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Guided waves in a borehole embedded in a non-Newtonian

fluid-saturated porous solid

Ke-Xie Wang, Jin-Xia Liu & Zhi-Wen Cui


School of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China

ABSTRACT: Propagation of guided waves in a fluid-filled cylindrical bore surrounded by non-Newtonian


(Maxwell) fluid-saturated porous media for pore size distribution is investigated. We investigate the influence of
non-Newtonian effects on acoustic guided waves propagation in a fluid-filled cylindrical bore by calculating the
acoustic partial waveforms and the curves of velocity dispersion, and attenuation coefficients of the fundamental
guided waves excited by a monopole, a dipole and a quadrupole source. The results are also compared with those
based on generalized Biots theory with considering pore size distribution. The results indicate that the influence
of non-Newtonian effects on acoustic guided waves, especially on the attenuation of guided waves propagation
in borehole is noticeable.

1 INTRODUCTION other phase is a fluid filling the voids. We describe the


viscoelastic effect of the fluid filling the voids using
Acoustic logs are important measurements to pro- Maxwells model, which assumes that
vide useful information about in situ properties of
formations. Hydrocarbon exploration is especially
concerned with porous formation. In most previous
works of the borehole wave propagation, the perme-
able formation around the fluid borehole is assumed to where is the viscosity coefficient, tm is the relax-
be Newton fluid saturated porous media. Biot theory ation time (m denotes Maxwell) and v denotes the
(Biot 1956) treated energy dissipation due to relative velocity of the fluid, whereas represents the viscous
motion between a viscous pore fluid and the solid stress tensor. We consider that the local relative flow
framework of porous material. Many authors (Schmitt is incompressible (v = 0). The equations of motion
et al. 1988, Zhang et al. 1995) have studied the proper- in the porous formation are (Cui et al. 2003)
ties of elastic waves propagation in the fluid borehole
using Biots theory. However, oil and other hydro-
carbons exhibit significant non-Newtonian behavior
(Tsiklauri 2003). The main purpose of this paper
is to investigate the influence of the non-Newtonian
effects on the guided waves propagation in the bore-
hole. Based on the generalized Biot-Tsiklauri model
(Cui et al. 2003) with a no-slip boundary, we exam-
ine the effects of non-Newtonian (Maxwell) fluid on
guided waves propagation of the fluid-filled bore- here H , M , C and G are the Biots elastic coefficients
hole. Acoustic partial waveforms and the curves of that replace the usual Lam coefficients, their expres-
velocity dispersion, and attenuation coefficients of the sions as functions of the bulk moduli of the constitutive
fundamental guided waves are investigated. grains Ks , the skeleton Kb , and the fluid Kf , the shear
modulus of the skeleton G. w = (uf u) represents
the flow of the fluid relative to solid and is measured in
the terms of volume per unit area of the bulk medium,
2 THEORETICAL FORMULATIONS where uf and u are the absolute displacements of the
pore fluid and solid phase of a porous medium, respec-
In Biots theory, a fluid-saturated porous medium is tively. is a total porosity. The density of bulk can be
regarded as an interacting two-phase elastic system, expressed by the density of grain s and pore fluid f as
one phase of which is a porous solid skeleton and the = (1 ) s + f m = i/k() is the effective

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Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK
density of the fluid in relative motion. Biots dynamic Any pole corresponds at a given frequency to a com-
permeability k() can be expressed as plex wavenumber root [kl = Re(kl ) + iIm(kl )] of the
period equation. The phase velocity of the mode is
equal to /Re(kl ), while its attenuation is equal to
2Im(kl )/Re(kl ), then the group velocity is obtain by
Here k() describes the response of the fluid-saturated numerical differentiation from /Re(kl ).
porous medium to an applied stimulus, and character-
izes the frequency-dependent behaviour of pore fluid
flow. Fm () is the viscosity correction factor, which is 3 NUMERICAL RESULTS
generalized to the case of a non-Newtonian (Maxwell)
fluid with arbitrary pore size distribution. It measures In the following, we calculated the acoustic partial
the deviation from Poiseuille flow friction as a function waveforms and the curves of velocity dispersion, and
of the frequency. attenuation coefficients of the fundamental guided
waves due to a monopole, a dipole and a quadrupole
source. The pore size a is given in m and in units.
Note, = ln a (a in mm). The pore radius probability
density distribution function is
where

