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Mixed two dimensional convection heat and mass transfer flow with suction, viscous dissipation, heat source/sink effect, mass diffusion including Soret and Dufour effects due to an unsteady porous stretching sheet is studied in the present analysis. The flow is subjected to magnetic field normal to the vertical plate in a saturated porous medium. The governing non-linear partial differential equations have been reduced to ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformation variables. The resultant equations which are coupled and highly non-linear are solved by standard Runge-Kutta fourth order numerical technique via shooting method. The momentum, temperature and concentration field distributions are analyzed and discussed numerically and presented pictorially through graphs. Numerical values for skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and Sherwood number at the plate in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium are derived and discussed for various values of physical parameters and are presented in table. Finally the present results are compared with previously published results and found to be well in agreement.

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Volume 8, Issue 1, January- February 2017, pp. 1733, Article ID: IJARET_08_01_003

Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/issues.asp?JType=IJARET&VType=8&IType=1

ISSN Print: 0976-6480 and ISSN Online: 0976-6499

IAEME Publication

MHD FLOW PAST AN UNSTEADY STRETCHING

SHEET WITH INTERNAL HEAT GENERATION,

VISCOUS DISSIPATION, INTERNAL MASS DIFFUSION

INCLUDING SORET AND DOFOUR EFFECTS

N. Raveendra

Assistant Professor, Raja Rajeswari College f Engineering,

Ramohalli Cross, Bengalore, Karnataka, India

P.H. Veena

Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics,

Smt. V.G. College for Women, Kalaburgi, Karnataka, India

V.K. Pravin

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

P.D.A College of Engineering, Kalaburgi, Karnataka, India

ABSTRACT

Mixed two dimensional convection heat and mass transfer flow with suction, viscous

dissipation, heat source/sink effect, mass diffusion including Soret and Dufour effects due to an

unsteady porous stretching sheet is studied in the present analysis. The flow is subjected to

magnetic field normal to the vertical plate in a saturated porous medium. The governing non-linear

partial differential equations have been reduced to ordinary differential equations using suitable

similarity transformation variables. The resultant equations which are coupled and highly non-

linear are solved by standard Runge-Kutta fourth order numerical technique via shooting method.

The momentum, temperature and concentration field distributions are analyzed and discussed

numerically and presented pictorially through graphs. Numerical values for skin friction

coefficient, local Nusselt number and Sherwood number at the plate in the presence of magnetic

field and porous medium are derived and discussed for various values of physical parameters and

are presented in table. Finally the present results are compared with previously published results

and found to be well in agreement.

Key words: Mixed Convection, Heat and Mass Transfer, Heat Source/Sink, MHD, Porosity,

Stretching Sheet.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 17 editor@iaeme.com

Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer MHD Flow Past an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat

Generation, Viscous Dissipation, Internal Mass Diffusion Including Soret and Dofour Effects

Cite this Article: N. Raveendra, P.H. Veena and V.K. Pravin, Mixed Convective Heat and Mass

Transfer MHD Flow Past an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat Generation, Viscous

Dissipation, Internal Mass Diffusion Including Soret and Dofour Effects. International Journal of

Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology, 8(1), 2017, pp 1733.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/issues.asp?JType=IJARET&VType=8&IType=1

NOMENCLATURE

u ,v, T and C are the fluid x and y components of velocity, temperature and concentration

Fluid Kinematic Viscosity

Density

Electric Conductivity of the Fluid

T and C Coefficients of Thermal and Concentration

Thermal Conductivity

C Free Stream Concentration

B0 Magnetic Induction

U Free Stream Velocity

Dm Mass Diffusivity

Tw Temperature of the Hot Fluid at the Left Surface of the Plate

Cw Species Concentration at the Plate Surface.

