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cellular systems

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Cellular Systems

University of Moratuwa

University of Moratuwa 1 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

The design objective of early mobile systems was to achieve a large coverage

area by using a single, high powered transmitter with an antenna mounted on

a tall tower.

Good coverage

Impossible to reuse those same frequencies throughout the system:

Interference

The radio telephone system was restructured to achieve high capacity with

limited radio spectrum while at the same covering very large areas.

The cellular concept was a major breakthrough in solving problem of

spectral congestion and user capacity:

Low power transmitters with each providing coverage to only a small portion

of the service area called a cell.

Each base station is allocated a portion of the total number of radio channels

available to the entire system.

Neighboring base stations are assigned different group of channels so that the

interference between base stations are minimized. Contd....

University of Moratuwa 2 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

The available channels are distributed throughout the geographical region and

may be reused as many times as necessary.

As the demand for service increases, the number of base stations may be

increased (along with a decrease in transmitter power).

Since in cellular systems a fixed number of channels is used to serve an

arbitrary large number of subscribers by reusing the channels throughout the

coverage region, very high capacity in a limited spectrum allocation can be

achieved.

The basic premise behind cellular systems is to exploit the power falloff with

distance of signal propagation to reuse the same channel at

spatially-separated locations.

Cells that are assigned the same channel set, called co-channel cells, must be

spaced far enough apart so that interference between users in co-channel cells

does not degrade signal quality below tolerable levels.

The required spacing depends on the channelization technique, the signal

propagation characteristics, and the desired performance for each user.

University of Moratuwa 3 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

University of Moratuwa 4 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

may serve many mobile stations (MS).

The transmission direction from the BS to the MS is called the downlink

(DL) or forward link , the direction from the MS to the BS is called the

uplink (UL) or reverse link.

A group of base stations is connected via leased lines or microwave

equipment to a network element, which is called base station controller

(BSC, e.g. in GSM) or radio network controller (RNC, e.g. in UMTS).

The connection between two subscribers is established by the mobile

switching center (MSC).

User authentication, allocation of channels, and handoff between base

stations is coordinated by the MSC.

Under ideal propagation conditions mobiles within a given cell communicate

with the base station in that cell, although in practice the choice is based on

the SINR between the mobile and the base station.

University of Moratuwa 5 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

University of Moratuwa 6 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

The cellular system design must include a specific multiple access technique

for both the uplink and the downlink.

The main multiple access techniques used in cellular systems are TDMA,

FDMA, orthogonal and nonorthogonal CDMA, and their hybrid combinations.

These techniques are sometimes combined with SDMA as well.

The tradeoffs associated with different multiple access techniques are different

in cellular systems than in a singlecell, since each technique must cope with

interference from outside its cell, referred to as intercell or co-channel

interference (CI).

In addition to CI, systems with non-orthogonal channelization must also deal

with interference from within a cell, called intracell interference.

While CDMA with non-orthogonal codes has both intracell and intercell

interference inherent to its design, all interference is attenuated by the code

cross-correlation.

In contrast, orthogonal multiple access techniques have no intracell

interference under ideal operating conditions.

University of Moratuwa 7 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

user is captured by his SINR, defined as

Pr

SINR =

N0 B + PI

where Pr is the received signal power and PI is the received power associated

with both intracell and intercell interference.

In CDMA systems PI is the interference power after despreading.

We typically compute the BER of a mobile based on SINR in place of SNR,

although this approximation is not precisely accurate if the interference does

not have Gaussian statistics.

A larger intercell interference reduces SINR, and therefore increases user

BER. Intercell interference can be kept small by separating cells operating on

the same channel by a large distance.

However, the number of users that can be accommodated in a system is

maximized by reusing frequencies as often as possible.

Good cellular system designs are interference-limited, meaning that the

interference power is much larger than the noise power. Therefore, noise is

generally neglected in the study of these systems.

EN4382-Wireless & Mobile Communications

University of Moratuwa 8 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

defined as SIR = Pr /PI .

In interference-limited systems, since the BER of users is determined by SIR,

the number of users that can be accommodated is limited by the interference

they cause to other users.

Techniques to reduce interference, such as multiple antenna techniques or

multiuser detection, increase the SIR and therefore increase the number of

users the system can accommodate for a given BER constraint.

University of Moratuwa 9 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

A hexagon is a tessellating cell shape in that cells can be laid next to each

other with no overlap to cover the entire geographical region without any

gaps. The other tessellating shapes are rectangles, squares, diamonds, and

triangles.

If propagation follows the free-space or simplified path loss model where

received power is constant along a circle around the base station, then a

hexagon provides a reasonable approximation to this circular shape.

University of Moratuwa 10 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

determined from filed measurement or propagation prediction models.

Hexagons are commonly used to approximate cell shapes when base stations

were placed at the tops of buildings with coverage areas on the order of a few

square miles.

For smaller cells, with base stations placed closer to the ground, diamonds

tend to better approximate the contours of constant power, especially for

typical urban street grids.

Very small cells and indoor cells are heavily dependent on the propagation

environment, making it difficult to accurately approximate contours of

constant power using a tessellating shape.

