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Biology

Osmosis Lab
Pichayamarin, Parewa, Mai
Aueprasert, Tinnaphop, Tin
Mahatongkum, Jirachaya, Bow
Prutthiworamongkon, Kittitat, Peem
Nimanussornkul, Krisanapong, Tonklar
Class 10/01
6 March 2017
Introduction: (attach to the back)

Purpose: The purpose of this lab experiment is to visualize how osmosis work in real life by
using jelly and potato samples. To Understand how placing dissimilar samples in two
different solutions affect their sizes and volumes as a result of osmosis.

Hypothesis:

How will soaking the Jelly in distilled water affect the size of the candy?
If the jelly is being soaked in distilled water, then it will swell as there is higher water
molecules in the distilled water(hypotonic) than in the jelly (hypertonic) itself.

How will soaking the Jelly in concentrated salt water affect the size of the candy?
If the jelly is being soaked in concentrated salt water, then it will shrink as there is
higher amount of solute in concentrated salt water(hypertonic) than in the jelly (hypotonic)
itself.
How will soaking the Potato in distilled water affect the size?
If the potato is being soaked in distilled water, then the size will be slightly bigger
because the water move from the distilled water(hypotonic) into the potato(hypertonic).

How will soaking the Potato in concentrated salt water affect the size?
If the potato is being soaked in concentrated salt water, then the size will shrink a little
because the water move out of the potato(hypotonic) toward the salt water
solution(hypotonic).

Material List:

6 Beakers (3 for jelly, 3 for potato)


Electronic Balance

Distilled water

Concentrated salt water

2 Jellies

2 Potato Pieces

Calculator (groups bring their own calculator)

Knife

Weighing paper

Markers

Gloves

Lab Coat

Goggles
Procedure/Methods:

Collect the materials that your group needs (3 Jelly and Half a Potato)
Use the knife to cut the potato into 3 equal pieces
Use the electronic balance to find the mass of your jelly. Remember to lay down a piece of

weighing paper and set to zero.


Record your data

Record descriptive observations about the jelly prior to the experiment.

Measure the initial volume of the jelly and the potato and record your data.
st
Fill your 1 beaker halfway with distilled water. Put one of your jelly into the beaker. Set the

sing marker.
beaker aside for one hour. Label the beaker u
Fill your 2st beaker with concentrated salt solution halfway. Put your 2nd jelly into that beaker.
Set beaker aside for one hour. Label the beaker using marker.
rd
Put your 3 jelly into an empty beaker without putting anything in it. That should be your

control.
th
Put the 4 beaker halfway with distilled water. Put one of your potato pieces into the beaker.

Set the beaker aside for one hour. Label the beaker.
th
Put the 5 beaker halfway with concentrated salt solution halfway. Put your second potato

pieces into that beaker and set it aside for an hour. Label the beaker.
Place your last piece of potato pieces into the last beaker, empty. That is your control for the

potato. Label the beaker.


Make sure you label all the beakers distilled water or concentrated salt solution with

some markers.
After one hour, come back and look at each of the beakers and record the data volume and

mass of both the jellies in two beaker and both the potato in two other beakers.
Also record the descriptive data for what the jelly and the potato look like now after being

soaker for an hour.


Calculate the percent change in the size of each jelly and potato

a. Percent change in height (Height after- Height before/ Height before x 100% = ?)
b. Percent change in width
c. Percent change in length
d. Percent change in volume
e. Percent change in mass

Data Tables:

Data Table A: Quantitative data of the Jelly samples

Jelly 1: Soaking in Distilled Water Jelly 2: Soaking in Salt Water

Before After Before After

Volume 3.0 ml 4.2 ml 3.5 ml 3.2 ml

Mass 5.18 g 6.36 g 5.08g 5.03 g


Data Table B: Qualitative data of the Jelly samples
Jelly 1: Jelly 2:

Descriptive Observations Before Soaking in Descriptive Observations Before Soaking in


Distilled Water: Salt Water:
- Semi-sphere shape - Semi- sphere shape
- Soft texture - Soft texture
- Matt and Bouncy surface - Matt and Bouncy surface
- Darkish red color - Darkish red color

Descriptive Observations After Soaking in Descriptive Observations After Soaking in


Distilled Water: Salt Water
- Semi-sphere shape - Semi-sphere shape
- Harder texture - Softer texture
- Very stretched surface - Very squashy and swelled surface
- The color appears lighter - The color appears darker
- Bumps can be found around the jelly - Creases can be found around the jelly

Data Table C: Percent Change in Volume and Mass of Jelly samples


Jelly 1 : Soaked in Distilled Jelly 2 : Soaked in Salt Water
Water

Percent Change in Volume 40% increase 8.57% decrease

Percent Change in Mass 22.78% increase 0.98% decrease

Data Table D: Quantitative data of the Potato samples


Potato 1: Soaking in Distilled Potato 2: Soaking in Salt water
Water

Before After Before After

Volume 5.8 ml 6.1 ml 5.8 ml 4.5 ml

Mass 5.76 g 6.50 g 5.86 g 4.63 g


Data Table E: Qualitative data of the Potato samples
Potato 1: Potato 2:

Descriptive Observations Before Soaking in Descriptive Observations Before Soaking in


Distilled Water: Salt Water:
- Rectangular Shape - Rectangular Shape
- Moist texture - Moist texture
- Yellowish color - Yellowish color
- Hard and Rough surface - Hard and Rough surface

Descriptive Observations After Soaking in Descriptive Observations After Soaking in


Distilled Water: Salt Water
- Rectangular Shape - Rectangular Shape
- Moist, very watery - Moist, but not as watery
- Many bumps on the surface - Wilt surface
- Very hard and solid texture - Squashy and soft texture
- Lighter color - Darker yellow color

Data Table F: Percent Change in Volume and Mass of Potato samples


Potato 1 (Color): Soaked in Potato 2 (Color): Soaked in
Distilled Water Salt Water

Percent Change in Volume 5.17% increase 22.41% decrease

Percent Change in Mass 12.85% increase 20.99% decrease


Bar Graph of Results:
Analyzing Results Questions:

1. What happened to the jellies after being soaked in distilled water and salt water for an hour?
Why? Be descriptive and detailed in your answer. Use your knowledge of membrane
transport.

Ans: According to the experiment that our group did, different results were shown after the
jelly samples were soaked in both distilled water and concentrated salt solution. Both jelly
samples showed noticeable changes in mass, volume and physical properties. Referring to
Data Table A and B, the jelly which was soaked in distilled water increase its mass by 1.18
grams, approximately 22.78%% while its volume increased by 1.2 ml which is about 40%.
The surface became more stiff, the color turned lighter, and the texture was harder. Based
on the knowledge about membrane transport that we had learned, the jelly increased in
dimension as a result of osmosis. Comparing to the distilled water, the jelly is hypertonic
which means that it has more solute molecules than water molecules. As a result, the water
will move inside the jelly because the water will move from high water concentration to low
water concentration.
Referring to Data Table A and B, the jelly which was soaked in concentrated salt
solution decrease its mass by 0.05 grams, approximately 0.98% while its volume increased
by 0.3 ml which is about 8.57%. Creases can be found around the surface. Moreover, the
color appeared to be darker and the surface became squashy and swelled. Based on the
knowledge about membrane transport that we had learned, the jelly increased in dimension
as a result of osmosis. Comparing to the jelly, concentrated salt solution is a hypertonic
solution which means that there is higher solute than water molecules.Due to that reason,
water will move out of the jelly because water will always move from hypotonic to hypertonic
environment.

2. What happened to the potato after being soaked in distilled water and salt water for an
hour? Be descriptive and detailed in your answer. Use your knowledge of membrane
transport.

Ans: According to the experiment that our group did, different results were shown after the
potatoes pieces were soaked in both distilled water and concentrated salt solution. Both
potatoes showed noticeable changes in mass, volume and physical properties. Referring to
Data Table D and E, the potato which was soaked in distilled water increase its mass by
0.74 grams, approximately 12.85% while its volume increased by 0.3 ml which is about
5.17%. It also became more solid and firm. Based on the knowledge about membrane
transport that we had learned, the potato increased in dimension as a result of osmosis.
Distilled water is a hypotonic solution which means that there is more water molecules than
solute. So the water molecules move from the hypotonic solution toward the potato which is
hypertonic.
Referring to Data Table D and E, the potato which was soaked in concentrated salt
solution decrease its mass by 1.23 grams, approximately 20.99% while its volume increased
by 1.3 ml which is about 22.41%. It also became softer and squishy. Based on the
knowledge about membrane transport that we had learned, the potato decreased in
dimension as a result of osmosis. Concentrated salt solution is a hypertonic solution which
means that there is higher solute than water molecules. So the water move out of the
hypotonic potato to the hypertonic concentrated salt solution.

Conclusion: In conclusion, based on the experiment, the hypothesis was supported by final
result that after both potato pieces and jellies were soaked in distilled water which is
hypotonic solution, it swelled as well as the percentage in volume and mass was increased.
On the other hand, when both of them were soaked in concentrated salt solution which is
hypertonic solution, it shank and the percentage in volume and mass was decreased.

Worklog:
Mai: Help Conducting experiment in the lab, Making Purpose, Hypothesis and Data Table,
Helping with Analysis Questions.
Peem: Collecting Data in the lab, Filling in Data Table, Calculating the percent change of
samples, Helping with Analysis Questions.
Bow: Help conducting experiment in the lab, Doing Analysis Question no.1 and material list.
Tin: Help conducting experiment in the lab, Doing the Bar Graph of Results, Help making
conclusion.
Tonklar: Help conducting experiment in the lab, Doing Analysis Question no.2, Make
procedure and conclusion.

References: