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GAS WHAT???

FOSSIL FUEL Issue 1

Gas What???
Fossil Fuel

23th May 2016

TIME TO CHANGE GREENHOUSE EFFECT - FOSSIL FUEL

Greenhouse Effect
by Edward Ng Wing Siang

Almost every day, we hear about news What studies have shown?
regarding natural disasters that happen
around the world. As time goes by, the Studies have shown that the temperature of
frequency of such calamities happen more our earth is have been increasing at a very
frequently. However, are all these events alarming rate as we can see from the figure
part of our own doing and can we do above. A major factor for the drastic increase Ice caps in the poles are melting
something about it? in temperature is due to a phenomena called
greenhouse effect. What is greenhouse
effect and how is it cause?

Greenhouse Effect
Greenhouse effect is the phenomenon
whereby heat is trapped within the earth
atmosphere. It keeps the surface of the earth
warm. Without the greenhouse effect, the
surface of the earth would have been frozen Ground breaks up due to extreme temperatures
up [2]. This effect is cause by greenhouse
gases. These gasses absorbs the infrared
radiation in the wavelength range that is
emitted by earth which in turn slowing down
the rate of heat loss to the outer space. In
other word, the greenhouse gasses will retain
the radiated heat at a certain wavelength.
Examples of greenhouse gasses are carbon
From top: Temperature anomaly of the world in year
range 1885-1894 and 2005-2014 dioxide, water vapor and methane.

Greenhouse Effect
GAS WHAT??? FOSSIL FUEL | Issue 1 2

Sadly, there have been a huge increase in the


content of these gasses within our
atmosphere. It has cause the temperature of
the earth to increase. The increase in the
surface temperature of the earth has caused
many problems to our lives.

Why fossil fuel?


One of the major factor for the increase of
these gasses in our atmosphere that is the
ever increasing usage of fossil fuels in our
daily lives. Fossil fuels plays a major role in
the improvement of the quality of our lives. It
is what drives the industrial revolution.
Factories, transportation and also electrical
supply are mainly possible due fossil fuels.
The energy from fossil fuels are extracted
through combustion with oxygen. The Islands such as the beautiful Island of
product of a complete combustion will Fernando de Noronha in Brazil are at
produce water vapor and also carbon treat of being submerged underwater
dioxide. The below equation is the
stoichiometric equation for the complete
combustion process of methane.

4 + 22 22 + 2

Therefore, if there is no control in the


combustion of fossil fuels, the carbon dioxide
content in the atmosphere will increase and
in turn increase the temperature of the earth
surface due to the enhancement of the
greenhouse effect.

How is is it affecting?
In recent times, we can already see some
effect of the increase in earths temperature.
Ice caps from the north and south poles are
melting due to the increase of earths surface
temperature. When the ice melts, the water
content in the sea increases hence increasing
sea level [10]. The effect can be seen already
as some of the island disappeared from the
map as it is being submerged into the sea.
Just recently, five pacific islands were lost
due to rising sea level.

Besides that, animals are also affected by the


increase in the temperature of the earths
surface. Animals that lives in the Artic such
Wildlife that are severely affected by
as Polar bears have lesser areas to roam [4].
global warming
This means that they will face difficulties in
finding food and also the possibilities of
drowning of polar bears will increase.

Birds such as the Tufled puffin disappear as


they are highly sensitive to temperature
change [11].
GAS WHAT??? FOSSIL FUEL | Issue 1 3

How to stop it from worsening?


Steps have to be taken in order to control the
level of carbon dioxide that is being emitted
into the atmosphere so that the environment
can be preserved. Firstly, other sources of
energy can be used to reduce the usage of
fossil fuels. Energy sources such as wind,
hydro and solar energy can be utilized as it is
a much more environmental friendly
alternative. These alternatives have minimal
carbon dioxide production.

