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Friend Me if You Facebook E.J. Westlake
Friend Me if You
Facebook
E.J. Westlake
Game 
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Game 

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History of Facebook ❖   February 2004 ❖   Mark Zuckerberg - Harvard undergraduate ❖
History of Facebook
❖   February 2004
❖   Mark Zuckerberg - Harvard
undergraduate
❖   Chris Hughes and Dustin Moskovitz
❖   Online network to help Harvard
students get to know each other
❖   2006 - open Facebook to everyone
Myspace ❖   August 2003 ❖   Official launch: 2004 ❖   75.9 million unique
Myspace
❖   August 2003
❖   Official launch: 2004
❖   75.9 million unique visitors
by December 2008
❖   Medium for bullying and
scandals
MySpace Facebook ❖   Online journal ❖   Connects withs friends and meet new people
MySpace
Facebook
❖   Online journal
❖   Connects withs friends and meet
new people
❖   “Slam book”
❖   “social utility that helps people
better understand the world
around them”
❖   “
join the networks that reflect
❖   Like a blog
❖   Greater online creativity
your real-life communities to learn
more about the people who work,
live, or study around you.”
❖   School or geographically specific
❖   Promotional tool
News Feeds ❖   “ every move (well, almost every move) is seen by all
News Feeds
❖   “
every move (well, almost every
move) is seen by all my Facebook
friends”
❖   News Feeds announce information
that people had to look up for
❖   More conscious of the way they act
on Facebook
❖   “How Can I Stalk People When
There Is News Feed”
Performativity of Social Networking
Performativity of
Social
Networking
Performativity of Social Networking The internet has changed the way we read texts or read
Performativity of Social Networking
The internet has changed the way we read texts or read each other’s
“performances.”
➔   The web invites the readers to choose the path and order of text to read, as
driven by the reader’s own desire and cognitive processing style.
➔   This carries over into Facebook’s structure.
Performativity of Social Networking The internet creates a “writerly” text. ➔   Ronald Barthes used
Performativity of Social Networking
The internet creates a “writerly” text.
➔   Ronald Barthes used the terms “readerly” and “writerly” (in his book S/Z) to
distinguish, respectively, between texts that are straightforward and those
who demand special effort to understand.
➔   readerly - the text is pretty much the same for each person who reads it
➔   writerly - “ourselves writing,” readers participate in producing meaning(s)
Performativity of Social Networking ➔   As the web developed in 1990s, several sites began
Performativity of Social Networking
➔   As the web developed in 1990s, several sites began to offer free space to
people who wanted to create their webpages.
➔   Microsoft Word was upgraded to allow regular users to save documents in
html. Now anyone can create text on the internet, link it to other texts, and
create forums where others can add comments, responses, and corrections.
Performativity of Social Networking What makes Facebook often unintelligible to some comes down to preferred
Performativity of Social Networking
What makes Facebook often unintelligible to some comes down to preferred
modes of communication for people of different generations:
➔  “Silent” generation (1925-1942)
➔  Baby “Boomers” (1945-1960)
➔  “Thirteenth” generation or Generation X (1961-1981)
➔  “Echo Boomers” or Generation Y - younger generation
*(According to Strauss and Howe’s Generation)
Performativity of Social Networking ➔   Older internet users (older than 1982) are more comfortable
Performativity of Social Networking
➔   Older internet users (older than 1982) are more comfortable with email or
telephone for communication, while Generation Y, with chatting or texting or
altering their profile content.
➔   For Y-ers, Facebook provides a forum for immediate social interaction,
creating a collaborative, interactive, and performative text.
Performativity of Social Networking Erving Goffman’s analyzation of the performance of self in the interest:
Performativity of Social Networking
Erving Goffman’s analyzation of the performance of self in the interest:
“all the activity of an individual which occurs during a period marked by his
continuous presence before a particular set of observers and which has some
influence on the observers”
Performativity of Social Networking Performances in Facebook ➔   Profile page ➔   Messaging ➔
Performativity of Social Networking
Performances in Facebook
➔   Profile page
➔   Messaging
➔   Group forums
➔   Poking
➔   Fake profiles
Performativity of Social Networking ➔   Facebook has created its own subculture and language. ➔
Performativity of Social Networking
➔   Facebook has created its own subculture and language.
