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# Consumer Electronics

## Properties of condenser microphone:

1. Condenser microphones are also called as capacitor microphones.
2. These microphones have smooth frequency response.
3. They are Omni-directional meaning can pick up sound from all directions.
4. They are highly sensitive to humidity and temperature.
5. These are no as rugged as the dynamic microphones.
6. They are usually preferred for acoustic instruments.
7. They are costly compared to the dynamic microphones.

2. How do optical discs work? How can DVDs store more data than regular CDs?

## Optical discs Working:

1. Laser light can be focused on to a very small spot on the surface of the optical discs.
2. There are many pits and lands present on the disc, when the laser light is bounced off the
surface where there is transition from pit to land, there is no reflection.
3. If the reflection is detected by the detector then corresponds to a zero else to a one.
4. Traditionally the CDs use the red laser for detection.

The DVDs can store higher number of bits in unit area, because the blue laser is used in the
case of the DVDs allowing us to focus the light to a still smaller spot.
3. Find the velocity of compression wave at 20c in air and in iron? Value of bulk
modulus of air is 1.0132* N/ gamma value for air is 1.4. Density air at STP is
1.2.Youngs modulus for iron is 2* and its density is 7.7* ? What can be
inferred from this?

Velocity of a compressional wave in air is given by v=( )

## substituting the values we get 343.811m/s

velocity of the wave in iron is v=

## substituting the given values we get v=5096.471m/s

we can infer that speed of the compressional wave is more in solids than air.

4. What is the intensity of sound if the power of sound source is 30 watt and
distance from the source is 50 meter?

We know that the intensity of the sound source of given power is given by
I = (P/ (4* 2 ))
plugging in the values we get I=9.55*104 watt/m2
5. Explain color and monochrome signal transmission path using a neat diagram.
6. Describe the working of an electrodynamic loudspeaker with its features.

## An electrodynamic loudspeaker or field coil loudspeaker is a dynamic loudspeaker in which the

field is produced by an electromagnet rather than by a permanent magnet.

## An electrodynamic loudspeaker therefore has two coils:

The voice coil common to all dynamic loudspeakers, positioned in the air gap between the pole
pieces, the motion of which moves the loudspeaker cone.

A fixed field coil which together with its magnetic core replaces the permanent magnet of other
dynamic loudspeakers.
7. State the working of a ribbon microphone with a neat diagram.

## Thin metal foil or ribbon is suspended in a magnetic field.

Sound waves vibrate the ribbon in the field and generate an electric signal.
Warm, smooth tone quality, expensive.
Delicate, damaged by temperature and humidity changes
Compliments digital recording

## 8. Explain the terms:

Presence Peak

Proximity Effect

Presence Peak: rising high end around 5-10 kHz makes sound more crisp and articulate.

## Proximity effect: a bass boost tendency of a mix when placed to close.

9. Define Sensitivity.

## Sensitivity is a measure of how effectively a earpiece converts an incoming electrical signal to

audible sound. It indicates how loud the earphones will be for the given drive level. It can be
measured in decibels of sound pressure level per mW or dB SPL/mW, which may be
abbreviated to dB/mW. The sensitivity if headphones is usually between 80-125dB/mW
10. An audio amplifier produces 20 watt output across an 8 ohm resistance when
a 5 millivolt signal is applied to its input across a 1 mega ohm resistor. Determine
the decibel gain.

## 11. Discuss Blu-ray Technology.

The technology utilizes a "blue" (actually blue-violet) laser diode operating at a wavelength of
405 nm to read and write data. Conventional DVDs and CDs use red and infrared lasers at 650
nm and 780 nm respectively
The blue-violet laser has a shorter wavelength than CD or DVD systems, and this shrinking
makes it possible to store more information on a 12 cm (CD/DVD size) disc.
Formats Blu-ray is initially designed in several different formats:
BD-ROM (read-only) - for pre-recorded content
BD-R (recordable) - for PC data storage
BD-RW (rewritable) - for PC data storage
BD-RE (rewritable) - for HDTV recording
12. Explain the working of permanent magnet loudspeaker with the help of a neat
diagram.

