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ENPC-LMSGC, Champs-Sur-Marne, France

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the existence of an effective stress in the framework of poroplasticity. By

means of a micromechanical reasoning, a condition of existence of a plastic effective stress is obtained. The

latter allows to prove that the yield criterion is controlled by the Terzaghi effective stress if and only if the matrix

is purely cohesive. On the other hand, it is proved that, if the yield criterion of the matrix is mean stress sensitive,

neither an effective stress of the form of that controlling the elastic behavior, neither that controlling the strength

can be an effective stress for the macroscopic yield criterion.

linear: cs denotes the stiffness tensor. As the matrix is

The behavior of a saturated porous medium is ruled elastoplastic, the strain tensor is the sum of an elastic

by an effective stress if the macroscopic stress ten- contribution el and a plastic one pl (both geometri-

sor ! and the fluid pressure p intervene in any of the cally incompatible in general). Thus, the stress tensor

constitutive equations only in a coupled way i.e. via a in the matrix is related to the elastic part of the strain

given function !(!, p). The issue of the existence of tensor by:

an effective stress in the formulation of the behavior

of a porous medium is of crucial importance. Indeed,

when such an effective stress exists, the determina-

tion of the effective response amounts to that of the The macroscopic constitutive laws are derived by con-

empty material. Considering a porous medium made sidering a purely elastic evolution of the r.v.e. so

up of an homogeneous linear elastic and perfectly plas- that the microscopic plastic strain field, which do not

tic matrix, it is known that, in the poroelastic phase, change, can be considered as given. Obviously pl can

the behavior is ruled by ! + pB involving the Biot not be prescribed in an experiment but it depends on

tensor B (Biot 1941). If the strength of the matrix is the loading history. The r.v.e. is loaded by the fluid

purely cohesive (von Mises, Tresca) or if its criterion pressure p and the macroscopic stress tensor ! defin-

is of conical shape (Drucker-Prager, Mohr-Coulomb), ing uniform stress boundary conditions on i.e.

micromechanical techniques also allow to identify an n = ! n where n denotes the unit normal outward

effective stress controlling the strength criterion (de vector to . From a mathematical point of view, we

Buhan and Dormieux 1996).As regards the poroplastic can consider, on the one hand, the macroscopic stress

behavior, the only available result concerns the purely tensor ! and the pore pressure p (which can be con-

cohesive matrix, for which the poroplasticity is gov- trolled during an experiment), and, on the other hand,

erned by Terzaghi effective stress ! + p1 (Dormieux the microscopic plastic strain field pl as two differ-

and Maghous 1999). One can then wonder whether ent loading parameters in the mechanical problem.

Terzaghi effective stress also applies to other materi- The macroscopic constitutive laws are defined by the

als and whether there exists and effective stress for the relationships between ! and p and their dual physi-

frictional type materials. cal quantities, namely the macroscopic strain tensor E

and the lagrangian porosity change (i.e. the ratio

between the volume change of p and the initial vol-

2 THE POROPLASTIC BEHAVIOR ume of the r.v.e. ) both related to the microscopic

strain field solution by:

2.1 The macroscopic state laws

We consider a representative volume element (r.v.e.)

of a porous medium made up of a pore phase p where o denotes the initial pore volume fraction

and a connex solid phase (matrix) s . In the elastic and < >w is the spatial average over the domain

129

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

w (w = , p or s ). Those relationships also involve eigenstrain field pl in the matrix. The solution of

pl , which, according to a point of view developped in this problem represents the residual state of the r.v.e.

