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Communication (from Latin commnicre, meaning "to share") is the purposeful activity of information exchange
between two or more participants in order to convey or receive the intended meanings through a shared system
of signs and semiotic rules. The basic steps of communication are the forming of communicative intent, message
composition, message encoding, transmission of signal, reception of signal, message decoding and finally
interpretation of the message by the recipient.

Communication in general takes place inside and between three main subject categories: human beings, living
organisms in general and communication-enabled devices (for example sensor networks and control systems).
Communication in the category of living organisms (studied in the field of biosemiotics) usually occurs through
visual, auditory, or biochemical means. Human communication is unique for its extensive use of language.

7 Cs of Communication


Concise Concrete Correct Coherent Complete Courteous

Communication Process and the Key Elements

sender/ source/ communicator (the person who initiates a message)
receiver or interpreter (the person to whom a message is directed)
message/ idea (the verbal and/or nonverbal content that must be encoded by the sender
and decoded by the receiver)
-is the subject matter of the communication. This may be an opinion, attitude, feelings, views, orders, or
channel/ mode (the medium by which the message is delivered and received) which may be
either formal or informal.
context (the setting and situation in which communication takes place)
noise (anything that interferes with the accurate expression or reception of a message)
feedback (a response from the receiver indicating whether a message has been received in its
intended form)
-is the process of ensuring that the receiver has received the message and understood in the
same sense as sender meant it.

Since the subject matter of communication is theoretical and intangible, its further passing
requires use of certain symbols such as words, actions or pictures etc. Conversion of subject
matter into these symbols is the process of encoding.

The person who receives the message or symbol from the communicator tries to convert the
same in such a way so that he may extract its meaning to his complete understanding.
1. Types of Communication According to Application Internal External According to
Communication Channel Verbal
2. Oral com
3. Written com
4. Non-Verbal According to Nature of Communication Formal Informal According to the
Number of People Intrapersonal Interpersonal Group Mass According to Direction
Horizontal Vertical
5. 4. Internal communication This is one of the application type of communication which
takes place internally on the basis of its usage. This communication as the title of it,
denotes internal transmission within industry, all are internal discussion, transmissions.
In such communication, most of passing information levels is of informal type. Internal
communication is the function responsible for effective communication.
6. 5. External Communication External communication the very name suggest
external relations where the sender transmits his message to the outside organization.
Channels used are letter,fax,phone,E-mail and mobile External communication includes
the field of PR, media relation and marketing management. E.g.1)The university
dispatches circulars to every institute.
7. 6. FORMAL COMMUNICATION in which the sender It is one of the types of
communication has to follow requisite,norms or principles at times of conveying message
in formal way. Therefore these type of communication are known as types according to
organizational expression i.e sender and receiver. Official discipline is strictly maintained
in formal communication. The level of authority virtually becomes the lines of
8. 7. Informal communication is so keenly related to This type of communication the
speaker and listener. They bring close association by working together for long hour and
develop their close friendship which result into informal relation. Informal
communication makes casual discussion and transmission of thoughts informally where
relations have much and more importance. Official discipline are not followed.
9. 8. Horizontal communication takes place when two person Horizontal communication
are working at same level in an organization and communicate with each other. The
main objective of horizontal communication are developing network. E.g. when the
employee of organization is communicating with another employee, it is called as
horizontal communication
10.9. Vertical communication In this communication, transmission of message takes
place in two opposite level as per situations. Just as the worker in organization
communicating with the manager of his department, at the same time he communicates
with his co-worker. Vertical communication is classified in three ways:a) Upward
communication b) Downward communication c) Diagonal communication
11.10. Upward communication It is the communication which turns upward in transaction
of message. This type of communication is becoming more and more popular in
organization as traditional forms of communication are becoming less popular. It contain
the communication of junior to senior. This communication include discipline,
mannerism, and also observation of rules and regulations.
12.11. Downward communication downward in the This type of communication turns
transmission process. The most basic form of downward is giving subordinates order and
instruction to get work done. It contains the communication of senior to junior. This
communication is fully opposite to upward communication.
13.12. VERBAL COMMUNICATION It can be written or spoken. Oral communication-
spoken words are used. It includes face to face conversation ,speech etc and is influenced
by pitch, volume, speed and clarity of speaking. Written communication-written signs
and symbols are used. It includes email, letter, report, memo etc and is influenced by
grammar, writing style and clarity of language used.
14.13. NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Written signs and symbols are used to
communicate. Elements- Appearance, Body language, Sounds. Meta communication
( To communicate about your communication to help overcome barriers or resolve
problems) . Kinesics (The process of communicating through body language such as
facial expression and gestures)
15.14. Intrapersonal communication This takes place within the individual. Sender = Our
relevant organ. Receiver = Our brain. Feed back by brain
16.15. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal communication is the process of people
exchanging ideas, feelings and thoughts through verbal and non-verbal massages. It is
usually involves face to face interaction, because both the spoken and body language are
used to communicate. Interpersonal communication is usually a two way process.
17.16. Mass communication Here the message is communicated to large number of
people. Communication is done through mass media like books , journals , TV ,
newspapers etc.. For this kind of communication we require a mediator to transmit
18.17. Group Communication This can be held among small or large people. It is not just
one person giving the message, it is several people.