By using the hexagon geometry, the fewest number of cells can cover

geographic region and hexagon closely approximates a circular radiation

pattern which would occur for an omnidirectional base station antenna.

When using hexagons to model coverage areas:

Center-Excited Cells: BS transmitters are in the center of the cell.

Omnidirectional antennas are used.

Edge (or Corner)-Excited Cells: BS transmitters are on the three of the six cell

vertices of the cell. Sectored antennas are used.

Practical considerations do not allow base stations to be placed exactly as

they appear in the hexagonal layout.

EN4382-Wireless & Mobile Communications

University of Moratuwa 11 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

Handover

When an MS moves between two cells, its call must be handed off from the

base station in the original cell to the base station in the new cell.

The handover procedure occurs when the signal quality of a mobile to its

base station decreases below a given threshold.

This occurs when a mobile moves between cells and can also be due to fading

or shadowing within a cell.

If no neighboring base station has available channels or can provide an

acceptable quality channel then the handoff attempt fails and the call will be

dropped.

Types of handover: soft, hard and softer handover

Hard Handover

A break-before-make process and handoff between two frequencies

The MS releases the old channel before connecting to the new BS via the new

channel; hence, there is a short interruption of the connection.

All FDMA, TDMA, and OFDMA can perform hard handoffs; e.g., in GSM

networks

University of Moratuwa 12 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

EN4382-Wireless & Mobile Communications

University of Moratuwa 13 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

Soft Handover

A make-before-break process

Usually is performed in CDMA systems, because CDMA has to perform the

handoff between two code channels, not two frequencies.

An MS at the cell border may have several connections to the corresponding

base stations at the same time so that there is a smooth transition between

the cells without any interruption.

Additional interconnections between the RNCs are required (in contrast to

GSM).

Softer Handover

A make-before-break type using combined diversity of two code channels

Handoff occurring between sectors only at the serving cell

University of Moratuwa 14 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

In many cases, the handover decision is based upon the received signal level.

Ideal power budget handover - At every moment the MS is served by the BS

from which the maximum signal level

Owing to fading effects, such an ideal power budget criterion would cause

very frequent forward and backward handovers between different cells.

Because of the short interruption phases and signaling effort, frequent hard

handovers should be avoided.

This is usually achieved by introducing an averaging of the signal level and a

hysteresis margin.

A hard handover is only performed when the averaged signal level of a

neighboring cell exceeds one of the current serving cells by this hysteresis

margin of a few decibels.

University of Moratuwa 15 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

packet-switched system.

In a circuit switched system, each traffic channel is dedicated to a user until

its cell is terminated. We can further distinguish two circuit-switched

systems: analog system and digital system.

University of Moratuwa 16 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

An analog system cellular system consists of three subsystems: a mobile unit,

a cell site, a mobile telephone switching office (MTSO).

University of Moratuwa 17 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

A basic digital system consists of four elements: mobile station, base

transceiver station (BTS), base station controller (BSC), and switching

subsystem.

University of Moratuwa 18 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

A cellular packet-switched system consists of six elements: mobile station

(MS), Node B (i.e., base station), radio network controller (RNC), service

GPRS support node (SGSN), gateway GPRS support node, changing gateway

function (CGF), and radio network subsystem (RNS).

University of Moratuwa 19 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

Performance Criteria

There are three categories for specifying performance criteria: voice quality,

data quality and picture/vision quality.

Voice Quality

Voice quality is very hard to judge without subjective tests for users opinions.

Engineers cannot decide how to build a system without knowing the voice

quality that will satisfy the users.

Circuit Merit (CM): A set value x at which y percent of customers rate the

system voice quality (from transmitter to receiver) as good or excellent.

Mean Opinion Score (MOS): The average of the CM scores obtained from all

the listeners is called the MOS. Usually, the toll-quality voice is around

MOS 4.

Diagnostic Rhyme Test (DRT): An ANSI standardization method for

evaluation of intelligibility. Listeners are required to choose which word of

rhyming pair they perceived.

Data Quality

There are several ways to measure the data quality such as bit error rate, chip

error rate, symbol error rate, and frame error rate.

University of Moratuwa 20 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Cellular System Fundamentals

Picture/Vision Quality

There are color acuity, depth perception, flicker perception, motion perception,

noise perception, and visual acuity. The percentage of pixel loss rate can be

characterized in vertical loss and horizontal resolution of a pixel.

University of Moratuwa 21 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

Frequency Reuse

cell, the same group of channels may be simultaneously used to cover

different cells that are separated from one another by distances large enough

to keep interference levels within tolerable limits.

Frequency reuse is the core concept of the cellular mobile radio system. The

frequency reuse system can drastically increase the spectrum efficiency, but if

the the system is not properly designed, serious interference may occur.

Cells that are assigned the same channel set, called co-channel cells, must be

spaced far apart enough so that the interference between users in co-channel

cells does not degrade the signal quality below tolerable levels.

Intercell Interference due to the common use of the same channel is called

cochannel interference.

Frequency Planning: Design process of selecting and allocating channels

groups for all of the cellular base stations within a system

University of Moratuwa 22 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

University of Moratuwa 23 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

Orthogonal multiple access techniques (e.g. TDMA, FDMA, and orthogonal

CDMA)

Non-orthogonal channelization techniques (non-orthogonal or hybrid

orthogonal/non-orthogonal CDMA).

Orthogonal techniques have no intracell interference under ideal conditions.

However, in TDMA and FDMA, cells using the same channels are typically

spaced several cells away, since co-channel interference from adjacent cells

can be very large.

Non-orthogonal channelization exhibits both intercell and intracell

interference, but all interference is attenuated by the cross-correlation of the

spreading codes, which allows channels to be reused in every cell.

In CDMA systems with orthogonal codes, typical for the downlink in CDMA

systems, codes are also reused in every cell, since the code transmissions from

each base station are not synchronized.

The same codes transmitted from different base stations arrive at a mobile

with a timing offset, and the resulting intercell interference is attenuated by

the code autocorrelation evaluated at the timing offset.

This autocorrelation may still be somewhat large.

University of Moratuwa 24 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

unique to each cell is modulated on top of the orthogonal codes used in that

cell.

The non-orthogonal code then reduces intercell interference by roughly its

processing gain. This hybrid approach is used in WCDMA cellular systems.

In CDMA systems, the same codes are typically used in every cell. Thus, the

reuse distance is one and we need not address optimizing channel reuse for

CDMA systems.

In interference limited systems, each users BER is based on his received SIR:

the ratio of his received signal power over his intracell and intercell

interference power.

The average SIR is normally computed based on path loss alone, with median

shadowing attenuation incorporated into the path loss models for the signal

and interference.

Random variations due to shadowing and flat-fading are then treated as

statistical variations about the path loss.

Since path loss is a function of propagation distance, the reuse distance D

between cells using the same channel is an important parameter in

determining average intercell interference power.

EN4382-Wireless & Mobile Communications

University of Moratuwa 25 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

Reuse distance is defined as the distance between the centers of cells that use

the same channels. It is a function of cell shape, cell size, and the number of

intermediate cells between the two cells sharing the same channel.

Cell radius R

For hexagonal cells R is defined as the distance from the center of a cell to a

vertex of the hexagon.

For diamond-shaped cells R is the distance from the cell center to the middle

of a side.

For diamond-shaped cells, the reuse distance D = 2R(NI + 1), where NI is

the number of intermediate cells between co-channel cells.

Reuse distance for hexagonally-shaped cells is more complicated to determine,

since there is not an integer number of cells between two co-channel cells.

The procedure for channel assignment in hexagonal cells is as follows.

Denote the location of each cell by the pair (i, j) where, assuming cell A to be

centered at the origin (0, 0).

Move i cells along u-axis

Turn 60 degrees counterclockwise and move j cells along v -axis

University of Moratuwa 26 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

EN4382-Wireless & Mobile Communications

University of Moratuwa 27 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

University of Moratuwa 28 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

We can show that the distance between cell centers of adjacent cells is 3R,

and the distance between the centers of the cell located at the point (i, j)

and cell A is given by p

D = 3R i 2 + j 2 + ij,

where i and j are non-negative integers.

Consider a cellular system which has a total of NT duplex channels available

for use.

NT channels are divided among the N cells into unique and disjoint channels

groups, which have the same number of channels, NC .

The NT cells which collectively use the complete set of available frequencies is

called a cluster.

Each cell in the cluster is allocated a unique set of NC channels that are not

assigned to any other cell in the cluster.

The cluster size is given by N = NT /NC .

The set of channels assigned to the nth cell in the cluster is denoted by

Cn , n = 1, . . . , N, where N is the number of unique channel sets, and the

pattern of channel assignment is repeated in each cluster.

University of Moratuwa 29 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

University of Moratuwa 30 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

University of Moratuwa 31 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

forms another diamond.

We can show that N = 0.25(D/R)2 and D = 2 NR.

For hexagonal geometry,

without gaps between adjacent cells,

the area of a

cell is Acell = 3 3R 2 /2, and the area of a cluster Acluster = 3D 2 /2. The

number of cells per cluster

2 2

Acluster 3D /2 1 D

N= = = = i 2 + j 2 + ij.

Acell 3 3R 2 /2 3 R

and D = R 3N.

Given a minimum acceptable reuse distance Dmin , we would like to maintain

this minimum reuse distance throughout the cell grid while reusing channels

as often as possible.

If a cluster is replicated M times within the system, the total number of

duplex channels (a measure of capacity) C

C = MNc N = MNT .

University of Moratuwa 32 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Frequency Reuse

times a cluster is replicated in a fixed service area.

If the cluster size N is reduced (while the cell size is kept constant), more

clusters are required to cover a given area (i.e., channels are reused more

often), and hence, more capacity. However, a small N also implies a small

reuse distance.

The larger the cluster size, the weaker the co-channel interference.

The value for N is a function of how much interference a mobile or a base

station can tolerate while maintaining the quality.

The smallest possible value of N is desirable in order to maximize capacity

over a given coverage area.

