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International Journal of Mechanics and Thermodynamics.

Volume 3, Number 2 (2012), pp. 63-68

International Research Publication House
http://www.irphouse.com

New Concept for an Effective Reynolds Number in

Mixed Convection Heat Transfer across Horizontal
Tube

1
Ahmed A. Hanafy and 2Wael M. El-Maghlany
1
Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport,
Alexandria, Egypt
E-mail: a_a_hanafy@yahoo.com
2
Faculty of Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt
E-mail: ans_shehab@yahoo.com

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate in a method for mixed convection
analysis to combined natural and forced convection in right manner. The
natural convection effect will be replaced by an equivalent forced convection
Reynolds number in the direction of natural convection, then it will be easily
to combine the forced convection Reynolds number with the equivalent
natural convection Reynolds number to generate new forced convection
Reynolds number in direction dependent on the angle between the forced and
natural convection directions. The new effective Reynolds number transfers
the problem from mixed convection to an equivalent pure forced convection
state with the new effective Reynolds number.

Keywords: Natural convection, mixed convection, Effective Reynolds

number

Nomenclature
Gr Grashof number
Nu Nusselt number
Ra Rayleigh number
Re Reynolds number
Reeff Effective Reynolds number
Reeq Equivalent Reynolds number
64 Ahmed A. Hanafy and Wael M. El-Maghlany

Greek symbols
Angle between the upward vertical direction of the free convection flow
and the direction of the forced flow

Introduction
The two dimensional combined convection from an infinite horizontal isothermal
circular cylinder is very difficult to solve analytically. One concept for the evaluation
of mixed convection Nusselt number in cross flow is by the vectorial addition of the
heat transfer Nusselt numbers of the natural and forced convections victorially as
follows:
Nu mixed = Nu 2 forced + Nu 2 free
(1)

B.G. Van der Hegge Zijnen [1] introduced the above equation. The agreement
between Nusselt numbers calculated from this equation and his experimental values
was unsatisfactory. Another approach to combine the separate effects of the natural
and forced convections together, is by the converting the natural convection to an
equivalent forced convection by admitting a Reynolds number in the case of natural
convection equals, and adding it vectorially to the pure forced convection Reynolds
number to give a total flow effective Reynolds number for the mixed convection as
follows:
Ra Ra
Re 2 eff = Re 2 [1 + 3.4 2
Cos + 2.85 2 ]
Re Re (2)

The above equation was proposed by A.P. Hatton et al [2]. In which is the angle
between the upward vertical direction of the free convection flow and the direction of
the forced flow. G.K. Sharma and S.P. Sukhatme [3] determined experimentally
Nusselt number for mixed convection in cross flow to air. Oosthuizen, P.H., and
S.Madan [4] measured the effect of the angle of attack of the forced convection on the
limits of the forced convection and pure natural convection between which the
assisting, cross and counter flow mixed convections play role for air (Pr=0.7), water
(Pr = 6.3) and glycerin (Pr = 63) ,the last was obtained by B. Gebhart and L.pera [5]
experimentally. The numerical results for cross combined flow over horizontal
isothermal cylinders placed in fluid of Pr=0.7 have been reported by Badr [6]. Nakia
and Okazaki [7] obtained the average Nusselt number for cross flow mixed
convection flow on thin horizontal wires in the very low Reynolds and Grashof
numbers. A trial was made by B.F.Armaly, T.S. Chen and N.Ramachandran [8] to
combine the separate correlating equations for assisting and cross flows covering the
different Re and Gr ranges into a single correlation equation for both flows. Bassam
A. and K. Abu Hijleh [9] proposed correlation for the mixed convection in cross flow
of air; they also proposed a correlation for mixed convection Nusselt number at
different angles of attack as a function of the mixed convection Nusselt number for
cross flow.
New Concept for an Effective Reynolds Number 65

The Effective Reynolds Number

The flow around the cylinder due to pure natural convection is always vertically
upward, while the pure forced convection can assume any direction according to the
angle at which the flow attacks the cylinder. Therefore, for combined convection, the
flow is the resultants of the two flows as shown in Fig.1. In order to handle combined
convection, it can be suggested that the total flow is obtained by summing the pure
natural and the pure forced flows vectorially to produce a total flow having a certain
Reynolds number which was named as the effective Reynolds number.

Figure 1: The Concept of Vectorial Summation of the Natural and Forced convection
Flows.