Similarity Variable

f Dimensionless Stream Function

Dimensionless Temperature

Dimensionless Concentration

M Magnetic Field Parameter

Gr Thermal Grashof number

Gc Solutal Grashof Number

Df Dufour Number

Sr Soret Number

Q Heat Generation/Absorption Parameter

Pr Prandtl Number

Sc Schmidt Number

A1 Unsteady Parameter

fw Suction Parameter

K Chemical Reaction Parameter

k2 Permeability Parameter

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 18 editor@iaeme.com

N. Raveendra, P.H. Veena and V.K. Pravin

1. INTRODUCTION

Mixed convection is often observed in very high power output devices where the forced convection is

insufficient to dissipate all of the heat necessary. At this situation combining natural convection with

forced convection will often give good results. Nuclear Reactor technology and some electronic cooling

devices play an important role in this. Heat and Mass transfer phenomena play an important role in

manufacturing industries for the design of steel rolling and, nuclear power plants, gas turbines and various

propulsion devices for furnace design, energy utilization and temperature measurements. Study of heat

transfer with visco-elastic flow induced by heated stretching surfaces is often encountered in many

engineering applications, such as materials manufactured by extrusion process, wire and fiber coating,

cooling of metallic sheets or electronic chips, crystal growing.

In this regard Loganathan [1] Analyzed about the study of thermal conductivity on unsteady MHD free

convective flow over a semi infinite vertical plate. Vidyasagar and Bala [2] studied the MHD convective

heat and mass transfer flow over a permeable stretching surface with suction and internal heat

generation/absorption. Krishna et al. [3] Investigated the effects of radiation and chemical reaction on

MHD convective flow over a permeable stretching a surface with suction and heat generation. Ramana et

al. [4] studied the Thermal Diffusion and chemical reaction effects on unsteady MHD dusty viscous flow.

Bhattacharyya and Mukhopadhyay [5] Studied similarity solutions of mixed convective boundary layer

slip flow over a vertical plate. Makinde [6] made a study on MHD heat and mass transfer flow over a

moving vertical plate with a convective surface boundary condition. Usman and Uwanta [7] analysed the

Effect of thermal conductivity on MHD heat and mass transfer flow past an infinite vertical plate with

Soret and Dufour effects. Makinde [8] made Computational modeling of MHD unsteady flow and heat

transfer toward a flat plate with navier slip and newtonian heating. Olanrewaju [9] investigated the Effects

of thermal-diffusion, diffusion-thermo, magnetic field and viscous dissipation on unsteady mixed

convection flow past a porous plate moving through a binary mixture of chemically reacting fluid. Singh

[10] studied MHD slip flow of viscous fluid over an isothermal reactive stretching sheet. Shankar [11]

made an analysis on Radiation and mass transfer effects on MHD free convection fluid flow embedded in a

porous medium with heat generation/absorption. Mohammed and Bhaskar [12] studied the Similarity

solutions of heat and mass transfer for natural convection over a moving vertical plate with internal heat

generation and a convective boundary condition in the presence of thermal radiation, viscous dissipation

and chemical reaction. Sharma and Borgohain [13] Studied the influence of chemical reaction, Soret and

Dufour effects on heat and mass transfer of a binary fluid mixture in porous medium over a rotating disk.

Ibrahim [14] found out the Effects of chemical reaction on dissipative radiative MHD flow through a

porous medium over a non-isothermal stretching sheet. Ali-Chamkha and Mansour [15] worked on

Unsteady MHD free convective heat and mass transfer from a vertical porous plate with hall current,

thermal radiation and chemical reaction effects. Ambreen et al. [16] stressed on the Effects of variable

viscosity on the flow of non-Newtonian fluid through a porous medium in an inclined channel with slip

conditions. Hassan and Soleiman [17] examined the Effects of MHD and temperature dependent viscosity

on the flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid in pipe: analytical solutions. Mohammed and Nourazar [18] have

studied the conjugated forced convection heat transfer from a heated flat plate of finite thickness and

temperature dependent thermal conductivity. Shakhaoath et al. [19] made a study on possessions of

chemical reaction of MHD heat and mass transfer of nanofluid flow on a continuously moving surface. Ali

et al. [20] Studied on the solution of characteristic value problems arising in linear stability analysis; semi-

analytical approach. Shyam et al. [21] investigated the MHD free convection radiation interaction along a

vertical surface embedded in darcian porous medium in presence of soret and dufour effects. Salem [22]

studid the effects of variable viscosity, viscous dissipation and chemical reaction on heat and mass transfer

flow of MHD micro-polar fluid along a permeable stretching sheet in a non-Darcian porous medium.