The Frequency Reuse factor is given by 1/N, since each cell is within a

cluster is only assigned 1/N of the total available channels.

University of Moratuwa 33 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Co-Channel Interference

Co-Channel Interference

Frequency reuse implies that a given coverage area there are several cells that

use the same set of frequencies.

These cells are called co-channel cells and interference between signals from

these cells is called co-channel interference.

Unlike thermal noise which can be overcome by increasing SNR, co-channel

interference can not be combated by simply increasing the carrier power.

To reduce the co-channel interference (CI), co-channel cells must be

physically separated, by a minimum distance to provide sufficient isolation

due to propagation.

When the size of each cell is approximately the same and the BSs transmit

the same power, the CI is independent of the transmitted power and becomes

a function of the radius of the cell (R) and the distance between centers of

the nearest co-channel cells (D)

By increasing the ratio D/R, interference is reduced from improved isolation

of RF energy from the co-channel cell.

University of Moratuwa 34 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Co-Channel Interference

D

Q= = 3N.

R

A small value of Q provides larger capacity since the cluster size N is small.

A large value of Q improves the transmission quality, due to a smaller level of

co-channel interference.

University of Moratuwa 35 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Co-Channel Interference

signal-to-interference ratio (S/I or SIR) for a mobile receiver

S S

= PM

I i=1 Ii

where S is the desired signal power from the desired BS and Ii is the

interference power caused by the ith interfering co-channel cell BS.

The average received signal strength at any point decays as power law of the

distance of separation between a transmitter and receiver.

The average received power Pr at a distance d from the transmitting antenna

is approximated by

d

Pr = P0

d0

d

Pr (dBm) = P0 (dBm) 10 log

d0

where P0 is the power received at a close-in-reference point in the far filed

region of the antenna at a small distance d0 from the transmitting antenna

and is the path loss exponent.

EN4382-Wireless & Mobile Communications

University of Moratuwa 36 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Co-Channel Interference

If Di is the distance of the ith interferer from the mobile, the received power

at a given mobile due to the ith interfering cell will be proportional to (Di ) .

When the transmit power of each base station is equal, S/I for a mobile can

be approximated as

S R

= PM .

I i=1 (Di )

Considering only the first layer of interfering cells, if all BSs are equidistant

from the desired BS and if this distance is equal to the distance D between

cell centers, then

S (D/R) ( 3N)

= = .

I M M

University of Moratuwa 37 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Co-Channel Interference

Using an exact cell geometry layout, it can be shown for a seven-cell cluster,

with the mobile unit at the cell boundary, the mobile is a distance

D R from the two nearest co-channel interfering cells

D + R/2, D, D R/2, and D + R from the other interfering cells in the first

tier.

Using the approximate geometry shown in the figure, assuming = 4, the

SIR for the worst case can be closely approximated as

S R 4

I 2(D R)4

+ 2(D + R)4 + 2D 4

1

=

2(Q 1) + 2(Q + 1)4 + 2Q 4

4

Example:

University of Moratuwa 38 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Co-Channel Interference

University of Moratuwa 39 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

Channel capacity for a radio system can be defined as the maximum number

of users that can be supported in a fixed frequency band for a given SIR

target.

Radio capacity is a parameter which measures spectrum efficiency of a

wireless system. This parameter is determined by

Required signal-to-interference ratio (SIR)

Channel bandwidth Bc

Reverse Channel Interference: Interference at a base station receiver that

comes from the subscriber units in the surrounding cells

Forward Channel Interference: Interference at a particular subscriber unit that

comes from the surrounding co-channel base stations

Let D be the distance between two co-channel cells and R be the cell radius.

Co-channel reuse ratio: Minimum ratio of D/R that is required to provide

tolerable level of co-channel interference

D

Q=

R

EN4382-Wireless & Mobile Communications

University of Moratuwa 40 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

University of Moratuwa 41 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

We will assume the simplified path loss model for our path loss calculations,

so Pr = Pt k(d/d0 ) , where d0 is the reference distance, k is a constant

equal to the average path loss at d = d0 , and is the path loss exponent.

The SIR of a signal is typically used to compute the BER performance

associated with that signal. Specifically, the interference is approximated as

AWGN and then formulas for the BER versus SNR are applied.

Performance of uncoded BPSK without fading yields Pb = Q( 2.SIR) and

performance when the desired signal exhibits Rayleigh fading yields

Pb 0.25/SIR for high SIRs.

Inaccuracies associated with the model:

Approximating the interference as Gaussian noise is accurate for a large

number of interferers, as is the case for CDMA systems, but not accurate for a

small number of interferers, as in TDMA and FDMA systems.

The performance computation in fading neglects the fact that the interferers

also exhibit fading, which results in a received SIR that is the ratio of two

random variables. This ratio has a very complex distribution.

University of Moratuwa 42 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

In these systems there is no intracell interference, so the SIR is determined

from the received signal power and the interference resulting from co-channel

cells.

For simplicity we will neglect interference from outside the first ring of M

interfering cells. In this case M = 6 for hexagonal cell shapes and M = 8 for

diamond cell shapes.

