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Name: Mohammad Firdaus Bin Ahmad

Class: 4 ALFA (2009)

Teacher : Sir Sim

School: Sultan Abdul Hamid College


Content Page
Introduction 3
9.1 Sulphuric acid
9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid 4
9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid 5
9.1.3 The industrial process in manufacture of sulphuric acid 9
9.1.4 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid 12
9.2 Ammonia and its salt
9.2.1 Properties of ammonia 13
9.2.2 The uses of ammonia 16
9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia 17
9.3 Alloys
9.3.1 Physical properties of pure metals 18
9.3.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys 20
9.4 Synthetic polymers
9.4.1 The meaning and types of polymers 21
9.4.2 Advantages of synthetic polymers 23
9.4.3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers 23
9.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused 23
by synthetic polymers
9.5 Glass and ceramics 24
9.6 Composite material 28
Conclusion 30
References 31


All the objects that exist around us are made up of chemical substances. These
objects exist an element, compound or mixture. All these objects contribute benefit to
humankind. As time goes on, human has done many researches to ensure all these
chemical substances will be enough for the use of themselves.

Chapter 9 of Form 4 syllabus introduces the students with manufactured

substances in industry. This is important for the students to appreciate the knowledge of
chemistry that is still new for themselves. Personally, I think that this chapter is an
interesting chapter as it revealed the way of scientist produces the material around me. It
also gives me new knowledges of the uses of chemical substances that I usually found in
the laboratories.

I hope, by learning this chapter, I will be more interested in learning chemistry as

it will help me in the future. All the equations from this chapter make me more
understand of the previous chapters.


9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid

Figure 9.1 A molecule of

sulphuric acid.
1. Sulphuric acid is a strong mineral acid.
2. Its molecular formula is H2SO4.
3. It is soluble in water.
4. Sulphuric acid is a non-volatile diprotic acid.
5. It is a highly corrosive, dense and oily liquid.
6. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid.

Soluble in

Non-volatile Diprotic
acid acid

Properties of
Highly sulphuric acid Dense

Oily Viscous
liquid colourless

Figure 9.2 Properties of sulphuric acid

9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid

1) To manufacture fertilizers

There are many fertilizers that can be made of sulphuric acid. Some of them are:

a) Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (superphosphate)

2 H2SO4 + Ca3(PO4) 2 → Ca(H2 PO4) 2 + 2CaSO4

sulphuric acid + tricalcium phosphate → calcium dihydrogen phosphate

b) Ammonium sulphate

+2NH3 → (NH4) 2 SO4

sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia → ammonium sulphate

c) Potassium sulphate

+2NH3 → (NH4) 2 SO4

sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia → ammonium sulphate

2) To manufacture detergents
Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. Sulphonic acid is then
neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents. Examples of hydrocarbon

3) To manufacture synthetic fibres

Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Rayon is an example of a synthetic
fibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose.

4) To manufacture paint pigments

The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate, BaSO4. The neutralization of
sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate.

5) As an electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators

6) To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating

7) To manufacture pesticides

8) The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are:

a. As a strong acid
b. As a drying or dehydrating agent
c. As an oxidizing agent
d. As a sulphonating agent
e. As a catalyst

metal oxides Manufacture
from metal pesticides As an
surfaces electrolyte in
before lead-acid
electroplating accumulators

Uses of sulphuric acid


Manufacture Manufacture
detergents synthetic

Figure 9.3 Uses of sulphuric acid

Metal cleaning
fibres Dyes
9% 2%
As an As an acid
electrolyte 2%

Paint pigment
Figure 9.4 Uses of sulphuric acid in industry

9.1.2 The industrial process in manufacture sulphuric acid

1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact process.
2. Sulphuric acid is produced from sulfur, oxygen and water via the contact
3. The Contact process involves three stages.

Sulphur → Sulphur dioxide → Sulphur trioxide → Sulphuric


4. Stage I: Production of sulphur dioxide gas, SO2.

This can be done by two methods,

a) Burning of sulphur in dry air.

+ O2 →

b) Burning of metal sulphide such as zinc sulphide in dry air.

2ZnS + 3O2 → 2SO2 +

5. Stage II: Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide SO3.

This is then oxidised to sulfur trioxide under the following conditions:

a) The presence of a vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst.

b) A temperature of between 450°C to 550°C.
c) A pressure of one atmosphere
2 SO2 + O2 →
2 SO3

6. Stage III: Production of sulphuric acid

a) Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 to produce oleum,
H2SO4+ SO3 →

b) Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated H2SO4.