➔   Many sociologists worry that the increased internet use by Generation Y will
result in their lacking socialization needed to function in society.
Performativity of Social Networking ➔   According to Brignall II and Valey: “If individuals move
Performativity of Social Networking
➔   According to Brignall II and Valey:
“If individuals move to use online forms of interaction as the primary way to
communicate, the rules of online communication will begin to compete with and
perhaps dominate those of face-to-face social interactions. For contemporary
adults, this should not be problematic. They should have sufficient face-to-face
interaction skills for them to move among the different modes of communication.
However, this may not be the case with some cyberkids who have not properly
developed their face-to-face interaction skills. Consequently, they may have
problems when engaging in real face-to-face interactions.”
Performativity of Social Networking ➔   Recent research suggests that the computer-mediated contact does not
Performativity of Social Networking
➔   Recent research suggests that the computer-mediated contact does not
replace more traditional modes of interaction.
➔   Facebook features suggests that Facebook is not a substitute for social
interactions.
➔  
people
who communicate frequently use multiple media to do so. The more
contact by one medium, the more contact by others.”
Performativity of Social Networking Rules of social interaction are continuously shifting. Generation Y will take
Performativity of Social Networking
Rules of social interaction are continuously shifting. Generation Y will take
what older generations view as a social disadvantage and create new norms for
performances of self online.
Performativity of Social Networking People fail to comprehend that Generation Y’s proficiency with the internet
Performativity of Social Networking
People fail to comprehend that Generation Y’s proficiency with the internet
and the other new technologies make them comfortable using these means in
tandem with their face-to-face interactions.
Performativity of Social Networking Generation Y are willing to offer themselves up for surveillance through
Performativity of Social Networking
Generation Y are willing to offer themselves up for surveillance through
performance and to act as the mechanism of surveillance.
Game 
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Game 

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Surveillance
Surveillance
Internet Predators
Internet
Predators
Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/11165576/ns/ nbc_nightly_news_with_brian_williams/t/myspace-facebook-attract-
Source: http://www.nbcnews.com/id/11165576/ns/
nbc_nightly_news_with_brian_williams/t/myspace-facebook-attract-
online-predators/#.WA4iFvp97IU
Deleting Online Predators Act Source: https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/house-bill/ 5319
Deleting Online Predators Act
Source: https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/house-bill/
5319
State Surveillance
State Surveillance
USA PATRIOT Act
USA PATRIOT Act

Source: https://www.justice.gov/archive/ll/ what_is_the_patriot_act.pdf

Surveillance? Oks lang Generation Y-ers “perform” in a way that bother their elders. Given the
Surveillance? Oks lang
Generation Y-ers “perform” in a way that bother their elders. Given the danger
attributed to internet predators and state surveillance, the Generation y-ers still
use Facebook as if there are none.
“Teens today grow up in a state of constant surveillance where there is no privacy.