We assume that all transmitters send at the same power Pt .

The resulting signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) is given by

D 0

SIR = PM 0 i ,

i=1 Di

where

M is the number of closest co-channel cells

0 is the path loss exponent in the desired cell

D0 is the distance from the desired base station to the mobile

Di is the distance of the ith cell from the mobile

i is the path loss exponent to the ith interfering base station

EN4382-Wireless & Mobile Communications

University of Moratuwa 43 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

In general the average SIR for uplink and downlink may be roughly the same,

but the SIR for the uplink, where interferers can all be on the cell boundary

closest to the base station they interfere with, generally has a smaller

worst-case value than for the downlink, where interference comes from base

stations at the cell centers.

The SIR expression can be simplified if we assume that the mobile is on its

cell boundary, d = R, and all interferers are at the same reuse distance D

from the intended receiver and have similar path loss exponents I . Under

these assumption the SIR reduces to

R 0

SIR = .

MD I

If I = O = , this simplifies further to

1 D

SIR = .

M R

University of Moratuwa 44 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

Assume that maximum interference occurs when the mobile is at the cell

edge D0 = R, and if the SIR for each user is required to be greater than

some minimum (SIR)min , then we have

1 R

SIRmin .

M D

1/

Q = D/R = (M SIRmin ) .

Given a target SIR value SIRmin required for a target BER, the cluster size N

can be given as

2/

N a (M SIRmin ) ,

where a is constant equal to a = 1/4 and a = 1/3 for diamond-shaped cells

and hexagonal cells, respectively.

When the signal has shadow fading, the analysis is more complex, but we can

still generally obtain reuse distance in terms of the SIR requirement subject

to some outage probability.

EN4382-Wireless & Mobile Communications

University of Moratuwa 45 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

Bt

C= radio channels/cell,

Bc N

where C is the radio capacity metric, Bt is the total allocated spectrum for

the system, Bc is the channel bandwidth, and N is the number of cells in a

complete frequency reuse cluster.

For orthogonal multiple access, C = NC , where NC is the number of channels

assigned to any given cell.

For hexagonal cells, the radio capacity can be given as

Bt Bt

C= 2 = 2/ .

Bc Q3 Bc 6

SIRmin

3/2

Bt

C= q

2

Bc 3 SIRmin

University of Moratuwa 46 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

In order to provide the same voice quality, SIRmin may be lower than in a

digital systems when compared to an analog systems. Lower SIRmin values

imply more capacity.

If Bt and C are kept constant, then Bc and SIRmin are related by

2

Bc

SIReq = SIRmin ,

Bc0

value for the same system, Bc0 is the channel bandwidth for a different

system, and SIReq is the minimum SIR value for the different system.

In a digital cellular systems, SIR can be expressed as

E b Rb E c Rc

SIR = = ,

I I

where Rb is the channel bit rate, Eb is the energy per bit, Rc is the rate of

the channel code, and Ec is the energy per code symbol.

University of Moratuwa 47 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

Ec R c 2

Bc0

SIR I

= Ec0 Rc0

= .

SIReq Bc

I0

level I is the same in the mobile environment for two different mobile systems

0 3

Ec Bc

= .

Ec0 Bc

In FDMA, Bt is divided into NT channels, each with bandwidth Bc .

Therefore, the radio capacity for FDMA in n = 4 propagation path loss

conditions is given by

B NT

C= qt =q .

Bt 2 2

NT 3 SIR 3 SIR

University of Moratuwa 48 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

Consider the case where a multichannel FDMA system occupies the same

spectrum as a single TDMA system with multiple time slots.

For FDMA: S = Eb Rb , I = I0 Bc

For TDMA: S 0 = Eb Rb0 , I 0 = I0 Bc0

where Rb and Rb0 are the radio transmission rates of two digital systems, Eb

enrgy per bit, and I0 represents the interference power per Hertz.

Capacity of Digital Cellular TDMA

In practice, TDMA systems improve capacity by a factor of three to six times

as compared to analog cellular systems.

Better link performance: Error control and speech coding

By exploiting speech activity, some TDMA systems are able to better utilize

each radio channel.

TDMA allows the deployment of densely packed microcells, thus giving

substantial capacity gains in a system.

TDMA makes it possible to introduce adaptive channel allocation (ACA)

University of Moratuwa 49 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

University of Moratuwa 50 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

The capacity of CDMA systems is interference limited, while it is bandwidth

limited in FDMA and TDMA. Therefore any reduction in the interference will

cause a linear increase in the capacity of CDMA.

To use multisectorized antennas. The directional antennas receive signals from

only a fraction of the current users, thus leading to the reduction of

interference.

To operate in a discontinous transmission mode (DTX), where advantage is

taken of the intermittent nature of speech. In DTX, the transmitter is turned

off during the periods of silence.

FDMA and TDMA reuse frequencies depend on the isolation between cells

provided by the path loss in terrestrial radio propagation. CDMA can reuse

the entire spectrum for all cells, and this results in an increase of capacity by

a large percentage over the normal frequency reuse factor.