H2S2O7+ H2O → 2

7. In stage II, sulphur dioxide is dried first before being added to dry air to
produce sulphur trioxide. This is:
a) To remove water vapour
b) To remove contaminants

8. In stage III, sulphur trioxide is not dissolved directly in water to produce

sulphuric acid. This is because:
a) sulphur trioxide has low solubility in water
b) sulphur trioxide reacts violently and mists are formed instead of
a liquid

Sulphur or metal sulphide

burned in air

Sulphur dioxide, SO2

a) the presence of a vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst.

b) a temperature of between 450°C to 550°C.

c) a pressure of one atmosphere

Sulphur trioxide, SO3

dissolved in sulphuric acid, H2SO4

Oleum, H2S2O7

diluted with equal volume of water H2O

Concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4

Figure 9.5 Flowchart of Contact process

9.1.3 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid

1. Sulphur dioxide is the main byproduct produced when sulfur-containing fuels

such as coal or oil are burned.
2. Sulphuric acid is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the
presence of water. It also produces sulphurous acid.
3. Sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid are constituents of acid rain.
4. Acid rain can cause many effects such as:
i. Corrodes concrete buildings and metal structure
ii. Destroys trees and plants
iii. Decrease the pH of th soil and make it become acidic
iv. Acid rain flows into the rivers and increases the acidity of water and kill
aquatic living things.
5. Hence, we must reduce the sulphur dioxide from the atmosphere by:

i. Use low sulphur fuels to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide in exhaust
ii. Remove sulphur dioxide from waste air by treating it with calcium
carbonated before it is released


9.2.1 Properties of ammonia

1. A colorless, pungent gas.

2. Its molecular formula is NH3
3. It is extremely soluble in water.
4. It is a weak alkali. Figure 9.6 A molecule of
5. It is about one half as dense as air ammonia.

6. It reacts with hydrogen chloride gas to produce

white fumes of ammonium chloride.
NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl

7. Ammonia is alkaline in property and reacts with dilute acids in

neutralization to produce salts. For examples:

NH3 + HNO 3 → NH4NO 3

2NH3 + H2SO4 → (NH4) 2 SO4

8. Aqueous solutions of ammonia produces OH − ions (except Na+ ion, K+ ion,

and Ca 2+ ion) forming metal hydroxides precipitate.
Fe3+ + 3OH− → Fe(OH) 3

Mg2+ + 2OH− → Mg(OH) 2


9. Some metal hydroxides such as zinc hydroxide and copper (II) hydroxide
dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to form complexes.
Zn(OH)2 + 4NH3→ [Zn(NH3)4] 2+ + 2OH

Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3→ [Cu(NH3)4] 2+ + 2OH

Weak soluble in
alkali water

Properties of ammonia


Figure 9.7 Properties of ammonia

9.2.2 The uses of ammonia
1. The major use of ammonia and its compounds is as fertilizers.
2. Ammonia is also used for the synthesis of nitric acid.
3. Ammonium fertilizers contain ammonium ions, NH4+, that can be
converted into nitrate ions by bacteria living in the soil.
4. Nitrogen is absorbed by plants to produce protein in the form of nitrates,
NO3−, which are soluble in water.
5. The effectiveness of ammonium fertilizers is determined by the percentage
of nitrogen by mass in them. The fertilizer with a higher percentage of nitrogen is
more effective.
6. The percentage of nitrogen by mass can be calculated using this formula:

Mass of nitrogen

X 100%
Molar mass of fertilizers

9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia

1. Haber process is the industrial method of producing ammonia.

2. It needs direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen under high pressure in the
presence of a catalyst, often iron.
3. Nitrogen gas used in Haber process is obtained from the frictional distillation of
liquid air.
4. Hydrogen gas used in Haber process can be obtained by two methods:
C + H2O → CO +
a) The reaction between steam and heated coke (carbon)

b) The reaction between steam and natural gas ( consisting mainly of

CH4 + 2H2O → CO2 +

5. In the Haber process:

a) A mixture consisting of one volume of nitrogen gas and three volume of
hydrogen gas is compressed to a pressure between 200 – 500 atmospheres.
b) The gas mixture is passed through a catalyst of powdered iron at a
temperature of 450 - 550°C.
c) At this optimum temperature and pressure, ammonia gas is produced.
N2+ 3H2 → 2NH3

9.3.1 Physical properties of pure metals
1. Pure metals have the following physical properties
a)Good conductor of electricity
c) Ductile
d)High melting and boiling point
e)High density

2. Pure metals are weak and soft because the arrangement of atoms in pyre
metals make them ductile and malleable.
a) A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a
regular and organized closed-packed structure.
b) Pure metals are soft because the orderly arrangement of atoms
enables the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an
external force is applied on them. This makes the matels ductile and
metals can be drawn to form long wires.
c) There are imperfections in the natural arrangements of metal
atoms. Empty space exist in the structures of pure metals. When
hammered or pressed, groups of metal atoms may slide into new
positions in the empty spaces. This makes metals malleable, able to be
made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets.
3. The strong forces of attraction between metal atoms requires high energy
to overcome it. Hence, most metals have high melting points.
4. The close-packed arrangement of metal atoms results in the
high density of metals.

