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Lecture 13: Hardy-Weinberg, Selection and Fitness

How do populations become better adapted to their environments? To find out, we'll throw
Mendel's pigs to the wolves.

Independent study outcomes

Meaning of gene pool, allele frequency, genotype frequency


Gene Pool: The sum of all alleles at all gene loci in all individuals is called the populations
gene pool.
Allele frequency: the relative abundances of the different alleles.
Genotype frequency: the percentages of individuals possessing each genotype.

Conditions necessary for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium


1. No mutations are occurring (NO WEIRD SHIT)
2. The population is closed to migration from other populations. (NOBODY LEAVES THE
HOUSE)
3. The population is infinite in size. (THERES PLENTY OF FISHIES IN THE SEA.)
4. All genotypes in the population survive and reproduce equally well. (YALL NEED TO
LOVE THE CRAP OUT OF ONE ANOTHER)
5. Individuals in the population mate randomly with respect to genotypes. (NO RACIST SHIT)

Lecture outcomes

Allele frequencies in a population, given the genotype frequencies

Flower Color Genotype Number of Genotype Total number of Total number


Phenotype individuals frequencies CR alleles2 of CW alleles2
Red CR CR 450 450/1000=0.45 2450=900 0450=0
R w
Pink C C 500 500/1000=0.50 1500=500 1500=500
W W
White C C 50 50/1000=0.05 050=0 250=100
1000 0.45+0.50.0.05=1.0 1400 600
Calculate allele frequencies using the total of 1400+600=2000 alleles in the sample:
p= frequency of CR allele=1400/2000= 0.7
q= frequency of CW allele= 600/2000= 0.3
p + q = 0.7+0.3= 1.0
Genotype frequencies in the
next generation, given the allele
frequencies and assuming
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

CR CR: p2 = (0.70.7) = 0.49


CR Cw: 2pq= 2(0.70.3) = 0.42
CW CW: q2 = (0.30.3) = 0.09
Whether a population is in HWE, given observed genotype or phenotype frequencies
If genotype frequencies can be predicted from allele frequencies, population is in
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) at this locus. Allele frequencies will not change while
this is true. (If the math prediction is correct, then HWE)
If not, one or more assumptions of HWE are violated. The population may be evolving. (If
everything is not perfect, then WEIRD SHIT happens)

Difference between relative vs absolute fitness and how to calculate each


Usually defined as # surviving offspring produced over an individuals lifetime (the # of
shitheads you breed)
Influenced by survival to adulthood, longevity, attracting mates, fertility, offspring
survival
standardize absolute fitness W to get relative fitness w (the ability to breed shitheads
comparing to the regional shithead breeder of the year)
by definition, fittest genotype in a population has w = 1
all other genotypes w = W/Wmax

How the dominance status of alleles affects the response to selection


On their own, dominance and recessiveness dont oppose selection; they dont cause allele
frequency to change.
However, the dominance status of allele interacts with selection. It can constrain selection.
Having same selection pressure against each genotype, then this would be same to having no
selection pressure.

Effect of heterozygote advantage on genetic variation


Recessive allele can be reduced to lower and lower, but it never disappears, (even though it is
harmful) it hides from selection. (Not expressed in heterozygotes.)
So the heterozygote provides genetic variation by shielding those harmful recessive alleles,
stop them from goes to extinct.
(Its just like in Agents of SHIELD, how HYDRA hides inside SHIELD so that it survives so
freakin long, even though its harmful and nobody likes them.)

Difference between positive and negative frequency-dependent selection, and how


each affects genetic variation
negative frequency dependent selection
The fitness of a phenotype increases as it becomes rarer. (being different is actually GREAT)
The Vast Majority phenotype is attacked by prey and most of them die. And therefore being
different makes you survive.
Could be a mating advantage. (IF there is no other male on earth, then Id be marrying)
positive frequency dependent selection
The fitness of a phenotype increases as it becomes more common.
Predators learn to recognize prey warning coloration; avoid common prey phenotypes. for
example, predators getting sick eating a certain type of frog colour and then avoiding it
ONLY uneaten frogs survive to reproduce (All the other who doesn't look like poison DIES)