In non-orthogonal systems codes (i.e. channels) are typically reused in every

cell, so the cluster size is N = 1.

Since these systems exhibit both intercell and intracell interference, the

capacity is dictated by the maximum number of users per cell that can be

accommodated for a given target SIR.

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University of Moratuwa 51 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

We will neglect intercell interference from outside the first tier of interfering

cells, i.e. from cells that are not adjacent to the cell of interest.

We will also assume all signals follow the simplified path loss model with the

same path loss exponent. This assumption is typically true for interference

from adjacent cells, but ultimately depends on the propagation environment.

Let NC = NT = C denote the number of channels per cell.

In CDMA systems the user capacity is typically limited by the uplink, due to

the near-far problem and the asynchronicity of the codes.

Focusing on the uplink, under the simplified path loss model, the received

signal power is Pr = Pt k(d/d0 ) , where d is the distance between the

mobile and its base station.

There are NC 1 asynchronous intracell interfering signals and MNC

asynchronous intercell interfering signals transmitted from mobiles in the M

adjacent cells.

Let di , i = 1, . . . , NC 1 denote the distance from the ith intracell

interfering mobiles to the uplink receiver and Pi denote its power.

University of Moratuwa 52 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

interferering mobile to the uplink receiver and Pj denote its power.

We can show that all interference is reduced by the spreading code cross

correlation /(3G ), where G is the processing gain of the system and is a

parameter of the spreading codes with 1 3.

The total intracell and intercell interference power is thus given by

NC 1 MN

XC

X

I = Pi k(di /d0 ) + Pj k(dj /d0 ) ,

3G

i=1 j=1

Pt d

SIR = P .

NC 1

Pi di + Pj dj

PMNC

3G i=1 j=1

Let us therefore assume perfect power control within a cell, so that the

received power of the desired signal and interfering signals within a cell are

the same: Pr = Pt k(d/d0 = Pi k(di /d0 ) i.

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Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

Pr

SIR = PMNC .

3G (NC 1)Pr + j=1 Pj k(dj /d0 )

Furthermore, let

PMNC

j=1 Pj k(dj /d0 )

= .

(NC 1)(Pr )

The SIR can be reexpressed as

1

SIR =

.

3G (NC 1)(1 + )

Under this approximation, for a given SIR target SIRmin , we can determine

the user capacity C = NC by setting equal to the target SIR and solving for

C , which yields

1

C =1+ .

3G (1 + )SIRmin

University of Moratuwa 54 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Capacity of Cellular Systems

Voice signals need not be continuously active due to their statistical nature.

The fraction of time that a voice user actually occupies the channel is called

the voice activity factor, and is denoted by : 0 < .

If the transmitter shuts off during nonactivity then the interference in CDMA

is multiplied by . This increases SIR and therefore user capacity.

1

C =1+

.

3G (1 + )SIRmin

University of Moratuwa 55 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Adjacent Channel Interference

Interference resulting from signals which are adjacent to in frequency to the

desired signal is called adjacent channel interference.

Adjacent-channel interference includes

Next-channel interference: Due to the channel(s) next to the operating

channel

Neighboring-channel interference: Due to channels more than one channel

away from the operating channel

Adjacent channel interference results from imperfect receiver filters which

allows nearby frequencies to leak into the passband.

Adjacent channel interference can be minimized through careful filtering and

channel assignment.

By keeping the frequency separation between each channel in a given cell as

large as possible, the adjacent channel interference can be reduced

considerably.

Channels are allocated such that frequency separation between channels in a

given cell is maximized.

University of Moratuwa 56 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Adjacent Channel Interference

different cells, many channel allocation schemes are able to separate adjacent

channels in a cell as many as N channel bandwidths.

If the frequency reuse factor is large (i.e., small N) the separation between

adjacent channels at the base station may not be sufficient to keep the

adjacent channel interference level within tolerable limits.

Next-channel interference

Next-channel interference in an AMPS system cannot be caused by

transmitters in the common cell site but must originate from at several other

cell sites.

Any combiner at the cell site must combine the selected channels normally 21

channels (at least 8-10 channels) away from the desired one.

The channel filter (at the receiving end) characteristics are a 6 dB/oct slope in

the voice band and a 24 dB/oct fall off outside the voice band region.

University of Moratuwa 57 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Adjacent Channel Interference

Neighboring-channel interference

The channels that are several channels away from the desired channel will

cause interference with the desired signal.

If all the channels are simultaneously transmitted at one cell-site antenna, a

sufficient amount of band isolation between the channels is required for a

multichannel combiner to reduce intermodulation products.

Band separation requirements can be resolved by using multiple antennas

instead of one antenna at the cell cite.

A truly linear broadband antenna amplifier can also be used to avoid

intermodulation products.

Transmitting and receiving channels interference

In FDMA and TDMA systems, the transmitting channels and receiving

channels have to be separated by a guard band mostly 20 MHz.

It is because the transmitting channels are so strong that they can mask the

weak signals received from the receiving channels.

The duplexer can only provide 30 dB to 40 dB isolation. The band isolation is

the other means to reduce the interference.