Good conductor of electricity

High melting and boiling point

Properties of High density



Figure 9.8 Properties of metals

9.3.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys

1. An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain composition

in which the major component is a metal.

2. in the process of alloying, one or more foreign elements are added to a

molten metal. When the alloy hardens, the positions of some of the metal
atoms are replaced by the atoms of foreign elements, which size may be
bigger or smaller than the original metal atoms.

3. In an alloy, these atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly

arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty space in the
metal crystal structure.

4. Hence, the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each
other easily. This makes the alloy harder and stronger, less ductile and less
malleable than its pure metals.

5. The properties of a pure metal are thus improved by making them into
alloys. There are three aims of alloying a pure metal:

a) To increase the hardness and strength of a metal

b) To prevent corrosion or rusting

c) To improve the appearance of the metal surface


9.4.1 The meaning of polymers

1. Polymers can be defined as large molecules composed of numerous
smaller, repeating units known as monomers which are joined by covalent
2. Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined
together to form the big molecule known as the polymers.
3. There are two types of polymerization process:
a) Addition polymerization
b) Condensation polymerization
4. A polymer is a very big molecule (macromolecule). Hence, the relative
molecular mass of a polymer is large.
5. The properties of polymer are different from its monomers.
6. Polymers can be divided into two types:

a) Naturally occurring polymers

1. This type of polymer exists in living things in nature like the plants
and animals.
2. Examples of naturally occuring polymers are:
a) Protein
b) Carbohydrate
c) Natural rubber
3. Naturally occuring polymers are formed by the joining of
monomers by polymerization.

4. Protein is formed by the joining of monomers known as amino acid.

5. Carbohydrate is formed by the joining of monomers known as glucose.

6. Natural rubber is formed by the joining of monomers known as isoprene.

b) Synthetic polymers
1. This type of polymer are man-made by chemical process in
the laboratories.
2. The raw material for synthetic polymers are obtained frompetroleum.
3. The types of synthetic polymers include:
a) Plastics
b) Fibres
c) Elastomers
4. Examples of plastics are
polythene(polyethylene),polyvinylchloride(PVC), polypropene
(polypropylene), polystyrene , Perspex and bakelite.
5. Polythene and PVC are produced by addition
6. Examples of synthetics fibres are nylon and terylene. They
are produced by condensation polymerization.

9.4.2 Advantages of synthetic polymers
Strong and light
Able to resist corrosion
Inert to chemical reactions
Easily moulded or shaped and be coloured
Can be made to have special properties

9.4.3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers

a) As most of polymers are non-biodegradable, they will not
decay like other organic garbage.
b) Burning of polymers release harmful and poisonous gases.

9.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused

by synthetic polymers
a) Reduce, reuse and recycle synthetic polymers
b) Develop biodegradable polymers

1. The main component of both glass and ceramic is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2.
2. Both glass and ceramic have the same properties as follow
a) Hard and brittle
b) Inert to chemical reactions
c) Insulators or poor conductors of heat and electricity
d) Withstand compression but not stretching
e) Can be easily cleaned
f) Low cost of production
3. Differences between glass and cerement are, glass is transparent, while
ceramic is opaque. Ceramic can withstand a higher temperature than normal glass.
4. Types of glass are
a) Fused glass
•It is consist mainly of silica or silicon dioxide
•It has high heat resistance
b) Soda lime glass
•It cannot withstand high temperatures
c) Borosilicate glass
•It can withstand high temperature
d) Lead glass
• High refractive index
5. Uses of improved glass for specific purpose
a) Photochromic glass
• It is sensitive to light intensity
b) Conducting glass
• It conducts electricity
6. Ceramic is a manufactured substances made from clay, with the
main constituent of aluminosilicate with small quantity of sand and feldspar.

