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# Chapter 5 (part 1)

Performance of Digital
Communications System

EKT 357
Digital Communication Engineering
Chapter 5 (part 1) Overview
 Detection of signals in Gaussian noise
 Matched filter
 Primary causes
 Effect of filtering
 Non ideal transfer function
 Electrical noise & interference
 Thermal noise

 In digital communications
 Depends on Eb/No
 Eb is bit energy and can be described as
signal power S times the bit time Tb. N0 is
noise power spectral density, and can be
described as noise power N divided by
bandwidth W.
 Power spectral density (PSD) is the average
power, Px of a real- valued power signal x(t),
defined over the interval/ period.
 Where the time average is taken over the
signal period T0 as follows:
 Since the bit time and bit rate Rb are
reciprocal, we can replace Tb with 1/Rb and
write

##  Therefore simplify the notation throughout the

book, by using R instead of Rb to represent
bits/s.
 Eb/N0 is just a version of S/N normalized by
bandwidth and bit rate, as follows
 The important metrics of performance in
digital communication systems is a plot of the
bit-error probability PB versus Eb/N0.
 For Eb/N0 x0, PB P0.
 Plot of the bit-error probability PB versus
Eb/N0.
 Eb/No is a measure of normalized signal-to-noise
ratio (SNR)

##  SNR refers to average signal power &

average noise power
 Can be degrade in two ways

## 1.Through the decrease of the desired

signal power.
2.Through the increase of noise power or
interfering signal.
Probability Density Function (pdf)
 The pdf of the Gaussian random noise n0 can
be expressed as

##  Where 0 is the noise variance. Thus, the

conditional pdf p(z|s1) and p(z|s2) can be
expressed as

 and
Probability Density Function (pdf)
 From the decision-making criterion,

##  The computation for the minimum error value will be

 Consider a1 is the signal component of z(T) when
s1(t) is transmitted, and a2 is the signal component for
z(T) when s2 (t) is transmitted.
 The threshold level , will then represented by (a1 +
a2)/2, which is the optimum threshold for minimizing
the probability of making an incorrect decision.
 This strategy is known as the minimum error criterion.
Probability Density Function (pdf)
 We can therefore compute PB, by integrating
p(z|s1) between the limit - and 0 , or by
integrating p(z|s2) between the limits 0 and :

##  0 = (a1 + a2)/2 is the optimum threshold

 Replacing the likelihood p(z|s2) with its
Gaussian equivalent and we have

##  Where 0 is the variance of the noise out of

the correlator.
Probability Density Function (pdf)
 Let u = (z-a2)/0. Then 0 du = dz and
 But x > 3,
approximation
for Q(x) is:
Matched Filter
 Definition
 A filter which immediately precedes circuit in a
digital communications receiver is said to be
matched to a particular symbol pulse, if it
maximizes the output SNR at the sampling
instant when that pulse is present at the filter
input.
 A linear filter designed to provide the
maximum signal to noise power ratio at its
output for a given transmitted symbol
waveform.
Matched Filter
 At time t= T, the sampler output z(T) consists
of a signal component ai and the variance of
the output noise (average noise power) is
denoted by

##  The ratio of the instantaneous signal power to

average noise power, (S/N)T, at time t= T, out
of the sampler is
Matched Filter
 Now, we going to maximizes the (S/N)T by
finding expressing the signal ai(t) at the filter
output in terms of the filter transfer function
H(f) and Fourier transform of the input signal,
s(t) that is S(f). That is:

##  Where N0/2 is the input noise.

Matched Filter
 Thus, we obtain
Matched Filter (Summary)
 The ratio of the instantaneous signal power to
average noise power,(S/N)T

where
ai is signal component
0 is variance of the output noise
Correlation realization of the
matched filter
 Matched filters basic property:
 The impulse response of the filter is a

## delayed version of the mirror image

(rotated on the t=0 axis) of the signal
waveform.
 Therefore, if the signal waveform is s(t), its

## mirror image is s(-t), and the mirror image

delayed by T seconds is s(T-t)
Correlation realization of the
matched filter
 The process of deriving the matched filter
does not help much in developing an
understanding of what the matched filter is all
about. There is an alternate way to look at
the matched filter process that is much more
intuitive. This method is called the correlation
Correlation realization of the
matched filter
 Correlator and matched filter
Comparison of convolution &
correlation
 Matched Filter
 The mathematical operation of MF is Convolution

## a signal is convolved with the impulse response of

a filter.
 The output of MF approximately sine wave that is
amplitude modulated by linear ramp during the
same time interval.

 Correlator
 The mathematical operation of correlator is
correlation a signal is correlated with a replica
itself.
 The output is approximately a linear ramp during the
interval 0 t T
Matched Filter versus Conventional Filters

 In general
 Conventional filters : isolate & extract a high
fidelity estimate of the signal for presentation
to the matched filter

##  Matched filters : gathers the signal energy &

when its output is sampled, a voltage
proportional to that energy is produced for
subsequent detection & post-detection
processing.
Matched Filter versus Conventional Filters

##  Matched Filter  Conventional Filter

 Template that matched to  Screen out unwanted
the known shape of the spectral components.
signal being processed.  Designed to provide
 Maximizing the SNR of a approximately uniform
known signals in the gain, minimum
presence of AWGN. attenuation.
 Applied to known signals
 Applied to random
with random parameters.
signals defined only by
 Modify the temporal structure
their bandwidth.
by gathering the signal
energy matched to its  Preserve the temporal
template & presenting the or spectral structure of
result as a peak amplitude. the signal of interest.