Functions of Communication Gives information Knowledge management Decision making

Coordinating work activities Creates control Express feeling / emotion

1. Barriers of Communication No matter how good the communication system in an organization is,
unfortunately barriers can and do often occur . These barriers are: (or) Communication of barriers are the
difficulties involved in the process of communication which distort the message being properly understand by
the receiver barriers prevent the communication from being effective
2. 3. Types of Barriers in Communication:- 1. Physical 2. Psychological 3Language/semantic 4.Organizational
structure barrier 5.Cross-cultural Barriers 6.Overcoming barriers
3. 4. 1.Physical barriers are often due to the nature of the environment. Thus, for example, the natural barrier
which exists, if staff are located in different buildings or on different sites. Likewise, poor or outdated
equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems.
Ex:-Defects in media (letters,courier,fax,) Noise in Environment(Air vibration, people talking, in factory bcoz
of noise the oral communication is difficult) Information overload(in Advertisment&sales information is an
example of overload)
4. 5. 2.Physiological barriers may result from individuals' personal discomfort, caused, for example, by ill
health, poor eye sight or hearing difficulties One meaning of the term psychological barriers is the self
limiting beliefs a person may have which in turn affects their behavior - that is ....what they do or don't do as
a result of having a self limiting belief.
5. 6. Example for psychological A person might have a belief that they can't ride a bicycle and carry this belief
with them through their life, and as such they would never attempt to ride a bicycle. This belief will usually
have been developed as a result of their past experience - they may have tried to ride a bicycle as a young
child, perhaps they started to ride but fell off - hurting themselves in the process. If they tried to ride again
shortly after the first accident, and subsequently fell off again, hurting themselves, they would perhaps begin
to believe that they can't ride a bicycle. And they will hold this belief or psychological barrier until they receive
sufficiently strong evidence to change this belief.
6. 7. PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS The difference in background is overlooked Economic background
Social background Upbringing
7. 8. PSYCHOLOGICAL BARRIERS Self-Centred attitude Group identification Self image Selective
perception Defensiveness Filtering Status block Resistance to change Closed mind Poor
communication skills State of health
8. 9. Self Centered attitude In this the individual persons show their attitude or behavior of each persons. In
self centered attitude we pay attention to message which is useful or related to us,-if it is not for us than we
do not pay enough attention to that message The person who is highly self centered he is fails to build up
good relation with others(here we cannot learn more)
9. 10. Group Identification In organization our ideas suggestions & opinions are influenced in some matters
by the group to which we belong. In family there is different groups that is an the basis of age. There is a
conflicts B/W husband & wife because of their age difference as well as different culture.(both are from
different culture) In family father says something the children's may nt lizn that word becoz of the age
10. 11. Self image Self image is nothing but portray(showing about your self to others Like what your Our
own identification with in the organization that is what exactly your. This barriers shows both your
+ve(knowingly the work) as well as ve(if you do not know that but acting like that) thing in the organization
11. 12. Selective perception This psychological barriers sometime we fail to get the complete message which
is sent to us. After getting that message we project our expectation in to the communication as we explain
the message Proper media we have to select to send message to the right person(without fail)
12. 13. Defensiveness Defensive is nothing but serving for defense. If we feel threatened by a message we
become defensive and respond in such ways that reduce understanding. Example:- In organization the
sales manager gives threatened(decleared intention to injure) message to his team to reach target than the
team will perform well to be safe. This is mainly harmful barrier in handling complaints & grievances(painful
or oppressive) in resolving conflicts
13. 14. Filtering Filtering is the process of reducing the details (or) unwanted things of a message If sender
send the information that we have to change or edit all unwanted information than finally we have to get the
actual information to boss he wants results.
14. 15. Status block This is the main reason to break information or because of this status barriers occurs in
the organization. Here the sine our manager never lizn to the junior than the subordinate he connote
express his new ideas than the barriers starts in the organization.
15. 16. Resistance in change This is the serious psychological barrier Some peoples strongly resist new
ideas which are against their established opinion(or)treditions (or)social customs. They may avoid the new
ideas because the feel insecure or afraid of changes in methods or situations The peoples are maintain
their own emotions attitudes, standards. They are not ready to accept anything new changes.
16. 17. Close mind This is also main barrier of each and every organization Close minded seniors are
narrow minded peoples they cannot implement new ideas. And they are not allowing to young employees
to perform well & to implement to ideas for growth of organization
17. 18. Poor communication skills Lack of skill in writing & in speaking prevents a persons from framing the
message properly. Lack of understanding Because of nervousness the person cannot communication
orally with audience Because of excitement about on achievement or new idea may make a person speech
incoherent. Lack of listening, poor reading habits.
18. 19. State of health The human health condition can affect communication efficiency pain or fever certainly