7. Superconductor is one improved ceramics for specific purposes.

1. Glass is made up from sand.
2. The major component of glass is SiO2.
3. There are four types of glass which are as follows:

• Fused glass
• Soda-lime glass
• Borosilicate glass
• Lead crystal glass

Name of glass Properties Examples of uses

Very high softening

point (1700 °C)
hence, highly heat
Transparent to
SiO2 (99%)
ultraviolet and Telescope mirrors,
Ba2 O 3 (1%)
infrared light Lenses
Fused glass Difficult to be made Optical fibres
into different shapes Laboratory glass
Does not crack when wares
temperature changes
(very low thermal
expansion coefficient)
Very resistant to
chemical reactions
Soda lime glass
Low softening point Bottles
SiO2 (70%)
(700 °C), hence, does Windowpanes
Na2O (15%)

not withstand heating
Breaks easily
Cracks easily with
sudden temperature Light bulbs
changes (high CaO (3%) Mirrors
coefficient of Others (5%) Bowls
expansion) ( The most widely
Less resistant to used type of glass)
chemical reactions
Easy to be made into
different shapes

High softening point

(800°C). Thus it is
heat resistant

Does not crack easily

SiO2 (80%)
with sudden
Ba2 O 3 (15%) Laboratory apparatus
temperature changes
Borosilicate Na2O (3%) Cooking utensils
glass Al 2 O 3 Electrical tubes
Transparent to
Glass pipelines
ultraviolet light

More resistant to
chemical reactions
Does not break easily

Lead crystal Low softening point SiO2 (55%) Decorative items

glass (600 °C) PbO( 30%) Crystal glass-
High density K2O (10%) wares
High refractive index Na2O ( 3%) Lens

Al2 O 3 ( 2%)
Reflects light rays Prisms
and appears spar Chandeliers

1. Ceramic is a manufactured substance made from clay that is dried and then
baked in a kiln at high temperature.
2. The main constituent of clay is aluminosilicate, (which consist of aluminium
oxide and silicon dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar.
3. Kaolinite is an example of high
4. Red clay contains iron (III) oxide which gives the red colour .
5. General uses ceramics are as follows of :

• very hard and strong but brittle

• inert to chemical reaction
• has a very high melting point
• good electric and heat insulator
• able to withstand compression


1. A composite material is a structural material formed by
combining two or more materials with different physical properties, producing a
complex mixture.
2. The composite material produced will have different properties
far more superior to the original materials.
3. The composite material produced are harder, stronger, lighter,
more resistant to heat and corrosion and also for specific purposes.

4. When composite material is formed, the weakness of the
components will not exist anymore.

Composite material Component Properties of Properties of

component composite
Concrete Hard but brittle, Stronger, higher
With low tensile tensile strength, not
strength so brittle, does not
Steel Hard with high
Reinforced concrete corrode easily, can
tensile strength but
withstand higher
expensive and can

corrode applied forces and
loads, relatively
Glass of low Transparent, does Reflect light rays
refractive index not reflect light and allow light rays
Fibre optics rays. to travel along the
Glass of high Heavy, strong but
refractive index brittle and non-
Glass Heavy, strong but Light, strong, tough,
brittle and non- resilient and
Fibreglass flexible flexible, with high
Polyester plastic Light, flexible,
tensile strength and
elastic but weak and
not flammable
Glass Transparent and not Sensitive to light:
sensitive to light darkness when light
Silver chloride, or Sensitive to light
Photochromic glass intensity is high,
silver bromide
becomes clear when
light intensity is low

Figure 9.9 Composite material and their new properties


We must appreciate these various synthetic industrial materials. One of the way is by
doing continuous research and development ( R & D ) to produce better materials used to
improve our standard of living. As we live in a changing world, our society is getting
more complex. New materials are required to overcome new challenges and problems we
face in our daily lives. Synthetic material are developed constantly due to the limitation

and shortage of natural materials. New technological developments are used by scientists
to make new discoveries.

New materials for clothing, shelter, tools and communication to improve our daily
life are developed continuously for the well-being of mankind. New needs and new
problem will stimulate the development of new synthetic materials. For example, the new
use of plastic composite material will replace metal in the making of a stronger and
lighter car body. This will save fuel and improve speed. Plastic composite materials may
one day used to make organs for organ transplant in human bodies. This will become
necessity with the shortage of human organ donors.

The understanding of the interaction between different chemicals is important for

both the development of new synthetic materials and the disposal of such synthetic
materials as waste. A responsible and systemic method of handling the waste of synthetic
materials and their by-product is important to prevent environmental pollution. The
recycling and development of environmental friendly synthetic material should be


1. Tan Yin Toon, Loh Wai Leng, Tan On Tin, 2008, SUCCESS
Chemistry SPM, Oxford Fajar Sdn.Bhd.
2. Website http://www.answers.com
3. www.wikipedia.com/manufactured substances in industry
4. Longman Essential Chemistry SPM – M/S 283