Besides that, amount of forest reserves


should be increased. By increasing forest
reserves, the amount of carbon dioxide in the
air can be reduced as they undergo the
process of photosynthesis. Besides that, by
increasing the amount of trees, it will
strengthen the soil so that natural disasters
such as landslides can be avoided.
Way to stop global warming from
worsening

Resources
[1]"World of Change: Global Temperatures: Feature
Articles", Earthobservatory.nasa.gov, 2016. [Online]. Available:
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/decadaltemp.php.
[Accessed: 13- May- 2016].
[2]"Carbon Dioxide | Weather Underground", Wunderground.com, 2016. [Online].
Available: https://www.wunderground.com/climate/co2.asp?MR=1. [Accessed:
23- May- 2016].
[3]"Doubling CO2 and basic physics", Clive Best, 2010. [Online]. Available:
http://clivebest.com/blog/?p=1169. [Accessed: 23- May- 2016].
[4]"Climate Change | Polar Bears International", Polarbearsinternational.org, 2016.
The process of Photosynthesis [Online]. Available: http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/about-polar-
bears/climate-change. [Accessed: 23- May- 2016].
Last but not least, more green building can [5]"Coral bleaching - GBRMPA", Gbrmpa.gov.au, 2016. [Online]. Available:
be build. The construction and maintenance http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/threats-to-the-reef/climate-
of building account for close to half of UKs change/what-does-this-mean-for-species/corals/what-is-coral-bleaching.
[Accessed: 23- May- 2016].
carbon dioxide emission. Therefore, by
[6]"NOAA's Coral Reef Conservation Program: Climate Change", Coralreef.noaa.gov,
building green building, amount of carbon 2016. [Online]. Available: http://coralreef.noaa.gov/threats/climate/. [Accessed:
dioxide emission can be decrease. Measures 09- May- 2016].
such as using double glazed and cavity wall [7]"What is photosynthesis? Eschooltoday.com, 2016. [Online]. Available:
insulations can reduce the energy needed to http://www.eschooltoday.com/photosynthesis/what-is-photosynthesis.html.
run a heater. Besides that, water can also be [Accessed: 23- May- 2016].
heated using solar energy or ground source [8] Telegraph Media Group Limited, "Report Information from Pro Quest", Telegraph
heat exchangers [8]. Media Group Limited, London, 2008.
[9]"Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve Costa Rica maps of trails, photos, sounds, weather,
info on the rainforest .", Monteverdeinfo.com, 2016. [Online]. Available:
Conclusion http://www.monteverdeinfo.com/monteverde.htm. [Accessed: 11- May- 2016].
[10]C. Beata, "A History of Greenland's ice loss", Climate Science, vol. 528, pp. 341-342,
Therefore, it is clear that everyone have to 2015.
play a role to make the earth a better place [11]"Climate change impacts on bird species", Wwf.panda.org, 2016. [Online]. Available:
by reducing the carbon dioxide emission to http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/aboutcc/problems/impacts/species/cc_an
the air. It is vital that steps have to be taken d_birds/. [Accessed: 23- May- 2016].
immediately for our future generations. If
this problem is not taken seriously, bad
things are bound to happen. Natural
disasters will occur more often which would
put the future of our younger generations at
stake. So please do your part in protecting
Mother Nature.
GAS WHAT??? FOSSIL FUEL | Issue 1 4

This placeholder article provides the starts at the top of the following page) just so
following tips: that you can still see the layout of the
Caption 2 style is used to add
following page while you
picture begin Captions
captions. adding your
are in
Creating thermometer charts using own text on this text
page. As mentioned
boxes on the
for easy placement
tables, as shown at left. first page of this relative
template, remember that it
to images.
might look like the layout is skewed when
Setting up multipage articles.
you replace a long piece of placeholder text
Wrapping text around images by starting to type your own, but it is not. As
Adding article titles and bylines you add your content, the layout that follows
will move down automatically and back into
Creating the sidebar position.
thermometer charts
When you work in Word 2010 (or PowerPoint To remove the second placeholder control
Sidebar Setup 2010), you have the full power of Excel 2010 that starts immediately following this one,
The sidebars in this template use simple, single-row just select it and then press any key. You can
tables for the gray-shaded headings and thermometer

Formatting Tips
charts shown below for easy alignment.

by [Article Author]

charts (provided that Excel is installed on then continue typing from this page and your
your computer). Insert a chart in Word from text will automatically flow onto the next.
the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group.
Charts are easy to create and use and Wrap text around images
automatically coordinate with your active The photos in this article that are angled with
document theme. white borders are floating images. That is,
they are setup for text to wrap around
However, notice in the sidebar at left that the themwhich is why they can span multiple
Add Sidebar Content thermometer charts were created using columns in a three-column section.
Adding content into a column to create a sidebar is no single-row Word tables. This is because they Additionally, as mentioned earlier, the photo
different from adding text. As noted earlier in this automatically fit the tight space without of the young woman in the body of this
template, apply the styles provided for headings, having to remove any chart elements. And
sidebar text, and even pictures to align them quickly and article is set to wrap text so that text will flow
you might be surprised to learn that its easy around the image as you add your own text.
easily.
to make them essentially mathematically
accurate. To select text wrap settings, start by
FAST FACTS
selecting the image and then do the
To use a table as a thermometer chart, do following:
the following:

68%
1. On the Picture Tools Format tab, in the
1. On the Insert tab, in the Tables group, Arrange group, click Wrap
click Table and then drag across the grid Text and then select either
to select the first two cells in the first Square, Tight, or Top
Learn about these thermometer charts in the article at
row. Click to insert a two-cell, one-row and Bottom
right.
table. depending on
2. Click in the table and then, on the Table how you want
Tools Layout tab, in the Table group,

42%
the text to wrap.
click Properties.
3. On the Columns tab of the Table You might be happy
Properties dialog box, change the with the default
Cras ut blandit diam. Suspendis quis urna semper Measure In setting to Percentage. You behavior as soon
aliquam. can then set the percentage to up to one as you do this.
decimal point in accuracy. Otherwise,
FOR MORE INFORMATION continue to step
Setting up multipage articles two for customization
Abico eum, ille et, conventio obruo duis Word is designed to allow text to options.
ullamcorper ut, neo demoveo. Vel reprobo: automatically flow from one page to the
2. To set a specific position or control
next. So, when you want an article to
HEADING 5 behavior (such as whether or not the
Contact Info continue on the next page, just keep typing.
image moves with text), on the Picture
In the case of this placeholder article, it is Tools Format tab, in the Arrange
separated into two placeholder content group, click Position and then click
controls (one on this page and another that More Layout Options.
GAS WHAT??? FOSSIL FUEL | Issue 1 5

On the Text Wrapping tab of the Adding article titles, bylines, When you select a text box or a shape, on the
Layout dialog box, you can set a specific Drawing Tools Format tab, in the Arrange
distance from the image for text to wrap
and dividers group, you have the same settings for text
The article titles and bylines for this
and control whether text can wrap on wrapping and positioning that are described
newsletter are created in text boxes. This is
both sides, one side only, or just above above for wrapping text around pictures.
because text can wrap around a text box just
and below the image.
like it can around a picture. Similarly, the Note that, because text is set to wrap around
On the Position tab of that dialog box, orange divider bars that you see on pages the orange divider bars, your article might
you can set a specific position for the containing more than one article are shapes appear to slip below or above a bar,
image on the page and select or clear set to wrap text. So, these text boxes and depending upon length. To adjust the
the option to allow the picture to move shapes can easily span multiple columns position of a divider bar shape to
with text. without having to insert a section break or accommodate the length of your articles,
change the number of columns for just that just select the shape and then use the up and
portion of the page. down arrow keys on your keyboard to nudge
it to the proper position.

Notice the image of the young woman thats The Remove Background feature
within a text column on the preceding page. automatically displays what it believes to be
The background has been removed from that the central subject of the image. However,
image to allow text to wrap directly around its easy to adjust this if the immediate result
the subject. is not what you need.

Office 2010 introduced several new and On the Background Removal tab, click Mark
improved picture formatting tools in Word, Areas to Keep or Mark Areas to Remove
PowerPoint, and Excel. Among those is the and then drag your mouse pointer in a line

Remove Image
Backgrounds
by [Article Author]

Remove Background tool that you can use to across the portion of
remove backgrounds from your own images, the image you want to
similar to the sample image on the preceding add or remove. When
page. you are finished
making adjustments,
To do this in Word, first insert your image click Keep Changes.
into the document (on the Insert tab, click
Picture), and then select it. Then, on the
Picture Tools Format tab, in the Adjust
group, click Remove Background.
FOR MORE INFORMATION

Abico eum, ille et, conventio obruo duis


ullamcorper ut, neo demoveo. Vel reprobo:

HEADING 5
Contact Info
GAS WHAT??? FOSSIL FUEL | Issue 1 6

AROUND TOWN

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GAS WHAT??? FOSSIL FUEL | Issue 1 7

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What???
Fossil Fuel

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GAS WHAT??? FOSSIL FUEL | Issue 1 8

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