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Digital Comunication

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Performance of Digital

Communications System

EKT 357

Digital Communication Engineering

Chapter 5 (part 1) Overview

Error performance degradation

Detection of signals in Gaussian noise

Matched filter

Error performance Degradation

Primary causes

Effect of filtering

Non ideal transfer function

Electrical noise & interference

Thermal noise

In digital communications

Depends on Eb/No

Error performance Degradation

Eb is bit energy and can be described as

signal power S times the bit time Tb. N0 is

noise power spectral density, and can be

described as noise power N divided by

bandwidth W.

Power spectral density (PSD) is the average

power, Px of a real- valued power signal x(t),

defined over the interval/ period.

Where the time average is taken over the

signal period T0 as follows:

Error performance Degradation

Since the bit time and bit rate Rb are

reciprocal, we can replace Tb with 1/Rb and

write

book, by using R instead of Rb to represent

bits/s.

Eb/N0 is just a version of S/N normalized by

bandwidth and bit rate, as follows

Error performance Degradation

The important metrics of performance in

digital communication systems is a plot of the

bit-error probability PB versus Eb/N0.

For Eb/N0 x0, PB P0.

Error performance Degradation

Plot of the bit-error probability PB versus

Eb/N0.

Error performance Degradation

Eb/No is a measure of normalized signal-to-noise

ratio (SNR)

average noise power

Can be degrade in two ways

signal power.

2.Through the increase of noise power or

interfering signal.

Probability Density Function (pdf)

The pdf of the Gaussian random noise n0 can

be expressed as

conditional pdf p(z|s1) and p(z|s2) can be

expressed as

and

Probability Density Function (pdf)

From the decision-making criterion,

Consider a1 is the signal component of z(T) when

s1(t) is transmitted, and a2 is the signal component for

z(T) when s2 (t) is transmitted.

The threshold level , will then represented by (a1 +

a2)/2, which is the optimum threshold for minimizing

the probability of making an incorrect decision.

This strategy is known as the minimum error criterion.

Probability Density Function (pdf)

We can therefore compute PB, by integrating

p(z|s1) between the limit - and 0 , or by

integrating p(z|s2) between the limits 0 and :

Replacing the likelihood p(z|s2) with its

Gaussian equivalent and we have

the correlator.

Probability Density Function (pdf)

Let u = (z-a2)/0. Then 0 du = dz and

But x > 3,

approximation

for Q(x) is:

Matched Filter

Definition

A filter which immediately precedes circuit in a

digital communications receiver is said to be

matched to a particular symbol pulse, if it

maximizes the output SNR at the sampling

instant when that pulse is present at the filter

input.

A linear filter designed to provide the

maximum signal to noise power ratio at its

output for a given transmitted symbol

waveform.

Matched Filter

At time t= T, the sampler output z(T) consists

of a signal component ai and the variance of

the output noise (average noise power) is

denoted by

average noise power, (S/N)T, at time t= T, out

of the sampler is

Matched Filter

Now, we going to maximizes the (S/N)T by

finding expressing the signal ai(t) at the filter

output in terms of the filter transfer function

H(f) and Fourier transform of the input signal,

s(t) that is S(f). That is:

Matched Filter

Thus, we obtain

Matched Filter (Summary)

The ratio of the instantaneous signal power to

average noise power,(S/N)T

where

ai is signal component

0 is variance of the output noise

Correlation realization of the

matched filter

Matched filters basic property:

The impulse response of the filter is a

(rotated on the t=0 axis) of the signal

waveform.

Therefore, if the signal waveform is s(t), its

delayed by T seconds is s(T-t)

Correlation realization of the

matched filter

The process of deriving the matched filter

does not help much in developing an

understanding of what the matched filter is all

about. There is an alternate way to look at

the matched filter process that is much more

intuitive. This method is called the correlation

receiver.

Correlation realization of the

matched filter

Correlator and matched filter

Comparison of convolution &

correlation

Matched Filter

The mathematical operation of MF is Convolution

a filter.

The output of MF approximately sine wave that is

amplitude modulated by linear ramp during the

same time interval.

Correlator

The mathematical operation of correlator is

correlation a signal is correlated with a replica

itself.

The output is approximately a linear ramp during the

interval 0 t T

Matched Filter versus Conventional Filters

In general

Conventional filters : isolate & extract a high

fidelity estimate of the signal for presentation

to the matched filter

when its output is sampled, a voltage

proportional to that energy is produced for

subsequent detection & post-detection

processing.

Matched Filter versus Conventional Filters

Template that matched to Screen out unwanted

the known shape of the spectral components.

signal being processed. Designed to provide

Maximizing the SNR of a approximately uniform

known signals in the gain, minimum

presence of AWGN. attenuation.

Applied to known signals

Applied to random

with random parameters.

signals defined only by

Modify the temporal structure

their bandwidth.

by gathering the signal

energy matched to its Preserve the temporal

template & presenting the or spectral structure of

result as a peak amplitude. the signal of interest.

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