Oahimire and Olajuwon [23] Effect of hall current and thermal radiation on heat and mass transfer of a

chemically reacting MHD flow of a micro-polar fluid through a porous medium. Satya Narayana et al. [24]

Effects of hall current and radiation absorption on MHD micro-polar fluid in a rotating system. Adeniyan

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 19 editor@iaeme.com

Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer MHD Flow Past an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat

Generation, Viscous Dissipation, Internal Mass Diffusion Including Soret and Dofour Effects

and Adigun [25] Transient MHD boundary-layer slip-flow of heat and mass transfer over a stretching

surface embedded in porous medium with waste discharge concentration and convective boundary

conditions. Srinivasacharya and Ram Reddy [26] Soret and Dufour effects on mixed convection from an

exponentially stretching surface. Al-Odat and Al-Ghamdi [27] Dufour and Soret effects on unsteady MHD

natural convection flow past vertical plate embedded in non-Darcy porous medium. Magyari and Keller

[28] studied heat and mass transfer in the boundary layers on an exponentially stretching continuous

surface. Srinivasacharya and Ram Reddy [29] investigated the effects of Soret and Dufour on mixed

convection from an exponentially stretching surface. Subhakar and Gangadhar [30] analyzed the effects of

Soret and Dufour on MHD free convection heat and mass transfer flow over a stretching vertical plate with

suction and heat source/sink.

The governing equations under unsteady condition are represented by:

u v

+ =0

x y (1)

2 2

u u u u B

+u +v = 2 u + g T (T T ) + g C (C C ) ' u

0

t x y y k (2)

2

T T T 2 T Dm K T 2 C u

+u +v = 2 + + q(T T ) +

t x y y c s c p y 2

c p y

(3)

2 2

C C C C Dm K T T

+u +v = Dm 2

+ 2

k1* (C C )

t x y y Tm y (4)

The boundary conditions for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields are

u =U , v = Vw , t = Tw , c = C w at y=0

u 0 , T T , C C , as for t > 0 (5)

The mass concentration equation (1) is satisfied by the Cauchy-Riemann equations

u=

y , v = (6)

x

Where ( x, y ) is the stream function.

To transform (2) (4) into a set of ordinary differential equations, the following similarity

transformations and dimensionless variables are introduced

c c

=y =x f ( )

(1 t ) , (1 t ) ,

cx cx

T = T + T w 2

( ) C = C + C w 2

( )

2 (1 t ) , 2 (1 t )

B02 (1 t ) g T g c C w D k C D k C

M= , Gr = T w , Gc = , D f = m T w , Sr = m T w

c 2c 2c c s c p T w Tm C w

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N. Raveendra, P.H. Veena and V.K. Pravin

k 1*

Pr = A= K= (1 t )

, Sc = , c , Ec = 2cx , c (7)

Dm Tw c p

Making use of (7) , the continuity (1) is automatically satisfied and equations (2) ( 4) reduce to

A

f ' ' ' ( ) + f ( ) f ' ' ( ) f ' ' ( ) + Gr ( ) + Gc ( ) ( f ' ( ) ) (M + A K ) f ' ( ) = 0

2

2 (8)

A

' ' ( ) + Pr f ( ) ' ( ) ' ( ) f ' ( ) + D f ' ' ( ) 2 A + K + Ec( f ' ' ( ) )2 = 0 (9)

2

A

' ' ( ) + Sc f ( ) ' ( ) ' ( ) ( ) f ' ( ) + Sr ' ' ( ) 2 A = 0 (10)

2

The corresponding boundary conditions (5) converted to

f = fw , f ' = , =1 at y=0

f ' = 0, = 0, =0 as y (11)

Where prime denotes derivative w.r.t and fw is the suction parameter.

