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Africans communities interacted through various economic The first direct evidence of pastoralism in the Sahara dates

activities such as handcraft industry, trade, agriculture, from perhaps 5000 BC.
fishing and mining.
Impacts of agriculture
i. Increasing of food production
Metalworking industry were industry that used various ii. Increasing of population
kind of metals such as iron, bronze, gold, copper and tin to iii. Encouraging of permanent settlement
make tools, weapons, utensils, ornaments and coinage. iv. Encouraging the development of trade
v. Growth of centres
Iron production vi. Invention of skills of keeping agricultural records
Iron production was done in various areas such as Ufipa in
Southern East of Lake Tanganyika, and Engaruka and
Ugweno in Northern Tanzania. Also, iron was being MINING
smelted at Nok, in what now northern Nigeria, around 500 Iron
In West Africa deposits of iron were of small scale,
BRONZE PRODUCTION however, there were a few large centres, such as Oume in
In Benin, the bronze casters had guilds called Igun the southern Ivory coast and in Oyo in south-west where a
Eronwon. complex of highly specialized mining villages flourished
during pre-colonial period.
Very old gold workings have been found in Egypt going
back to the beginning of the third millennium BC. In West The largest output of gold in ancient times, not only in
Africa gold production in Lobi, Bambuku, Boure and Africa but in the world at large, came from the mines of
Ashanti grew steadily from the first millennium A.D. Nubia.


Egyptians were producing and using in pre-dynast times, In Central Africa, some of the opencast mine was found in
that is before 3000 BC. Also, Copper was being mined and Katanga. Also, Copper was being mined and smelted by
smelted by 2000 BC. in Agadez, Niger and by the 15th 2000 BC. in Agadez, Niger and by the 15 th century BC at
century BC at Akjoujt in western Mauritania. Akjoujt in western Mauritania.

The largest pre-historic tin centres have been located in the Salt
Bauchi province of Nigeria and in Rooiberg-Waterberg In the area of Uvinza Western Tanzania, salt was mined
district of the Transvaal, South Africa. dates from the early Stone Age.
The impacts of metalworking FISHING
i. Improvement of implements For example, fishing was practised along the coast,
ii. Emerging of metalworking centres particular in the region of Senegambia and the Gulf of
iii. Emerging of social stratification Guinea, and also in many inland water such as Lake chad
iv. Increasing of trade commodities
and the great bend of the Niger in western Sudan. In East
v. Increasing of production
Africa, the Luo were the fishermen at the area along Lake
Victoria, and in Kilombero and Rufiji valley,
Wandengereko, fished in river Rufiji, and Wandamba
AGRICULTURE fished in river Kirombero while the Zaramo and other
Crop cultivation coastal communities fished in the Indian ocean.
The impact of fishing

Animal keeping i. Development of fishing centres

ii. Improvement of peoples diet
iii. Increasing of food availability and security
iv. Improvement of trade In Africa, variety of fibres were used, for instance, fibres of
tree bark, bast, raphia, silk, wool and cotton.
Silk production was mostly restricted to Nigeria and
Textile production involved various process in the Madagascar where various species of the moth of the
manufacturing of most fabrics, from harvesting and genus Anaphs were found. it was obtained from larvae of
collection of fibres, to soaking, drying, softening, cleaning, these moths, which bred on tamarind trees.
and spinning them, and their reconstitution and elaboration
through weaving, dyeing, bleaching, embroidery, applique