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Introduction:

Cell membrane or selectively permeable has three main different types of functions
which are the clarification between the cytoplasm and the outside of the cell, transporting in and
out materials, and protecting from the surrounding for internal of the cell. The elements of cell
membrane are phospholipid bilayer, proteins, and cholesterol in order to make its efficiently. For
the phospholipid bilayer, it is included as the majority and being a big barrier and the unsaturated
fat in the bilayer will cause more effective in transport. The head of phospholipid, composed of
double of fatty acids and phosphate, enables to adapt the surrounding with water as the opposite
of tail (Sparknotes, 2017). The cholesterol will balance the plasma membrane, remaining cell not to
be overly liquid and solid. There any five types of proteins located on the membrane are
responsible for transport which are channel protein, carrier protein, cell recognition, receptor
protein, and enzymatic protein. These five act in different ways. For the channel proteins, it allows
the material to pass through freely but the carrier protein will require the specific molecule in order
to blind with. The cell recognition(glycoprotein) is being attached by the carbohydrate which is
facing out of the cell. It will generally identify whether the molecule is self or non self. The receptor
will send the signal to activate the cell once it is being blind with the molecules by changing its own
shape. Differ from enzymatic protein, it will either break or build the new molecule although it also
needs specific to blind with. There are couple types of transportations which are the passive
transport and the active transport. These both are essential to cell as they are the process that
regulates the things that enter and exit("Active and Passive Transport - Difference and Comparison
| Diffen", 2017). For the passive transport, it does not demand for any energy during transporting
materials due to the movement of high to low concentration. Passive transport is differentiate into
three which are diffusion, facilitate, and osmosis. Unlike osmosis, diffusion is the progress of small
polar and non polar entering the cell membrane without passing any proteins, but the facilitated
diffusion is dissimilar. It is the movement of big object such as large and ion molecules which has
to pass via proteins; nevertheless passing through proteins does not require for energy. Besides,
osmosis the gesture of high to low water concentration. The solution with more solute is
considered as hypertonic, but the solution that has less solute is hypotonic. Additionally, the
isotonic means the both of solutions have identical amount of solute and solvent. Active transport is
the transporting from low to high concentration or solute. As the opposite of passive, the active will
need energy and proteins during the process. There are two types which are sodium potassium
and bulk transport. The bulk transport is the moving of big material passing through cell membrane
by fusing with cell membrane. The bulk transport has identified into a couple which are endocytosis
and exocytosis. For the sodium potassium, this type of active transport uses carrier protein for
entering and exiting. The sodium will go out since the inside has less sodium than the outside.
Meanwhile, rather than going out, the potassium will enter inside due to the higher potassium than
outside.
In the biology class, the teacher encouraged students to join the lap for experiment.
This experiment would enable for students to have better understanding in passive transport.
According to the directions, students had to separate both of them into three parts. Three parts
were hypotonic, hypertonic, and control and each group received jelly and potato. One of potatoes
and jelly was placed in the each both salt water(hypertonic) and distilled water(hypotonic). This
would totally linked to the background information since according to osmosis, the potatoes and
jelly both act different to the hypertonic solution and hypotonic solution but remain the same in
control group.

Reference:
Active and Passive Transport - Difference and Comparison | Diffen. (2017). Diffen.com. Retrieved
9 March 2017, from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Active_Transport_vs_Passive_Transport

Sparknotes,. (2017). SparkNotes: Cell Membranes: The Lipid Bilayer. Sparknotes.com. Retrieved 8
March 2017, from http://www.sparknotes.com/biology/cellstructure/cellmembranes/section1.html