(Zaoui 1997), plays the role of an eigenstrain field, the after the (elastic) unloading i.e. the fields that remain

contribution of which is linearly superimposed to the after removing the macroscopic stress ! and the pore

effect of ! and p. Therefore E and both write as pressure p, provided that the unloading process be

the sum of an elastic part due to ! and p and a plastic reversible. Since pl is not generally geometrically

part due to pl : compatible, it cannot be equal to the strain field R

solution to this problem and the stress field R is not

null:

poroelastic behavior obtained from a micromechani-

cal reasoning ((Auriault and Sanchez-Palencia 1977), In addition, it is deduced from (Zaoui 1997) that the

(Dormieux, Molinari, and Kondo 2002)): relationships between E pl and pl are affected by B:

where the drained macroscopic stiffness tensor chom is total stress state in the matrix:

obtained from a linear homogenization scheme (Zaoui

1997) and the Biot tensor B and the Biot modulus M

can be related to chom (Dormieux, Molinari, and Kondo

2002):

The matrix is perfectly plastic. The elastic domain G s

is defined by means of a yield criterion denoted by f s :

with no eigenstrains in the matrix can be seen as the lin- The function f s and G s are both assumed to be convex.

ear superposition of the problem P for which the This section aims at defining the current macro-

stress defining the boundary condition is p1 and scopic elastic domain and its possible evolution if any

the pore pressure is p and the problem P for which the hardening is at stake. The idea is to build a relevant

stress defining the boundary condition is ! + p1 and macroscopic yield criterion F, being understood that

the pore pressure is 0. The matrix being homogeneous, a yield criterion is never defined in an unique way, and

the microscopic stress field solution to P is: to define its arguments.

At the local scale, f s indicates whether the local

stress state belongs to the interior (f s () < 0) or to

the boundary of G s (f s () = 0). If (x) belongs to the

The microscopic stress field solution to P writes interior of G s for all point of s , any infinitesimal

by means of a fourth-order concentration tensor B(x) macroscopic loading can not induce plasticity or, in

(Zaoui 1997) such that: an equivalent way, leads to a pure elastic evolution of

the r.v.e. i.e. F < 0. In turn, if there exists a subset of

s on which (x) belongs to the boundary of G s , plas-

ticity can occur at the microscopic scale and therefore,

according to (11) and (12), at the macroscopic one i.e.

The plastic part of the macroscopic laws is derived F = 0.

from an adaptation to the porous case of the reasoning Following (Suquet 1985), a possible choice for F is

developed in (Zaoui 1997) concerning heterogeneous then:

plastic materials. The problem leading to the plastic

part is characterized by a null stress vector on the

boundary of the r.v.e., a null pore pressure and an

130

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

It is straightforward to see that F, given by (15), p ) satisfying

microscopic scale, the response to (!,

defines the macroscopic elastic domain G hom R7 as (19) should be purely elastic i.e.:

the set of couples (!, p) such that the stress field solu-

tion to the problem belongs to G s everywhere in the

matrix, which makes (!, p) the natural arguments of F.

According to (13), the microscopic stress state depends

not only on the current loading (!, p) but also on the In particular, at all points of spl , the yield criterion

residual stress field R (x) which rises from the load- should not be violated, which means:

ing history; this extends to the framework of saturated

porous media a result found in (Suquet 1985). The

residual stress field, which varies during the plastic

sequences, appears then as the hardening parameter

controlling the shape of the current macroscopic elas-

tic domain G hom ( R ). It is worth emphasizing that the

hardening parameter is a field and therefore contains

an infinite number of scalar hardening parameters. The and p are coupled by (19), the

Using the fact that !

macroscopic elastic domain and yield criterion satisfy: condition (21) rewrites:

with

out any restrictive condition about the sign of p , (22)

becomes:

! and p through an effective stress built as a function

of ! and p. Conversely, if the condition (23) is fulfilled, it comes

out that, if the loading (!, p ) satisfies (19) (i.e. !

3.1 A necessary and sufficient condition of remains constant), the criterion at all points of spl

existence keeps a null value for an elastic evolution (whereas

plasticity could have occurred). Therefore R remains

Let us assume that the yield criterion depends on ! unchanged and F is still null. Hence, F depends on

and p through an effective stress !: because it does not evolve for any

! and p through !

constant.

evolution of (!, p) letting !