At the front of a loudspeaker, there is a fabric, plastic, paper, or lightweight metal cone
sometimes called a diaphragm not unlike a drum skin.
The outer part of the cone is fastened to the outer part of the loudspeaker's circular
metal rim. The inner part is fixed to an iron coil sometimes called the voice coil that sits
just in front of a permanent magnet sometimes called the field magnet.
When you hook up the loudspeaker to a stereo, electrical signals feed through the
speaker cables into the coil.
This turns the coil into a temporary magnet or electromagnet.
As the electricity flows back and forth in the cables, the electromagnet either attracts or
repels the permanent magnet. This moves the coil back and forward, pulling and
pushing the loudspeaker cone.
13. Discuss the different types of headphones based on form factor.

Circumaural
earpads that encompass the ears. Because these headphones completely surround the ear,
circumaural headphones can be designed to fully seal against the head to attenuate
external noise.
Supra-aural
Supra-aural headphones have pads that press against the ears, rather than around them.
They were commonly bundled with personal stereos during the 1980s. This type of
headphone generally tends to be smaller and lighter
Clip-on earphones
Earbuds and earphones refer to very small headphones that are fitted directly in the outer
ear, facing but not inserted in the ear canal; they have no band or other arrangement to fit
Canalphones
Headphones like earbuds are small and without headband, but are inserted in the ear canal
itself. They are sometimes known as canalphones. Price and quality range from relatively
inexpensive to very high.

14. Describe the primary difference between longitudinal and transverse waves.
15. What is a Transducer? Give example. Also give different types of
microphones.

A transducer is a device, usually electrical or electronic, that converts one type of energy to
another for the purpose of measurement or information transfer.

## Most transducers are either sensors or actuators.

Common examples include microphones, loudspeakers.

## In a microphone, the diaphragm moves in response to changing air pressure (sound),

creating an electrical current.

## The different types of microphones are:-

1) Dynamic microphone

2) Condenser microphone

3) Ribbon microphone

## In a dynamic microphone, a coil of wire attached to a diaphragm is suspended in a magnetic

field.

The sound waves vibrate diaphragm, coil vibrates in magnetic field and generates an
electrical signal similar to sound wave

## It gives flat response

17. Describe briefly about Condenser Microphone.

## There are 2 parts in the Condenser microphone.

They are: conductive diaphragm and metal backplate, which are spaced very close together.
They are both charged with static electricity. When sound waves strike diaphragm, it
vibrates, varying the spacing between the plates. This variation generates a similar signal to
incoming sound wave

## Diaphragm mass is lower, responds faster to rapidly changing sound waves.

Condenser mics need external power supply (battery) 12 to 48 volts, wide and smooth
frequency response. They have detailed sound, extended highs. The Omni type has
excellent low-frequency response. It is referred for acoustic instruments, studio vocals. It can
be miniaturized
18. Describe briefly about Ribbon microphone.

In Ribbon microphone the thin metal foil or ribbon is suspended in a magnetic field

The sound waves vibrate the ribbon in the field and generate an electrical signal.

## It complements digital recording

19. Describe polar patterns in microphones and explain different types of polar
patterns.

Polar pattern refers to the way a microphone responds from different directions. The graph is
based on its sensitivity (measured in decibels).

## There are 2 types of polar patterns in microphones. They are:-

i) Omni-Directional patterns

## There are 4 types of Uni-Directional Patterns. They are:-

a) Cardioid pattern

## c) Hyper Cardioid Pattern

d) Bi directional
i) Omni Directional patterns: It has all round pick up. Does not have much isolation. It has low
sensitivity to pops and it also has low handling of noise. It has extended low frequency
response. It is of lower cost

ii)

a) Cardioid Pattern: Selective pickup. It has rejection of room acoustics, background noise, and
leakage, broad-angle pickup of sources in front of mic. It has Maximum rejection of sound
approaching the rear of the mic. It is the most popular pattern

b) Super Cardioid Patterns: Maximum difference between front hemisphere and rear
hemisphere (good for stage-floor mic. It has more isolation than cardioid. It has less reverb than
cardioid

c) Hyper cardioid patterns: Maximum side rejection. It has maximum isolation maximum
rejection of reverb, leakage, and background noise
d) Bi-Directional:-Front and rear pickup, with sides rejected

## 20. What is frequency response? Also define:

Roll of Switches

Presence Peak

Proximity Effect

Range of frequencies a mic will reproduce at an equal level (within a tolerance like 3db) is
called frequency response

## Brass and voice: 80 Hz 12kHz

Piano: 40 Hz 12 kHz

## Roll-off switches: attenuates frequencies below a point below fundamental frequency of

instrument youre recording (guitar does not play below 80 Hz)

Presence peak: rising high end around 5 10kHz makes sounds more crisp and
articulate (crunchy)

Proximity effect: a bass boost tendency of a mic when placed too close.
21. Give different types of headphones based on transducer technology and

## The different type of headphones based on transducer technology are:-

i) Moving coil
ii) Electrostatic
iii) Balanced armature

Balanced armature is a sound transducer design primarily intended to increase the electrical
efficiency of the element by eliminating the stress on the diaphragm characteristic of many other
magnetic transducer systems.
22. Describe electrostatic and moving coil headphones.

The moving iron, more commonly referred to as a "dynamic" driver is the most common type
used in headphones. The operating principle consists of a stationary magnetic element affixed
to the frame of the headphone which sets up a static magnetic field

## Electrostatic drivers consist of a thin, electrically charged diaphragm, typically a coated

polystyrene film membrane, suspended between two perforated metal plates (electrodes).
23. Give types of headphones based on design and explain them.

## There are 4 types of headphones based on design. They are:-

i) Circum aural
ii) Supra aural
iii) Clip on earphones
iv) Canalphones

or ellipsoid earpads that encompass the ears. Because these headphones completely surround
the ear, circumaural headphones can be designed to fully seal against the head to attenuate
external noise

rather than around them. They were commonly bundled with personal stereos during the 1980s.
This type of headphone generally tends to be smaller and lighter

iii) Clip on earphones: Earbuds and earphones refer to very small headphones that are fitted
directly in the outer ear, facing but not inserted in the ear canal; they have no band or other
arrangement to fit over the head.

iv) Canalphones: Near headphones like earbuds are small and without headband, but are
inserted in the ear canal itself. They are sometimes known as canalphones. Price and quality
range from relatively inexpensive to very high.

## A LOUDSPEAKER IS TRANSDUCER WHICH CONVERTS ELECTICAL SIGNALS OF AUDIO

FREQUENCY INTO SOUND WAVES OF THE SAME FREQUENCY.

## A loudspeaker must be able to reproduce a wide range of audio frequencies (i.e., 20 Hz to 20

kHz).

Basically there are three types of loudspeaker, they are listed as follows.

## MOVING COIL LOUDSPEAKER OR CONE TYPE LOUDSPEAKER

ELECTRODYNAMIC LOUDSPEAKER
HORN TYPE LOUDSPEAKER
25. Give principle and features of a moving coil loudspeaker with a diagram.

Principle-

The moving coil loudspeaker works on the interaction between a magnetic field and current
flowing through the coil.

A coil called voice coil, is placed in a uniform magnetic field. When the audio current passes
through the voice coil, there is an interaction between the magnetic field and the current,
resulting in a force working on the movable coil.

This force is proportional to the audio current, and hence causes vibratory motion in the coil,
which makes a conical paper diaphragm to vibrate and produce pressure variations in air,
resulting in sound waves.