where = ln a and 2 are the mean and variance of


log-transformed pore radius (ln a) respectively. a is
This paper does not consider the slip boundary.
the median pore radius. The distribution of -normal
c = /f k0 is Biots transition frequency. 0 is
standard is similar to the reference (Yamamoto 1988).
effective permeability of porous media, which can
We select the parameters as in reference (Cui & Wang
be obtained by k0 = 2
0 (/8)a f (a) da. a is pore 2003): Kf = 2.25 GPa, Ks = 38 GPa, Kb = 16 Gpa,
radius. f (a) is a radial probability density distribution
function. G = 14.61 GPa, f = 1500 Kg/m3 , s = 2650 Kg/m3 ,
Let (r,,z) be the cylindrical coordinate sys- = 0.1, = 0.001 Pa s. = 0 corresponds to the case
tem. The model consists of a fluid filled borehole that all pore radii have the same size. = 0 corre-
of radius a, extending to infinity in the z direc- sponds to the distribution of -normal standard. In this
tion, embedded in a radially semiinfinite isotropic paper, we choose a = 6.3 m and = 0.7. Here, we
porous formation saturated by a non-Newtonian use De to denote the Deborah number, which is defined
(Maxwell) fluid. We consider multipole point sources as the ratio of the characteristic time viscous effect
described by Schmitt(1988). Usually, the receivers are tv = a2 f / to the relaxation time tm . It is the Deborah
listed in the axis of the borehole (r = 0). Following number that determines in which regime the system
Zhang et al.(1995) & Schmitt (1988a), An (k, ) = Nn resides. For a small De, the system exhibits a vis-
(k, )/Dn (k, ) is the generalized reflection coeffi- coelastic behaviour, which we call the non-Newtonian
cient determined by the boundary condition. Nn (k, ) regime. When De = (i.e. tm = 0), this study corre-
and Dn (k, ) are the numerator and denominator of sponds to the generalized Biot theory with pore size
the reflection coefficients (A0n ),respectively. The char- distribution developed by Yamamoto & Turgut (1988).
acteristic equation is given as |Dn (k, )| = 0. For a Figure 1 gives the phase velocity, group veloc-
certain frequency, it gives the axis-wavenumber of ity and the attenuation of the two types of guided
guided wave propagation along the direction of the waves excited by a monopole (axisymmetric) for three
axis of the borehole, its root is corresponding to the cases. The solid curve corresponds to De = i.e. the
pole kl (l = 1, 2, 3) of the reflection coefficient A0n . Newtonian fluid-saturated case with pore size distri-
The amplitude of the guided wave excited by a source bution, the dashed and the dashed-dot curves represent
is given by the non-Newtonian cases De = 10 and De = 1, respec-
tively. The first axisymmetric mode is the stoneley
wave or the tube wave. The tube wave exists at all fre-
quencies . This wave exhibits a slight dispersion and
its energy is usually highest at low frequencies. The
second axisymmetric mode is the pseudo-Rayleigh
So the pressure of partial waves can be expressed modes (Fig.1, we only show the fundamental modes,
the higher modes is not plotted), which has in this
case a cut-off frequency. At this cut-off frequency, the
mode reaches its highest phase velocity, namely the

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Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK
1.6 (a) 1.6 Flex (a)
pR1 Phase
De = De =
Normalized velocity

Normalized velocity
1.4 De = 10 1.4 De = 10
De = 1 phase De = 1
1.2
1.2

group 1.0
1.0 Sto
group
phase 0.8
0.8
group
0.6
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20
Frequency(KHZ) Frequency(kHz)
0.14
(b) (b)
0.12 Flex
Attenuation coefficients

Attenuation coefficients
De =
De =
De = 10 0.10
0.1 De = 10
De = 1
Sto De = 1
0.08

0.06

pR1 0.04

0.01 0.02

0 5 10 15 20 5 10 15 20
Frequency(KHZ) Frequency(KHZ)

Figure 1. Dispersion curves (a) and attenuation coefficients Figure 2. Dispersion curves (a) and attenuation coefficients
(b) of guided waves excited by monopole point source. (b) of guided waves excited by dipole point sources. Velocity
Velocity is normalized by the velocity of borehole fluid. is normalized by the velocity of borehole fluid.