So they can’t really have an idea of it being lost…” -Danah Boyd
Performative Surveillance
Performative
Surveillance
Performative Surveillance ❖   Foucault’s discipline ❖   Internet as a discipline ➢   Panoptic
Performative Surveillance
❖   Foucault’s discipline
❖   Internet as a discipline
➢   Panoptic gaze
❖   Concept of a masked power watching the
content of electronic communication
❖   True efficiency of Panopticon
“Anyone may come and exercise in the central tower the functions of surveillance, and that,
“Anyone may come and exercise in the
central tower the functions of surveillance,
and that, this being the case, he can gain a
clear idea of the way in which the
surveillance is practiced”
-Faucault
Panopticon ❖   Works because it is dispersed ❖   Productive increase of power can
Panopticon
❖   Works because it is dispersed
❖   Productive
increase
of
power
can
be
assured only if:
➢   It can be continuously exercised
➢   Domain
■   Whole
bodies
region
of
irregular
●   Details,
forces,
relations
movements,
and
spatial
●   Physics of relational and
multiple power
Users ❖   Police facebook deviants ❖   Code of Conduct ❖   Safety and
Users
❖   Police facebook deviants
❖   Code of Conduct
❖   Safety and help pages
➢   Inform users about policies
Users ❖   Fake profiles ➢   Deliberately under surveillance ➢   Real or fiction
Users
❖   Fake profiles
➢   Deliberately under surveillance
➢   Real or fiction
■   Distinguished based on email
address used
➢   Eventually became harder to detect
➢   Prohibition is stated and can be seen on
the “Code of Conduct” and “Terms of
Use”
“Bring Back Fake Profiles”
“Bring Back Fake Profiles”
“When the individual presents himself before others, his performance will tend to incorporate and exemplify
“When the individual presents himself before
others, his performance will tend to
incorporate and exemplify the o"cially
accredited values of the society, more so, in
fact, than does his behavior as a whole”
-Go#man
Go# man   Performance of self involve idealization   Observed how individuals act according to
Go# man
  Performance of self involve idealization
  Observed how individuals act according to
prescribed roles
   Different social groupings = Different ways of expression
   Obtain necessary characteristics and maintain standards
of conduct and appearance
  Performance online = Performance in person
   Facebook as a forum
Panopticon ❖   Individuals are directly punished by other users ❖   Surveillance ➢  
Panopticon
❖   Individuals are directly punished by
other users
❖   Surveillance
➢   From users’ encounters on the internet
➢   Ex.
■   Having too few friends VS too
many friends
Users ❖   Facebook News Feed controversy ➢   Reveals that Generation Y is uncomfortable
Users
❖   Facebook News Feed controversy
➢   Reveals that Generation Y is uncomfortable with uncertain and extreme public exposure
❖   Demonstrate Foucault’s internalized panopticon
➢   Watch own behavior
Justin Berton ❖   San Francisco Chronicle ❖   Interviewed people ➢   Generation Y’s
Justin Berton
❖   San Francisco Chronicle
❖   Interviewed people
➢   Generation Y’s personal information exposed in public
➢   Nadir Vissanjy
■   “Our generation is open with things such as MySpace
and Facebook and these other networks, so it seems
like they’re OK with the public knowing what you’re
doing, but there are some things that the government
should not intrude on, such as private calls, text
messaging, and e-mails.”
Justin Berton ❖   Interviewed people ➢   Kristopher Tate ■   “The realization that
Justin Berton
❖   Interviewed people
➢   Kristopher Tate
■  
“The realization that people can find you online isn’t that threatening to this generation.
But there’s a difference between giving up information like what’s on MySpace and the
government listening to a phone conversation”
Generation Y ❖   Generation Y’s limit ➢   Trust technology ■   Address issues
Generation Y
❖   Generation Y’s limit
➢   Trust technology
■   Address issues that matter to them
■   “Deeply engaged and motivated”
❖   Surpass early generations
➢   Due to signs
Strauss and Howe New Millennial service ethic ➢   Collegial action ➢   Support for
Strauss and Howe
New Millennial service ethic
➢   Collegial action
➢   Support for civic institutions
➢   Tangible doing of good deeds
Strauss and Howe ❖   Generation Y ➢   More liberal ➢   Favors negotiation
Strauss and Howe
❖   Generation Y
➢   More liberal
➢   Favors negotiation and compromise over
confrontation
➢   Work with incorporated political process
➢   Trust and are optimistic about the government
❖   Millenials Rising
“Abolish the Patriot Act Now!” ❖   One of the largest Facebook groups ❖  
“Abolish the Patriot Act Now!”
❖   One of the largest Facebook groups
❖   Educate and take actions on political
issues
Social Cohesion Privacy
Social Cohesion
Privacy
Private and Public ❖   Social construct that changes over time Generation Y ❖  
Private and Public
❖   Social construct that changes over time
Generation Y
❖   Perform and offer for surveillance for chosen audience
❖   Profiles in continuous transition
Users continue to play with identity
Users continue to play with identity
Epilogue
Epilogue