The local skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number and Sherwood number which are

respectively proportional to f ' ' (0), ' (0) and ' (0) are derived and their numerical values are

presented in a tabular form.

Higher order non-linear differential equations (8) (10) are converted into initial value problems by using

shooting technique and then set of coupled non-linear governing boundary layer equations are solved

numerically using Runge-Kutta method of fourth order.

Numerical calculations have been carried out for different values of , Nr, Pr, K, Sc, Gr, Gc, A1, Df, Sr,

Ec, M. The effect of magnetic parameter on the velocity field for

Pr=0.7,Sc=0.2,Gr=0.5,Gc=0.5,A1=0,Df=0.5,Sr=0,K=0.5 and Ec=1are shown in fig.1. It is seen from this

figure that the velocity profiles decrease monotonically with an increase of magnetic parameter. The effect

of suction parameter on the velocity field is shown in fig. 2.It is seen from the figure that the velocity

profiles decrease gradually with an increase of suction parameter which indicating the usual fact that

suction stabilizes the boundary layer growth. The effect of Grash of number on the velocity field is shown

in fig.3.It is observed that from the figure as the Grashof number increases the velocity profile increases.

The variation of Solutal Grash of number on the velocity profiles are shown in fig.4. It is noticed from the

figure that with increase in Solutal Grash of number velocity profile also increases. Fig. 5 illustrates the

effect of unsteady parameter on the velocity. It is found that the velocity boundary layer thickness

decreases with increasing in the unsteady parameter. Fig. 6 shows the variation of velocity boundary layer

with the Soret number. It is found that the velocity boundary layer thickness decreases with an increase in

the Soret number. Figure 7 shows the variation of velocity profiles for different values of Eckert number. It

is found that the velocity increases with increasing the values of Eckert number. The effect of suction

parameter on temperature profile is shown in fig.8. It is clearly shows that as we increase suction

parameter fw by keeping all other parameters as constants, the temperature also decreases. The effect of

magnetic field strength on the temperature profile is shown in fig.9. It is found from the graph that as we

increase magnetic field strength parameter M the temperature profile increases.Fig.10 shows the variation

of temperature profiles for different values of Gr. It is seen from the figure that temperature profile

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 21 editor@iaeme.com

Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer MHD Flow Past an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat

Generation, Viscous Dissipation, Internal Mass Diffusion Including Soret and Dofour Effects

decreases with an increasing of Grashof number Gr. The influences of Schmidt parameter Sc on the

temperature profile across the boundary layer are presented in fig.11. It is obvious that the influence of

Schmidt parameter increasing values of Sc, the temperature distribution across the boundary layer

increases. The effect of Solutal Grashof number on the temperature profile is shown in fig. 12. From this

figure, it is noticed that the temperature profile decreases with an increasing the values of Solutal Grashof

number Gc. Fig.13 illustrates the effect of the Prandtl number Pr on the temperature . It is observed that as

the Prandtl number increases, the temperature decreases. The variation of thermal boundary layer with