shear wave velocity of the solid. As the frequency of those in the Newtonian fluid-saturated case at inter-
the waves increases, the phase velocity of the mode mediate frequency, which comes to our notice even in
approaches the fluid velocity asymptotically-from the general non-Newtonian regime (De = 10).
above. As the De decreases, only in the deeply non- Figure 3 shows the dispersion and attenuation of the
Newtonian regime, the values of phase velocity and screw mode excited by a quadrupole point source for
group velocity of the two types of guide waves have three cases as figure 1. The dispersion and attenuation
a little change. Namely, the effect of non-Newtonian of the screw mode are analogous to those of the flexu-
on velocity of the two type of guide is small. How- ral mode except to a shift toward to higher frequency.
ever, the attenuation coefficients of the tube wave We can find that the dispersion curves of flexural
have an overall increase in intermediate frequency, mode have a little change only in the deeply non-
especially in the deeply non-Newtonian regime. The Newtonian regime. However, the attenuations in the
attenuation coefficients of pseudo-Rayleigh modes in deeply non-Newtonian regime are much higher than
the deeply non-Newtonian regime is obviously much those in the Newtonian fluid-saturated case at interme-
higher than those predicted by Biots model. This diate frequency, which also comes to our notice even in
means that the influence of non-Newtonian effects the general non-Newtonian regime (De = 10). These
on attenuation coefficients of the two types of guided results show that the influence of non-Newtonian
waves is obviously. effects on attenuations of guided waves is noticeable.
Figure 2 shows the dispersion and attenuation of Figure 4(a) shows the partial waves of the stone-
the flexural mode excited by a dipole point source for ley wave with 9 kHz source center frequency for
three cases as figure 1. The flexural waves (flex.) are three cases. The dot curves correspond to the Newto-
associated with a pure bending of the borehole. We nian limit when De = , while thin and thick solid
can find that the dispersion curves of flexural mode curves represent the non-Newtonian cases De = 10
have a little change only in the deeply non-Newtonian and De = 1, respectively. In the Figure 4 we find that
regime. However, the attenuation coefficients in the the arrival time of stoneley waves is nearly same for
deeply non-Newtonian regime are much higher than that based on non-Newtonian fluid-saturated case and

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Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK
1.6 (a) 0.4 (a)
screw De =
Sto De =
De = 10
Normalized velocity

1.4 0.2 De = 10
phase De = 1
De = 1

pressure
1.2 0.0

1.0 -0.2

group
0.8 -0.4

5 10 15 20 1 2 3
Frequency(KHZ) Time (ms)
0.14
screw (b) 1.5 De = (b)
0.12 De = 10
De =
Attenuation coefficients

1.0
De = 10 De = 1
0.10
De = 1 0.5

Pressure
0.08
0.0
0.06 PR1
-0.5
0.04 -1.0
0.02 -1.5

5 10 15 20 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0


Frequency(KHZ) Times(ms)

Figure 3. Dispersion curves (a) and attenuation coefficients Figure 4. The partial waveforms excited by monopole point
(b) of guided waves excited by quadrupole point sources. source. (a) the stoneley wave with 9 kHz source center fre-
Velocity is normalized by the velocity of borehole fluid. quency (b) the pseudo-Rayleigh wave with 10 kHz source
center frequency.

Newtonian fluid-saturated case. However, as the De


decreases, the amplitude of stoneley wave becomes 3
small, especially in the deeply non-Newtonian regime. Flex (a)
2 De=
Figure 4(b) shows the partial waves of the pseudo- De=10
Rayleigh wave with 10 kHz source center frequency De=1
for the three cases as figure 4(a). We also find that the 1
pressure

arrival time of pseudo-Rayleigh wave is not almost


0
change. But the amplitude of the pseudo-Rayleigh
wave in the deeply non-Newtonian regime are much -1
smaller than those in the Newtonian fluid-saturated
case, which becomes small even in the general non- -2
Newtonian regime (De = 10). These are consistent
with the dispersion and the attenuation curves in -3
Figure 1. 1 2 3 4
Figure 5 shows the partial waves of the flexural Time(ms)
mode with 4 kHz source center frequency for three
cases as figure 4. The arrival time of flexural mode is Figure 5. The partial waveforms excited by a dipole point
nearly same for that based on the non-Newtonian and source with 4 kHz source center frequency.
the Newtonian case. As the De decreases, the ampli-
tude of the flexural waves becomes small. These are
consistent with the curves of the dispersion and the has a little change only in the deeply non-Newtonian,
attenuation (see Figure 2). which is consistent with the curve of the dispersion.
In the Figure 6 we plot the partial waves of the Moreover, as De decreases, the amplitudes of the
screw mode with 10 kHz source center frequency for screw mode are obviously small, which also comes to
three cases as Figure 4. The arrival time of screw wave our notice even in the general non-Newtonian regime

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Copyright 2005 Taylor & Francis Group plc, London, UK
5 influence of squirt flow on fundamental guided waves
4 De = (b) (Cui 2004). Therefore, this study shows that it may
3 De = 10 screw need to be considered the effects of non-Newtonian
De = 1 (Maxwell) in the interpretation of acoustic logging
2
data.
pressure

1
0
-1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
-2
-3 This work was supported by Doctoral Foundation of
-4 Ministry of Education of China (20030183052) and
-5 the National Natural Science Foundation of China
1 2 3 (40374043). The authors would like to thank Dr Ma
Time(ms)
Jun for his interesting suggestions.
Figure 6. The partial waveforms excited by a quadrupole
point source with 10 kHz source center frequency.
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