Some authors have proposed to build a plastic effec-

tive stress by analogy with the elastic one (Coussy

Moreover, for a given fluid pressure p, the application 2004) i.e. ! + p Bpl where Bpl can be interpreted as

R6 R6 , ! !(!, p) is assumed to be inversible and a plastic Biot tensor. Considering such an effective

C 1 differentiable. stress, (23) becomes:

In order to examine the influence of the hypoth-

esis (18), we assume that F = 0 (according to (15)

there exists a non empty subset spl s on which

f s () = 0) and we consider an evolution (!, p ) such

that ! remains constant:

In this section, we consider that the yield criterion of

the matrix is not affected by the confining pressure:

In such an evolution, no plastic load can occur and

the residual stress field remains then constant. At the

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Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

This property is satisfied, for instance, by Tresca and not be equal to 1 since the right hand side of (24) is

von Mises criteria. Recalling (17) and taking advan- not null. Indeed, (28) implies:

tage of (25) for such materials, the macroscopic yield

criterion writes:

stress path of the form ! = !(t)(1 Bpl ) and p = 0

where !(t) is a monotonic decreasing function, start-

Without any assumption made on the microscopic flow ing from !(0) = 0. The microscopic stress field is

rule, (26) proves that, if the yield criterion of the matrix deduced from (13):

satisfies (25), the macroscopic yield criterion is gov-

erned by Terzaghis effective stress ! + p1. It is worth

mentioning here that it has been shown in (de Buhan

and Dormieux 1996) that the latter was the relevant We assume that the null macroscopic stress state

effective stress controlling the macroscopic strength (balanced by R ) is located in the interior of the macro-

criterion. scopic yield criterion. Therefore, R , which plays the

Conversely, let us now investigate the consequence role of a prestress or the initial stress state in (32),

at the microscopic scale of the choice of Terzaghis complies with:

effective stress. In this case, (24) with Bpl = 1 implies:

such a r.v.e. is bounded, which is the case provided that

It is straightforward to show that the condition (27) is t be small enough (de Buhan and Dormieux 1996).

equivalent to (25). The evolution of in (32), when !(t) is decreasing,

is purely elastic ( R remains constant) until ! reaches

3.3 The criteria sensitive to the confining the boundary of the macroscopic yield domain for the

pressure value ! < 0 of !(t). Multiplying (24) by ! and

taking advantage of (32), we obtain:

Let us now consider a yield criterion sensitive to the

confining pressure and examine whether any plastic

effective stress ! + p Bpl could be relevant for this kind

of matrix. The matrix yield criterion is then taken in

the form: Using (31) and ! < 0, we deduce that the left hand

side of (34) is strictly negative. This is not consistent

with the positive sign of the right hand side of (34)

which comes from the convexity of f s . Indeed, using

where m and d denote the microscopic mean and (33) and the fact that f s () = 0 on spl , we have:

deviatoric stress:

So as to comply with the convexity of f s , the function Consequently, a plastic effective stress of the form

g must be concave. Moreover, we assume that the null ! + pBpl cannot be relevant for the class of materials

stress state belongs to the interior of the microscopic described by (28).

domain i.e. g(0) > 0. In the following, we focus on

strictly decreasing functions g (i.e. g
(m ) < 0). For 3.4 The cone-shaped criteria

instance, the Drucker-Prager criterion meets all these

conditions as g is an affined function: Let us now consider that the yield criterion of the

matrix defines a cone-shaped elastic domain such that:

If ! + pBpl is the plastic effective stress, the condition where h 0 is the tensile strength of the solid. Mohr-

(24) is fulfilled. It is worth recalling that Bpl should Coulomb and Drucker-Prager criteria for instance

132

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

meet the property (36). It is worth pointing out that As (42) is satisfied whatever the sign of p , we have:

the tensile part of the strength domain of geomate-

rials is not as precisely experimentally identified as

the compressive part, so that h is more a geometrical

parameter used to define the apex of the domain than

a physical one. It is shown in (de Buhan and Dormieux

1996) that the macroscopic strength criterion of porous Besides, it is readily seen by differentiation of (36)

media made up with that kind of matrix depends on ! that:

and p through the effective stress:

the yield criterion is raised. Taking = 1/(1 + p/h) Taking = 1/(1 + p/h) in (44) and recalling (13), we

(p > h) in (36), we obtain: obtain:

With the help of (45), (44) rewrites:

Recalling that the multiplication of F by any strictly while ! and R remain constant, we have:

positive function of (!, p) does not change the shape

of the elastic domain nor the activation criterion of

plasticity, F in (39) can be replaced by:

Differentiating (44) with respect to and taking again

= 1/(1 + p/h), it comes out from (47) that:

It comes out from (40) that, starting from R = 0 (nat-

ural initial state), the first plastification criterion is

controlled by ! (37):

the convexity of f s , (48) implies then:

expression of the criterion (40) written as a function

of (! , p, R ) explicitly depends on p, which suggests

that ! is not an effective stress controlling the macro-

We now consider an evolution of ! involving macro-

scopic plasticity. Let us prove that the assumption

scopic plasticity (i.e. F = 0 and F = 0. The differenti-

according to which ! would be an effective stress

ation of (46) with respect to the time gives:

leads to inconsistencies. In a state where F = 0, we

consider an evolution (!, p ) letting ! constant. Fol-

lowing the same reasoning as in section 3.1, we deduce

that such an evolution does not induce plasticity at the

macroscopic and microscopic scales. Using (40), this

implies: Taking advantage of (49), (50) becomes:

133

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

Introducing the decomposition (13) in (51), we get: pressure, it is shown that a Biot-type effective stress

can never be a good candidate. It is also proved that

the poroplasticity of a porous medium made up with

a matrix of cone-shaped criterion can not be governed

by the effective stress controlling both the strength

As the matrix is perfectly plastic, the right hand side of domain and the first plastification criterion of such a

(52) is non positive. This implies that the elastic part medium. In spite of those negative conclusions, find-

of the evolution of the microscopic stress field does ing a way to take advantage of results about dry porous

not lead to a violation of the criterion: media (with a frictional matrix) to characterize the

behavior of the saturated ones should be an interesting

challenge.

REFERENCES

In other words, the response of the r.v.e. to the pre-

scribed evolution !
is purely elastic ( = EL ). Thus, Auriault, J.-L. and E. Sanchez-Palencia (1977). tude du

any evolution !
is not able to induce plasticity and comportement macroscopique dun milieu poreux satur

then !
can not be a relevant effective stress. This neg- dformable. J . Mc. 16(4), 575603.

ative conclusion can also be put in evidence by solving Barthlmy, J.-F. (2005). Approche micromcanique de la

the problem of a fluid-saturated sphere (Barthlmy rupture et de la fissuration dans les gomatriaux. Thse

2005). de doctorat, cole Nationale des Ponts et Chausses.

Biot, M.A. (1941). General theory of threedimensional

consolidation. J. of Appl. Phys. 12, 155164.

4 CONCLUSION Coussy, O. (2004). Poromechanics. New-York: Wiley.

de Buhan, P. and L. Dormieux (1996). On the validity of

the effective stress concept for assessing the strength of

After recalling the poroplastic state laws, we have saturated porous materials: a homogenization approach.

built the macroscopic yield criterion of a saturated J. Mech. Phys. Solids 44(10), 16491667.

porous medium. This criterion determines whether the Dormieux, L. and S. Maghous (1999). Poroelasticity and

macroscopic loading (!, p) belongs or not to the yield Poroplasticity at Large Strains. Oil and Gas Science and

domain which depends on the residual stress field. Technology, Rev. IFP 54, 773784.

The latter appears as an infinite number of harden- Dormieux, L., A. Molinari, and D. Kondo (2002). Microme-

ing parameters. Using a micromechanical reasoning, chanical approach to the behavior of poroelastic materials.

a condition of existence of an effective stress has been J. Mech. Phys. Solids 50(10), 22032231.

Suquet, P. (1985). Elastic perfectly plastic constituents. In

derived. This condition allows to show that the poro- E. Sanchez-Palencia andA. Zaoui (Eds.), Homogenization

plasticity is controlled by Terzaghi effective stress if Techniques for Composite Media, Udine, Italy, pp. 245

and only if the matrix is purely cohesive. For other 278. CISM: Springer-Verlag.

materials, the existence of an effective stress seems Zaoui, A. (1997). Matriaux htrognes et composites.

rather unlikely. In particular, for criteria sensitive to Cours de lcole Polytechnique.

134

Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK

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