Solution Proceeding
In this proceeding, equivalence between the Nusselt number for the free convection
with a certain value of Grashof number to Nusselt number for the forced convection
to obtain the equivalent forced convection Reynolds number in the direction of the
free convection. The forced convection Nusselt number correlation proposed by
Churchill and Bernstein [10] is very useful in rang of Reynolds number of 102 to 107
as follow
4

0.62 Re Pr Re 8
1 1 5 5
2 3
Nu = 0.3 + 1 +
(3)

1
282000
2
4
1 + 0.4
3

Pr

While the free convection Nusselt number correlation proposed by Churchill and
Chu [11] is very useful in rang of Raleigh number of 10-5 to 1012 as follow
66 Ahmed A. Hanafy and Wael M. El-Maghlany

6

1
Gr Pr
Nu 2 = 0.6 + 0.387 16
(4)
9
9

1 + 0 . 559 16

Pr

By equating Nu in equation (3) and Nu in equation (4)

2
1

6

4

1 1 5 5

0.6 + 0.387
Gr Pr 0 .62 Re Pr 3
Re 8 (5)
1 +
2

16
= 0.3 + eq eq

1
282000
9
9
2 4

0 .559 16
0.4 3

1+ 1+
Pr Pr

The above equation gives a relation between natural convection Gr and forced
convection Reeq . The relation between natural convection Gr and forced convection
Reeq is plotted in the Fig.2, this plot is correlated to obtain simple relation between Gr
and Reeq as follow
Reeq = Gr (6)

And hence the effective Reynolds number in mixed convection will be

Re eff = Re 2 + Re eq2 + Re Re eq cos (7)

The above new effective Reynolds number will be a simple method to relate the
mixed convection heat transfer Nusselt number to, not to both forced convection Re
and free convection Gr for any angle between them (mixed cross (=90) , mixed
assistance (=0), mixed opposing (=180), and any angle).
New Concept for an Effective Reynolds Number 67

100000

10000

Reeq=Gr 0.5
Reeq

1000

100

1E+004 1E+005 1E+006 1E+007 1E+008 1E+009 1E+010

Gr

Figure 2: The Relation between Free Convection and Equivalent Forced Convection
(Pr=0.7)

Conclusion
New effective Reynolds number has been obtained as a simple method to relate the
mixed convection heat transfer Nusselt number to, not to both forced convection Re
and free convection Gr for any angle between them (mixed cross (=90) , mixed
assistance (=0), mixed opposing (=180), and any angle).

References
[1] B.G. van der Hegge Zijnen , "Modified Correlation Formula for the Heat
Transfer by Natural and by Forced Convection From Horizontal Cylinders . " ,
1956 , Applied Scientific Research , Series A , Vol. 6 , pp. 129-140 .
[2] A.P. Hatton , D.D. James and H.W. Swire , " Combined Forced and Natural
Convection With Low Speed Air Flow Over Horizontal Cylinder . " , 1970 ,
ASME Journal of Fluid Mech., Vol. 42 , part 1 , pp. 17-31 .
[3] Sharma, G.K., and Sukhatma , " Combined Free and Forced Convection Heat
Transfer from a Heated Tube to a Transverse Air Stream. ", 1969 , ASME
Journal of Heat Transfer , Vol. 91 , pp. 457-459.
68 Ahmed A. Hanafy and Wael M. El-Maghlany

[4] P.H. Oosthuizen & S. Madan , " Combined Convection Heat Transfer From
Horizontal Cylinders in Air . " , 1970 , ASME Journal of Heat Transfer , Feb. ,
pp. 194-196 .
[5] B. Gebhart & L. Pera , " Mixed Convection From Long Horizontal Cylinders .
" , 1970 , J. of Fluid Mechanics , Vol. 45 , Part 1 , pp. 49-64
[6] H.M. Badr , " A Theoretical Study of Laminar Mixed Convection from a
Horizontal Cylinder in Cross Stream . ", 1983, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol.
26, pp. 639-653.
[7] B.F. Armaly , T.S. Chen & N. Ramachandran , " Correlations for Mixed
Convection Flows Across Horizontal Cylinders and Spheres . " , 1988 , ASME
Journal of Heat Transfer , Vol. 110 , pp. 511-514 .
[8] Seiichi Nakai , Takuro Okazaki , " Heat Transfer From a Horizontal Circular
Wire at Small Reynolds and Grashof Numbers - II. " , 1975 , Int. J. Heat Mass
Transfer , Vol. 18 , pp. 397-413.
[9] .Bassam A. and K.Abou-Hijleh , " Laminar Mixed Convection Correlations for
an Isothermal Cylinder in Cross Flow at Different Angles of Attack . " , 1999 ,
J. Heat Transfer Vol. 42 , pp. 1383-1388 .
[10] Churchill, S. W., and M. Bernstein. A Correlating Equation for Forced
Convection from Gases and Liquids to a Circular Cylinder in Cross flow, J.
Heat Transfer, vol. 99,pp. 300306, 1977.
[11] Churchill, S. W., and H. H. S. Chu. Correlating Equations for Laminar and
Turbulent Free Convection from a Horizontal Cylinder, Int. J. Heat Mass
Transfer, vol. 18, p. 1049, 1975.