University of Moratuwa 58 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Adjacent Channel Interference

Because motor vehicles in a given cell are usually moving, some mobile units

are close to the cell site and some are not.

The close-in mobile unit has a strong signal that causes adjacent-channel

interference.

In this situation, near-endfar-end interference can occur only at the reception

point in the cell site.

If a separation of 5B (five channel bandwidths) is needed for two adjacent

channels in a cell in order to avoid the near-endfar-end interference, it is then

implied that a minimum separation of 5B is required between each adjacent

channel used with one cell.

A good frequency management chart is needed to assign the N sets of

frequency channels properly and thus to avoid this problem.

Near-far effect also occurs when an adjacent channel user is transmitting in

very close range to a subscribers receiver, while receiver attempts to receive

a base station on the desired channel.

University of Moratuwa 59 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Adjacent Channel Interference

duopoly-market system. In this situation, adjacent-channel interference can

occur at both the cell site and the mobile unit.

For instance, mobile unit A can be located at the boundary of its own home

cell A in system A but very close to cell B of system B as shown.

The other situation would occur if mobile unit B were at the boundary of cell

B of system B but very close to cell A of system A.

The solid arrow indicates that interference may occur at cell site A and the

dotted arrow indicates that interference may occur at mobile unit A.

The same interference will be introduced at cell site B and mobile unit B.

The frequency channels of both cells of the two systems must be coordinated

in the neighborhood of the two-system frequency bands.

University of Moratuwa 60 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Adjacent Channel Interference

Figure: Near-endfar-end (ratio) interference. (a) In one cell; (b) in two-system cells

University of Moratuwa 61 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

As the demand for wireless service increases, the number of channels assigned

to a cell eventually becomes insufficient to support the required number of

users.

At this point, cellular design techniques are needed to provide more channels

per unit coverage area. Following techniques are commonly used in practice

to expand the capacity of cellular systems:

Cell splitting: Allows an orderly growth of the cellular system

Sectoring: Uses directional antennas to further control the interference and

frequency reuse of channels.

Zone microcell (smallcells): Distributes the coverage of a cell and extends the

cell boundary to hard-to-reach places.

While cell splitting increases the number of base stations in order to increase

capacity, sectoring and zone microcells rely on base station antenna

placements to improve capacity by reducing co-channel interference.

University of Moratuwa 62 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

Cell Splitting

When the call traffic in an area increases, we must split the cell so that we

can reuse frequency more often.

Cell splitting is the process of subdividing a congested cell into smaller cells,

each with its own base station and a corresponding reduction in antenna

height and transmitter power.

Cell splitting increases the capacity of a cellular system since it increases the

number of times that channels are reused.

By defining cells which have a smaller radius than the original cells and by

installing these smaller cells (called microcells) between the existing cells,

capacity increases due to the additional number of channels per unit area.

Imagine if every cell were reduced in such a way that the radius of every cell

was cut in half. In order to cover the entire service area with smaller cells,

approximately four times as many cells would be required.

The increased number of cells would increase the number of clusters over the

coverage region, which in turn would increase the number of channels, and

thus capacity, in the coverage area.

University of Moratuwa 63 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

University of Moratuwa 64 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

Cell splitting allows a system to grow by replacing large cells with smaller

cells, while not upsetting the channel allocation scheme required to maintain

the minimum co-channel reuse ratio Q between co-channel cells.

For the new cells to be smaller in size, the transmit power of these cells must

be reduced.

The transmit power of the new cells with radius half that of the original cells

can be found by examining the received power at the new and old cell

boundaries and setting them equal to each other.

This is necessary to ensure that the frequency reuse plan for the new

microcells behaves exactly as for the original cells.

and

Pr [ at new cell boundary ] Pt1 (R/2)

where Pt0 and Pt1 are the transmit powers of the larger and smaller cell

basestations, respectively, and is the path loss exponent.

University of Moratuwa 65 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

If we take n = 4 and set the received powers equal to each other, then

Pt0

Pt1 =

16

i.e., the transmit power must be reduced by 12 dB in order to fill in the

original coverage area with microcells, while maintaining the S/I requirement.

A general formula is for a new cell which is split repeatedly n times, and

every time the new radius is one-half of the old one; then Rn = R0 /2n .

When cell splitting occurs, the value of the frequency-reuse ratio Q = D/R is

always held constant.

The traffic load can increase four times in the same area after the original cell

is split into four subcells. As the cell splitting continues, the general formula

can be expressed as

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Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

In practice, not all cells are split at the same time. It is often difficult for

service providers to find real estate that is perfectly situated for cell splitting.

Therefore, different cell sizes will exist simultaneously. In such situations,

special care needs to be taken to keep the distance between co-channel cells

at the required minimum, and hence channel assignments become more

complicated.

Also, handoff issues must be addressed so that high speed and low speed

traffic can be simultaneously accommodated.

When there are two cell sizes in the same region that one can not simply use

the original transmit power for all new cells or the new transmit power for all

the original cells.

Channels in the old cell must be broken down into two channel groups, one

that corresponds to the smaller cell reuse requirements and the other that

corresponds to the larger cell reuse requirements.

