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PERIOD 5:
18441877
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Key Concept 5.1: The United States became more connected


Related Thematic with the world, pursued an expansionist foreign policy in the
Learning Objectives

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
(Focus of Exam Western Hemisphere, and emerged as the destination for many
Questions) migrants from other countries.

NAT-3.0: Analyze how I. Popular enthusiasm for U.S. expansion, bolstered by economic and security
ideas about national interests, resulted in the acquisition of new territories, substantial migration
identity changed westward, and new overseas initiatives.
in response to U.S.
involvement in A) The desire for access
international conflicts to natural and mineral
and the growth of resources and the hope
the United States. of many settlers for
MIG-2.0: Analyze causes economic opportunities or
of internal migration and religious refuge led to an
patterns of settlement in increased migration to and
what would become the settlement in the West.
United States, and explain
how migration has B) Advocates of annexing
affected American life. western lands argued that
Manifest Destiny and the
GEO-1.0: Explain superiority of American
how geographic and institutions compelled the
environmental factors United States to expand
shaped the development its borders westward
of various communities, to the Pacific Ocean.
and analyze how
competition for and
C) The U.S. added large
debates over natural
territories in the West
resources have affected
through victory in the
both interactions among
MexicanAmerican War and
different groups and
diplomatic negotiations,
the development of
raising questions about the
government policies.
status of slavery, American
WOR-1.0: Explain how Indians, and Mexicans in
cultural interaction, the newly acquired lands.
cooperation, competition,
and conflict between D) Westward migration was
empires, nations, and boosted during and after the
peoples have influenced Civil War by the passage of
political, economic, and new legislation promoting
social developments Western transportation and
in North America. economic development.
WOR-2.0: Analyze
the reasons for, E) U.S. interest in expanding
and results of, U.S. trade led to economic,
diplomatic, economic, diplomatic, and cultural
and military initiatives initiatives to create
in NorthAmerica more ties with Asia.
and overseas.

Period 5: 18441877 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 5.1
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 53
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Key Concept 5.1: The United States became more connected


Related Thematic with the world, pursued an expansionist foreign policy in the
Learning Objectives

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
(Focus of Exam Western Hemisphere, and emerged as the destination for many
Questions) migrants from other countries.

NAT-4.0: Analyze II. In the 1840s and 1850s, Americans continued to debate questions about rights
relationships among and citizenship for various groups of U.S. inhabitants.
different regional,
social, ethnic, and A) Substantial numbers of
racial groups, and international migrants
explain how these continued to arrive in
groups experiences the United States from
have related to U.S. Europe and Asia, mainly
national identity. from Ireland and Germany,
CUL-4.0: Explain often settling in ethnic
how different group communities where they
identities, including could preserve elements of
racial, ethnic, class, their languages and customs.
and regional identities,
have emerged and B) A strongly anti-Catholic
changed over time. nativist movement arose
that was aimed at limiting
MIG-1.0: Explain the new immigrants political
causes of migration to power and cultural influence.
colonial North America
and, later, the United C) U.S. government interaction
States, and analyze and conflict with Mexican
immigrations effects Americans and American
on U.S. society. Indians increased in regions
newly taken from American
Indians and Mexico, altering
these groups economic self-
sufficiency and cultures.

Period 5: 18441877 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 5.1
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 54
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Related Thematic Key Concept 5.2: Intensified by expansion and deepening


Learning Objectives
(Focus of Exam
regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic,

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
Questions) cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war.

NAT-1.0: Explain I. Ideological and economic differences over slavery produced an array of
how ideas about diverging responses from Americans in the North and the South.
democracy, freedom,
and individualism A) The Norths expanding
found expression manufacturing economy
in the development relied on free labor in
of cultural values, contrast to the Southern
political institutions, economys dependence
and American identity. on slave labor. Some
POL-2.0: Explain how Northerners did not object
popular movements, to slavery on principle but
reform efforts, and claimed that slavery would
activist groups have undermine the free labor
sought to change market. As a result, a free-
American society soil movement arose that
and institutions. portrayed the expansion
of slavery as incompatible
WXT-1.0: Explain with free labor.
how different labor
systems developed B) African American and
in NorthAmerica and white abolitionists,
the United States, and although a minority in
explain their effects the North, mounted a
on workers lives highly visible campaign
and U.S. society. against slavery, presenting
moral arguments against
CUL-2.0: Explain how
the institution, assisting
artistic, philosophical,
slaves escapes, and
and scientific ideas
sometimes expressing a
have developed
willingness to use violence
and shaped society
to achieve their goals.
and institutions.

C) Defenders of slavery based


their arguments on racial
doctrines, the view that
slavery was a positive
social good, and the belief
that slavery and states
rights were protected
by the Constitution.

Period 5: 18441877 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 5.2
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 55
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Related Thematic Key Concept 5.2: Intensified by expansion and deepening


Learning Objectives
(Focus of Exam
regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic,

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
Questions) cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war.

NAT-2.0: Explain II. Debates over slavery came to dominate political discussion in the 1850s,
how interpretations culminating in the bitter election of 1860 and the secession of Southern states.
of the Constitution
and debates over A) The Mexican Cession led
rights, liberties, to heated controversies
and definitions of over whether to allow
citizenship have slavery in the newly
affected American acquired territories.
values, politics,
and society. B) The courts and national
POL-1.0: Explain leaders made a variety of
how and why attempts to resolve the issue
political ideas, of slavery in the territories,
beliefs, institutions, including the Compromise of
party systems, 1850, the KansasNebraska
and alignments Act, and the Dred Scott
have developed decision, but these ultimately
and changed. failed to reduce conflict.

C) The Second Party System


ended when the issues of
slavery and anti-immigrant
nativism weakened loyalties
to the two major parties
and fostered the emergence
of sectional parties, most
notably the Republican
Party in the North.

D) Abraham Lincolns victory


on the Republicans free-soil
platform in the presidential
election of 1860 was
accomplished without any
Southern electoral votes.
After a series of contested
debates about secession,
most slave states voted
to secede from the Union,
precipitating the Civil War.

Period 5: 18441877 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 5.2
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 56
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Key Concept 5.3: The Union victory in the Civil War and the
Related Thematic contested reconstruction of the South settled the issues of slavery
Learning Objectives

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
(Focus of Exam and secession, but left unresolved many questions about the
Questions) power of the federal government and citizenship rights.

NAT-1.0: Explain I. The Norths greater manpower and industrial resources, the leadership of
how ideas about Abraham Lincoln and others, and the decision to emancipate slaves eventually
democracy, freedom, led to the Union military victory over the Confederacy in the devastating Civil
and individualism War.
found expression
in the development A) Both the Union and the
of cultural values, Confederacy mobilized their
political institutions, economies and societies
and American identity. to wage the war even
WOR-2.0: Analyze while facing considerable
the reasons for, home front opposition.
and results of, U.S.
diplomatic, economic, B) Lincoln and most Union
and military initiatives supporters began the Civil
in NorthAmerica War to preserve the Union,
and overseas. but Lincolns decision to
issue the Emancipation
Proclamation reframed the
purpose of the war and helped
prevent the Confederacy
from gaining full diplomatic
support from European
powers. Many African
Americans fled southern
plantations and enlisted in
the Union Army, helping to
undermine the Confederacy.

C) Lincoln sought to reunify the


country and used speeches
such as the Gettysburg
Address to portray the
struggle against slavery as
the fulfillment of Americas
founding democratic ideals.

D) Although the Confederacy


showed military initiative and
daring early in the war, the
Union ultimately succeeded
due to improvements in
leadership and strategy, key
victories, greater resources,
and the wartime destruction
of the Souths infrastructure.

Period 5: 18441877 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 5.3
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 57
2015 The College Board
The AP U.S. History Curriculum Framework

Key Concept 5.3: The Union victory in the Civil War and the
Related Thematic contested reconstruction of the South settled the issues of
Learning Objectives

CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
(Focus of Exam slavery and secession, but left unresolved many questions about
Questions) the power of the federal government and citizenship rights.

NAT-2.0: Explain how II. Reconstruction and the Civil War ended slavery, altered relationships between the states
interpretations of and the federal government, and led to debates over new definitions of citizenship,
the Constitution and particularly regarding the rights of African Americans, women, and other minorities.
debates over rights,
liberties, and definitions A) The 13th Amendment abolished
of citizenship have slavery, while the 14th and
affected American values, 15th amendments granted
politics, and society. African Americans citizenship,
POL-3.0: Explain how equal protection under the
different beliefs about laws, and voting rights.
the federal governments
role in U.S. social B) The womens rights movement
and economic life was both emboldened and
have affected political divided over the 14th and 15th
debates and policies. amendments to the Constitution.
WXT-1.0: Explain how
different labor systems C) Efforts by radical and moderate
developed in North Republicans to change the balance
America and the United of power between Congress and
States, and explain the presidency and to reorder
their effects on workers race relations in the defeated
lives and U.S. society. South yielded some short-term
successes. Reconstruction opened
CUL-3.0: Explain how up political opportunities and other
ideas about womens leadership roles to former slaves,
rights and gender but it ultimately failed, due both to
roles have affected determined Southern resistance
society and politics. and the Norths waning resolve.

D) Southern plantation owners


continued to own the
majority of the regions land
even after Reconstruction.
Former slaves sought land
ownership but generally fell
short of self-sufficiency, as an
exploitative and soil-intensive
sharecropping system limited
blacks and poor whites
access to land in the South.

E) Segregation, violence, Supreme


Court decisions, and local
political tactics progressively
stripped away African American
rights, but the 14th and 15th
amendments eventually
became the basis for court
decisions upholding civil
rights in the 20th century.

Period 5: 18441877 TEACHER-SELECTED EXAMPLES OF HISTORICAL
INDIVIDUALS, EVENTS, TOPICS, OR SOURCES FOR
Key Concept 5.3
STUDENTS TOEXAMINE THE KEY CONCEPT IN DEPTH

Return to
AP United States History Course and Exam Description Table of Contents 58
2015 The College Board