makes a persons disinclined to engage in communication. Perception is low when the state of health is
19. 20. Continued lack of concentration Attitude and bias Lack of self discipline Low emotional state
Equally, if someone has personal problems like worries about their health or marriage, then this will probably
affect them.
20. 21. 3.Language/semantic Semantics, or code noise, occurs when the meaning of a message to the sender
differs from its meaning to the recipient. Too often, this may be the result of jargon, involving pretentious
terminology or language specific to a particular profession or group. Unclear message Faulty translation
Specialists language Unclassified assumptions
21. 22. Message related barrier If your message is too lengthy, disorganized, or contains errors, you can
expect the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted. Use of poor verbal and body language can
also confuse the message.
22. 23. 4.Organizational barrier In organization the manager sends information through circular,notice,letter
etc. In organization many of the employees they may not understand the lengthy messages if they ask
the senior persons will never answer properly out of 100/20% of information only they will get. in
organizations the senior peoples will not give much interest to the circular and all.
23. 24. Contd.. In downward communication the subordinate may not get exact information. Because of
superior carelessness. In upward communication the subordinates passes information to the superior but
that(100%) information will not moves to superior the managers will edit the unwanted information than
finally they will send the exact message.
24. 25. Organizational barriers: Status relationship One way flow Organization structure Rules and
regulations Distance barriers Physical barriers Mechanical barriers
25. 26. 5. Cross-cultural barrier We communicate the way we do because we are raised in particular culture
and learn its language, rules, and norms. Different cultures (and sub cultures)may have different rules and
norms. Understanding the other's culture facilitates cross-cultural communication
26. 27. Different languages And cultures Different languages and cultures represent national barrier which is
particularly important for organizations involved in overseas (Proper usage and pronunciation) business.
Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organization
27. 28. CULTURAL CONFLICTS IN WORK PLACE Cultural conflicts arise because of the differences in values
and norms of behavior of people from different cultures. A person acts according to the values and norms
of his or her culture; another person holding a different worldview might interpret his or her behavior from an
opposite standpoint. This situation creates misunderstanding and can lead to conflicts
28. 29. Learning about other cultures. People can prevent cross-cultural conflicts by learning about cultures
that they come in contact with. This knowledge can be obtained through training programs, general reading,
talking to people from different cultures, and learning from past experience.
29. 30. Discrimination Cultural conflicts lead to Discrimination toward or against a person or group is the
prejudicial treatment of them based on certain characteristics.
30. 31. Dealing with Discrimination in the Workplace In the last few years, charges of gender discrimination
(man vs. woman) in the workplace have increased. Racial bias, while no longer the most common complaint
among employees, remains a problem, as does age discrimination.
31. 32. Dealing With Discrimination At Workplace Dealing effectively with discrimination is a two fold process:
Become knowledgeable with regard to anti discrimination laws, Pay close attention to what's happening
in your company
32. 33. Types Of Discrimination 1.Gender discrimination Socially, sexual differences have been used to
justify different roles for men and women, in some cases giving rise to claims of primary and secondary
33. 34. Gender Stereo Typing The united nations had concluded that women often experience a "glass ceiling"
and that there are no societies in which women enjoy the same opportunities as men. The term "glass
ceiling" is used to describe a perceived barrier to advancement in employment based on discrimination,
especially sex discrimination
34. 35. Language discrimination Diversity of language is protected and respected by most nations who value
cultural diversity. However, people are sometimes subjected to different treatment because their preferred
language is associated with a particular group, class or category. Discrimination exists if there is prejudicial
treatment against a person or a group of people who speak a particular language or dialect.
35. 36. Disability Discrimination People with disabilities face discrimination in all levels of society. The attitude
that disabled individuals are inferior to non- disabled individuals is called ableism
36. 37. 6.Overcoming barriers Constant organizational efforts is need to overcome the barriers which are
unconsciously built up by different people in the organization. Health Centers:- many organizations provide
medical aid, gymnasium and recreation for the staff in an effort to keep down stress level. Regulation like
compulsory vacation after a certain number of months/years are also meant to ensure that employees avoid
stress and fatigue.
37. 38. Contd Semantic and language barriers can be overcome only by being careful with the use of
language & by using words which have clear meaning, by using short and simple sentence, and also by
using visual aid whenever possible.
38. 39. 7.Personal barriers: Attitude of superiors Lack of confidence in subordinates Insistence of proper
channel Ignoring comm. Filtering of information Message overload
39. 40. 8.Barriers related to the communicator Unwillingness to say things differently Unwillingness to relate
to others differently Unwillingness to learn new approaches Lack of self -confidence Lack of
enthusiasm Voice quality
40. 41. Continued Prejudice Badly expressed message Loss in transmission Semantic problem
Over/under communication attitude