Features:-

SNR = 30 DB

## FREQUENCY RESPONSE = MEDIUM FREQUENCY

DISTORTION = 10%

DIRECTIVITY = OMNIDIRECTION
26. Give construction and working of a moving coil loudspeaker.

Construction:-

The moving coil loudspeaker consist of a voice coil, wound on a cardboard. Audio current is fed
to the loudspeaker through two terminals. The coil is placed in a magnetic field. The magnet is a
permanent magnet. The coil is attached to the conical diaphragm. The cone is corrugated
having circular corrugation to increase surface area for better efficiency. A flexible strip of rubber
round its periphery is used to support it. The spider springs are used to support the complete
diaphragm and also provides the required stiffness to restrain the motion. The spider also keep
the coil centred so that cone moves forward and backward only.

At the front of a loudspeaker, there is a fabric, plastic, paper, or lightweight metal cone
sometimes called a diaphragm not unlike a drum skin.

The outer part of the cone is fastened to the outer part of the loudspeaker's circular metal rim.
The inner part is fixed to an iron coil sometimes called the voice coil that sits just in front of a
permanent magnet sometimes called the field magnet.

When you hook up the loudspeaker to a stereo, electrical signals feed through the speaker
cables into the coil. This turns the coil into a temporary magnet or electromagnet. As
the electricity flows back and forth in the cables, the electromagnet either attracts or repels the
permanent magnet. This moves the coil back and forward, pulling and pushing the loudspeaker
cone.
27. Give principle and features of an electrodynamic loudspeaker with a diagram.

Principle:-

## An electrodynamic loudspeaker or field coil loudspeaker is a dynamic loudspeaker in which the

field is produced by an electromagnet rather than by a permanent magnet. An electrodynamic
loudspeaker therefore has two coils: The voice coil common to all dynamic loudspeakers,
positioned in the air gap between the pole pieces, the motion of which moves the loudspeaker
cone. A fixed field coil which together with its magnetic core replaces the permanent magnet of
other dynamic loudspeakers.

Features:-

To provide strong magnetic field for high wattage speakers an electromagnet is used instead of
permanent magnet.

## Some characteristics are given below

EFFICIENCY 30-50%

## FREQUENCY RESPONSE - 30HZ-10KHZ

DISTORTION LOW

SNR-30-40db
28. Give construction and working of an electrodynamic loudspeaker.

Construction:-

The strong and steady magnetic field is produced by a large field coil wrapped around a core.
The shape of the magnet is pot type with the South Pole in the centre and the North Pole in the
periphery. The special shape of the core allows magnetic flux to remain concentrated in the
angular gap between pole pieces.

Working:-

The voice coil is wound on fibre or aluminium it is a placed in the angular gap. The audio signal
from the amplifier's output transformer is applied to the voice coil.

This signal causes a varying magnetic field. The resultant interaction between the two magnetic
fields produces mechanical vibrations in the coil assembly, which corresponds to the audio
signals.
29. Give principle and features of a horn type loudspeaker with a diagram.

## A horn loudspeaker is a loudspeaker or loudspeaker element which uses an acoustic horn to

increase the overall efficiency of the driving element(s).

It consists of a compression driver which produces sound waves with a small metal diaphragm
vibrated by an electromagnet, attached to a horn to produce sound waves to the open air.

## Some characteristics is given below:

EFFICIENCY 30 to 50 %

SNR 40 db

## FREQUENCY RESPONSE 30-10000Hz

DISTORTION 5%
30. Give construction and working of a horn type loudspeaker with a diagram.

Construction:-

The horn is tapered enclosure whose diameter increases from the throat to the mouth. There is
an air chamber trapped between throat and diaphragm. The horn acts as a high pass filter.

Working:-

Horn type loudspeaker use moving coil place in magnetic field but instead of radiating acoustic
and sound power direct to the open space of listener area.

The power is first deliver to air chamber and then tapped to the horn and from there to the
listener area.