Dufour number Df is shown in fig.14. It is observed from the graph that thermal boundary layer increases

with an increase in the Dufour number. The variation of unsteadiness parameter A1 on the temperature

field is shown in fig.15. The thermal boundary layer decreases with an increasing the values of

unsteadiness parameter. The effect of chemical reaction parameter on the temperature field is shown in

fig.16. It is noticed from the figure that the temperature profile increases with increasing the values of

chemical reaction parameter K. Fig.17 shows the effect of Eckert number Ec on the temperature field. It is

observed from the graph that the thermal boundary layer increases with increasing values of Ec. The

influence of suction parameter fw on the temperature field is shown in fig.18. As the suction parameter

increases the concentration increases .The variation of buoyancy parameter Gr on the concentration field is

shown in fig.19. It is observed that the concentration boundary layer thickness decreases with an increase

in the thermal Grashof number. The variation of Schmidt number Sc on the concentration field is shown in

fig.20. It is observed that as the Schmidt number increases, there is a decreasing trend in the concentration

field. The effect of Solutal Grashof number Gc on the concentration field is shown in fig.21. It is noticed

that the concentration boundary layer thickness decreases with an increase in the Solutal Grashof number.

The variation of Soret number Sr on the concentration field is shown in fig.22. It is noticed that the

concentration boundary layer thickness decreases with an increase in the Soret number Sr. The effect of

unsteadiness parameter A1 on the concentration field is shown in fig.23. It is observed that there is

decreasing trend in the concentration boundary layer as the unsteadiness parameter A1 increases. The

effect of Dufour number Df on the concentration field is shown in fig.24. There is an increasing trend in

the concentration boundary layer thickness as the Dufour number Df increases. The variation of chemical

reaction parameter on the concentration field is shown in fig.25. It is noticed from the figure that

concentration boundary layer thickness increases with increasing values of chemical reaction parameter K.

The effect of Eckert number Ec on the concentration field is shown in fig.26. It is observed that as the

Eckert number Ec increases there is an increase in the boundary layer thickness. The effect of Magnetic

field M on the concentration boundary layer is shown in fig.27. It is noticed that as the magnetic parameter

increases the thickness of concentration boundary layer increases.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 22 editor@iaeme.com

N. Raveendra, P.H. Veena and V.K. Pravin

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 23 editor@iaeme.com

Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer MHD Flow Past an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat

Generation, Viscous Dissipation, Internal Mass Diffusion Including Soret and Dofour Effects

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 24 editor@iaeme.com

N. Raveendra, P.H. Veena and V.K. Pravin

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 25 editor@iaeme.com

Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer MHD Flow Past an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat

Generation, Viscous Dissipation, Internal Mass Diffusion Including Soret and Dofour Effects

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 26 editor@iaeme.com

N. Raveendra, P.H. Veena and V.K. Pravin

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 27 editor@iaeme.com

Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer MHD Flow Past an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat

Generation, Viscous Dissipation, Internal Mass Diffusion Including Soret and Dofour Effects

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 28 editor@iaeme.com

N. Raveendra, P.H. Veena and V.K. Pravin

Table 1 Numerical Values of ' (0) for Gr=Gc=Sr=Sc=Df=fw=0. Comparison of the present results

with that of Magyari ,Keller, Srinivasachary and Ram Reddy

Pr Present

[31] Reddy [32] Gangadhar [33]

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 29 editor@iaeme.com

Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer MHD Flow Past an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat

Generation, Viscous Dissipation, Internal Mass Diffusion Including Soret and Dofour Effects

Table 2 Variation of f ' ' (0), ' (0) and ' (0) at the plate with Gr,Gc,M,Pr,Sr,Sc,Df,A1 and fw

0.4 -0.40933 0.59126 0.30658

0.8 0.5 0.5 0.71 0.2 0.5 0 0 0.1 1 0.5 -0.21287 0.64552 0.33174

1.2 -0.02487 0.68328 0.35322

0.4 -0.47592 0.55026 0.29009

0.5 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.2 0.5 0 0 0.1 1 0.5 -0.2392 0.64808 0.33765

1.2 -0.01729 0.70615 0.37112

0.1 -0.11079 0.68036 0.35342

0.5 0.5 0.3 0.7 0.2 0.5 0 0 0.1 1 0.5 -0.23898 0.6429 0.33332

0.6 -0.41504 0.58007 0.30402

1 -0.37854 0.54668 0.36853

0.5 0.5 0.5 3 0.2 0.1 0 0.1 0.1 1 0.5 -0.451 1.15181 0.31436

5 -0.34778 0.85156 0.40398

0.05 -0.31802 0.72224 0.15026

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.71 0.07 0.1 0 0 0.1 1 0.5 -0.32505 0.71311 0.17057