The larger cell is usually dedicated to high speed traffic so that handoffs

occur less frequently.

University of Moratuwa 67 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

base station towards the ground (rather than towards the horizon), is often

used to limit the radio coverage of newly formed microcells.

The two techniques of cell splitting

Permanent splitting

Real-time splitting (Dynamic splitting)

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Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

station A

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Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

Sectoring

Another way to increase capacity is to keep the cell radius unchanged and

seek methods to decrease the Q = D/R ratio.

In this approach, capacity improvement is achieved by reducing the number

of cells in a cluster and thus increasing the frequency reuse.

However, in order to do this, it is necessary to reduce the relative interference

without decreasing the transmit power.

The co-channel interference in a cellular system may be decreased by

replacing a single omni-directional antenna at the base station by several

directional antennas, each radiating within a specified sector.

By using directional antennas, a given cell will receive interference and

transmit with only a fraction of the available co-channel cells. The technique

for decreasing co-channel interference and thus increasing system capacity by

using directional antennas is called sectoring.

The factor by which the co-channel interference is reduced depends on the

amount of sectoring used. A cell is normally partitioned into three 120o

sectors or six 60o sectors.

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Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

When sectoring is employed, the channels used in a particular cell are broken

down into sectored groups and are used only within a particular sector.

Assuming 7-cell reuse, for the case of 120o sectors, the number of interferers

in the first tier is reduced from 6 to 2.

University of Moratuwa 71 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

located in the right-most sector in the center cell labeled 5.

Out of these 6 co-channel cells, only 2 cells have sectors with antenna

patterns which radiate into the center cell, and hence a mobile in the center

cell will experience interference on the forward link from only these two

sectors.

The resulting S/I for this case can be found using equation to be 24.2 dB,

which is a significant improvement over the omni-directional case, where the

worst case S/I was shown to be 17 dB.

The improvement in S/I implies that with 120o sectoring, the minimum

required S/I of 18 dB can be easily achieved with 7-cell reuse, as compared

to 12-cell reuse for the worst possible situation in the unsectored case.

Thus, sectoring reduces interference, which amounts to an increase in

capacity by a factor of 12/7. or 1.714.

In practice, the reduction in interference offered by sectoring enable planners

to reduce the cluster size N, and provides an additional degree of freedom in

assigning channels.

University of Moratuwa 72 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

The penalty for improved S/I and the resulting capacity improvement is an

increased number of antennas at each base station, and a decrease in

trunking efficiency due to channel sectoring at the base station.

Since sectoring reduces the coverage area of a particular group of channels,

the number of handoffs increases, as well.

It is the loss of traffic due to decreased trunking efficiency that causes some

operators to shy away from the sectoring approach, particularly in dense

urban areas.

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Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

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Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

The increased number of handoffs required when sectoring is employed

results in an increased load on the switching and control link elements of the

mobile system.

Lee presented a solution to this problem based on a microcell concept for 7

cell reuse, as illustrated in the figure.

In this scheme, each of the three (or possibly more) zone sites (represented as

Tx/Rx) are connected to a single base station and share the same radio

equipment.

The zones are connected by coaxial cable, fiberoptic cable, or microwave link

to the base station.

Multiple zones and a single base station make up a cell. As a mobile travels

within the cell, it is served by the zone with the strongest signal.

This approach is superior to sectoring since antennas are placed at the outer

edges of the cell, and any base station channel may be assigned to any zone

by the base station.

As a mobile travels from one zone to another within the cell, it retains the

same channel.

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Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

University of Moratuwa 76 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

Thus, unlike in sectoring, a handoff is not required at the MSC when the

mobile travels between zones within the cell. The base station simply

switches the channel to a different zone site.

The channels are distributed in time and space by all three zones and are also

reused in co-channel cells in the normal fashion.

The advantage of the zone cell technique is that while the cell maintains a

particular coverage radius, the co-channel interference in the cellular system

is reduced since a large central base station is replaced by several lower

powered transmitters (zone transmitters) on the edges of the cell.

Decreased co-channel interference improves the signal quality and also leads

to an increase in capacity, without the degradation in trunking efficiency

caused by sectoring.

With respect to the zone microcell system, since transmission at any instant

is confined to a particular zone, this implies that a Dz /Rz of 4.6 (where Dz is

the minimum distance between active co-channel zones and Rz is the zone

radius) can achieve the required link performance.

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Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

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Cellular Systems Improving Capacity and coverage in Cellular Systems

Let each individual hexagon represents a zone, while each group of three

hexagons represents a cell. The zone radius is approximately equal to one

hexagon radius.

The capacity of the zone microcell system is directly related to the distance

between co-channel cells, and not zones.

For a value of 4.6, the value of co-channel reuse ratio, Q = D/R = 3, where

R is the radius of the cell and is equal to twice the length of the hexagon

radius.

D/R = 3 corresponds to a cluster size of N = 3. This reduction in the

cluster size from N = 7 to N = 3 amounts to a 2.33 times increase in

capacity for a system completely based on the zone microcell concept.

University of Moratuwa 79 / 79 Chandika Wavegedara

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