8. How did the world wars affect artistic expression?

Along with millions of idealistic young men who were cut to pieces by
machine guns and obliterated by artillery shells, there was another major
casualty of World Wars: traditional ideas about art. The relations between art
and war can be articulated around two main issues. First, art (and, more
generally, culture) found itself at the centre of an ideological war. Second,
during World War II, many artists found themselves in the most difficult
conditions (in an occupied country, in internment camps, in death camps)
and their works are a testimony to a powerful urge to create. Such creative
impulse can be interpreted as the expression of self-preservation, a survival
instinct in critical times.

9. Why can social realism in art be meaningful to a society?

Because Art mirrors society thus, social realism is meaningful to society

because while there was a variety of styles and subjects within Social
Realism, the artists were united in their attack on the status quo and social
power structure. Despite their stylistic variance, the artists were realists who
focused on the human figure and human condition.

10. Why is cubism considered a reaction to impressionism?

Cubism was a completely different style of art that no one had seen before. It
was the style that came to challenge the principles of Renaissance painting
as dramatically as Einsteins theory of relativity had challenged Newtonian
physics (Fiero 9). It is composed of geometrical shapes, abstraction and time.
There are no specific. colors or objects used. Cubists were looking for a
different way to express human form as well as art in general. They provided
what we could almost call a God's-eye view of reality: every aspect of the
whole subject, seen simultaneously in a single dimension. According to Fiero,
the Cubist image, conceived as if one were moving around, above, and below
the subject and even perceiving it from within, appropriated the fourth
dimension-time itself. In a sense, Cubism is four-dimensional: depth, height,
breath, and time, but seen all at once. It displays different viewpoints from
different aspects. The object is taken and looked at in many perspectives and
is represented that way on the canvas. Monets painting Sunrise displays
vivid color, which is commonly used among impressionists. The painting is of
the sun rising over the lake, over looking the bay and the boats within.
Sunrise is a patently a seascape; but the painting says more about how one
sees than about what one sees. It transcribes the fleeting effects of light and
the changing atmosphere of water and air into a tissue of small dots and
streaks of color-the elements of pure perception (Fiero 114). This painting is
typical of its style because it captures light at that moment. The sun is rising
and its color is projected to everything in its path. Monet seems to capture
this beautiful moment with numerous brush strokes. One can almost point
out where the vibrant colors were mixed directly on the canvas. Monets
painting is typical of its style is because there are no defining lines, the
images are blurred one can barely make out the boats in the background.
Monet successfully obtains the light he was trying to portray. Cubism focuses
more on movement and viewpoints.
11. What are some common elements in Philippine and
indonesian art?

As a result of their close history, Indonesia and the Philippines also display
similar cultural characteristics, though less than of Malaysia. The people of
both nations share some similar lifestyles, such as the tradition with eating
with the hands and eating on banana leaves. Both countries also share
similar dishes, such as bakpia, or commonly known as "hopia" in the
Philippines, a Chinese-influenced pastry as well as the lumpia spring-roll.

The art of Indonesia and Philippines has been shaped by

long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign
influences. As a result of their close history, Indonesia and the Philippines
also display some similar art elements in crafts, music, and language.
Several Indonesian islands are famous for their batik, ikat and songket cloth
which are also used by Muslim and indigenous Filipinos. Some instruments
used by Filipinos are also used by Indonesians such as Kulintang. Moreover,
some Tagalog words are the same with Bahasa Indonesia words, such as
lima, mahal, lumpo, etc.

12. To what period does the Taj Mahal belong?

Shah Jahan was the fifth ruler of the Mughal dynasty. During his third
regnal year, his favorite wife, known as Mumtaz Mahal, died due to
complications arising from the birth of their fourteenth child. Deeply
saddened, the emperor started planning the construction of a suitable,
permanent resting place for his beloved wife almost immediately. The result
of his efforts and resources was the creation of what was called the Luminous
Tomb in contemporary Mughal texts and is what the world knows today as
the Taj Mahal.
In general terms, Sunni Muslims favor a simple burial, under an open sky.
But notable domed mausolea for Mughals (as well as for other Central Asian
rulers) were built prior to Shah Jahans rule, so in this regard, the Taj is not
unique. The Taj is, however, exceptional for its monumental scale, stunning
gardens, lavish ornamentation, and its overt use of white marble.

Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal in Agra, where he took the throne in 1628.
First conquered by Muslim invaders in the eleventh century, the city had
been transformed into a flourishing area of trade during Shah Jahans rule.
Situated on the banks of the Yamuna River allowed for easy access to water,
and Agra soon earned the reputation as a riverfront garden city, on
account of its meticulously planned gardens, lush with flowering bushes and
fruit-bearing trees in the sixteenth century.

13. What is the classical Buddhist structure of India?

Three types of structures are associated with the religious architecture of

early Buddhism: monasteries (viharas), places to venerate relics (stupas),
and shrines or prayer halls (chaityas also called chaitya grihas), which later
came to be called temples in some places.

14. How does Borobudur reflect the Buddhist religion?

Enlightenment entails embracing the concept of no-self (anatta),

understood to be at the heart of eliminating the suffering and dissatisfaction
(dukkha) of sentient beings. This is the ultimate message expressed in the
sacred scriptures that are solidified in artistic magnificence along the stone
walls and railings of Borobudur. The physical movement of circumambulating
the structure symbolizes the non-physicalor spiritualpath of
enlightenment. In a real sense, then, the concept of path within Borobudur
monumentalizes the impermanent. Like a river that is never the same from
moment to moment, to physically move along the path while meditating on
the spiritual message of the sutras is meant to help one fully embrace the
Buddhas paradoxical message of impermanence. The texts illustrated on the
walls refer to pathways as well. For instance, the Gandavyuha Sutra forms a
major segment of the temples upper galleries. The last chapter of a larger
text called the Flower Garland Sutra, it relates the story of Suddhana, a
youth who commences a journey to meet fifty-three teachers while seeking
the path to enlightenment. The concept of path is a central theme in the
text. He eventually meets an enlightened being (bodhisattva) named

15. What were the art forms in the Philippine Pre-colonial


The following are some art forms during the Philippine Pre-colonial period:

1 MUSIC - the ancient Filipinos had music practically for all occasions, for
every phase of life, from birth to death. Some musical instruments were
Bamboo Zither, Gaddang and Kulintang.
2 ARCHITECTURE - the ancient Filipinos had first dwelt in caves and has
learned the art of architecture as they move and hunt for food. Some
architectures built were Tausog house, Torogan, Ifugao house BALE.
3 SCULPTURE - The ancient Filipinos had attained a high artistic level
through pottery, jewelry, and wood carving.
4 PAINTINGS - The ancient Filipinos had expressed paintings through
tattoos and cave carvings
Balangay Paggiyod Galis
Sangka Agda
Batuk Ambahan Linoping
Tosok Panika
Malong Kamagi