0.09 -0.33208 0.70364 0.19091

1 -0.43227 1.54882 0.3001

0.5 0.5 0.5 5 0.2 1.5 0 0 0.1 1 0.5 -0.41117 1.35811 0.3072

2 -0.39041 1.16461 0.3138

0.05 -0.4189 0.76459 0.32428

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.5 -0.45174 0.79866 0.3465

0.15 -0.48386 0.83174 0.36797

0.05 -0.45065 0.80035 0.34992

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.07 0.1 0.1 0.5 -0.45106 0.79973 0.34852

0.09 -0.4515 0.79904 0.34716

0.05 -0.35215 0.63371 0.30448

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.5 0 0 0.1 1 0.5 -0.36889 0.64671 0.30779

0.5 -0.52752 0.75399 0.33685

0.1 -0.45174 0.79866 0.3465

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.5 -0.44435 0.7469 0.34836

1.2 -0.43578 0.68822 0.35034

0.5 -0.45174 0.79866 0.3465

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 -0.00678 0.75689 0.21448

1.5 0.348201 0.6445 0.01899

5. CONCLUSIONS

The non-linear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using

similarity transformations. Numerical computations are carried out for different values of the

dimensionless parameters. Previous published work has been compared with the present work and noticed

that a good agreement. The results are shown graphically and the conclusions are also drawn that the flow

field and other quantities of physical interest are significantly enhanced by these parameters. It is observed

that the velocity and temperature increases as the heat generation/absorption parameter increases where as

concentration decreases.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 30 editor@iaeme.com

N. Raveendra, P.H. Veena and V.K. Pravin

REFERENCES

[1] P.Loganathan (2010), Effects of thermal conductivity on unsteady MHD free convective flow over a

semi infinite vertical plate.

[2] International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology,Vol. 2, No.11,pp.6257-6268.

[3] G. Vidyasagar, B. Ramana and P. Bala Anki Reddy, MHD Convective Heat and Mass Transfer flow

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[5] P. M. Krishna, N. Sandeep, and V. Sugunamma, Effects of radiation and chemical reaction on MHD

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[6] Walailak Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 11, no. 12, 2014.

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[8] Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, Vol.38, 2014.

[9] K. Bhattacharyya and S. Mukhopadhyay (2013). Similarity solutions of mixed convective

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convective boundary condition in the presence of thermal radiation, viscous dissipation and

chemical reaction.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 31 editor@iaeme.com

Mixed Convective Heat and Mass Transfer MHD Flow Past an Unsteady Stretching Sheet with Internal Heat

Generation, Viscous Dissipation, Internal Mass Diffusion Including Soret and Dofour Effects

[25] B.R.Sharma and D. Borgohain,Influence of chemical reaction, Soret and Dufour effects on

heat and mass transfer of a binary fluid mixture in porous medium over a rotating disk.

[26] IOSR Journal of Mathematics, 10(6), Ver. III, Dec 2014, 73-78.

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Porous Medium over a Nonisothermal Stretching Sheet,

[28] Hindawi Publishing Corporation,Journal of Industrial Mathematics, 2014, 1-10.

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transfer from a vertical porous plate with hall current, thermal radiation and chemical reaction

effects.

[30] International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Vol.65, No.4, pp.432-447.

[31] Ambreen AK, Ellahi R, Usman M. Effects of variable viscosity on the flow of non-Newtonian

fluid through a porous medium in an inclined channel with slip conditions.

[32] Journal of Porous Media. 2013; 16(1):59-67.

[33] Hassan M, Soleiman S. Effects of MHD and temperature dependent viscosity on the flow of

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