TO OVERCOME BARRIERS: Learn to use feedback well. Be sensitive to receivers point of view. Listen to
UNDERSTAND! Use direct, simple language, or at least use language appropriate to the receiver. Use proper
channel(s). Learn to use channels well. Learn to use supportive communication, not defensive communication.

Oral communication is the sound representation of a language, and it consists of the speaking
and listening processes.
In speaking, the process begins with expression of ideas through association with
Listening begins with expression as heard in context, followed by recall of content
through association between expression and ideas.
Examples of informal oral communication include:
Face-to-face conversations
Telephone conversations
Discussions that take place at business meetings
More formal types of oral communication include:
Presentations at business meetings
Classroom lectures
Commencement speech given at a graduation ceremony

The Process of Oral Communication

The Act of Transmitting Messages
Stage 1 Stimulus/Stimuli
The process starts with a stimulus in the form of an occurence such as an idea, a startling
news, a disagreeable remark or a positive comment that activates the sensory processes of a
person whom we shall identify as the sender of the message.

Stage 2 - Ideation
The stimulus is transmitted by the nerve fibers to the brain which in turn recognizes the
event. Its perception is affected by the senders experience, environment, or culture. The
senders brain identifies the event and evaluates it on the merit of the stimulus.
Stage 3 - Encoding
His thoughts are being encoded into language symbols or words which must be in the
same language that the listener knows and understands. If, however, the sender of the message
thinks in a language that the receiver does not understand or will find offensive, then he must
rearrange or rephrase his symbols into a language which he thinks is right.
Stage 4 - Transmission
Now the speaker is ready to say his thoughts aloud in the language and the symbols he
has chosen. He is now ready to externalize his thoughts into the environment.
Stage 5 - Reception
Speech sounds are uttered in proper sequences to transmit the message. Pressure waves
are created in the air and at the same time properly coordinated muscles tighten or relax,
causing the hand to move in meanigful gestures.
Stage 6 - Decoding
The sounds containing the message are heard and the gestures that accompany them are
seen by the receiver. He acts. He senses what is happening because his visual and auditory
nerves are activated by the sound (voice) and light stimuli (gestures).
Stage 7 - Understanding
The receiver now decodes from sound to language and encodes from thought to words. He
chooses a language which the sender will understand and utters his response. The listener now
changes his role by becoming the sender of the response.
Stage 8 - Action
The response is now carried by the wave lengths to the first speaker, the original source of
the message.
Stage 9 Feedback / Receiver
The sounds and subsequently the language and message are heard. The listener now
evaluates them and reacts using the same channel in the same manner of exchange. This
mutual interaction takes place and feedback keeps coming to and from speaker and listener until
both feel that the purpose of the interchange is fulfilled.

Oral communication has been described as:

The process of people using verbal and non-verbal messages to generate meanings within and
across various contexts, cultures, channels and media. It encompasses various sets of skills
including the ability to speak coherently and persuasively, understanding of communication
theory and processess, knowledge of verbal and non-verbal cues, audience analysis, listening
skills as well as communication ethics.

In this section, we will describe seven forms that oral communication often takes:

Intrapersonal communication

Interpersonal communication

Small group communication

Public communication

Mass communication

Corporate communication

Intercultural communication

1.3.1 Intrapersonal Communication

Intrapersonal communication is self-talk or a conversation you hold with yourself under certain
circumstances for example, when you need to make an important decision or learn something
about yourself. You may wonder whether intrapersonal communication is just another way of
describing the thinking process. In a way, that would be correct.
Intrapersonal communication is a form of thinking that goes on inside us which relies on
language to express itself. It is similar to the Shakespearean soliloquy where the character in
question engages in self-talk to reflect on events that have transpired (please refer to Figure 1.6).
Intrapersonal communication often increases self-awareness and mindfulness, and hones critical
thinking skills.
1.3.2 Interpersonal Communication

Interpersonal communication is communication between several people. This form of

communication may range from the impersonal to the very personal. Impersonal communication
is when you talk with a person you do not really care about there is often a coldness or an
indifference in your attitude when you engage in this kind of communication.

Then, there is social communication where you engage in niceties with people you meet in a
social context. The most personal type of communication occurs when you talk with people who
are close to you, for example, your best friend, family members and colleagues. Such
relationships are interdependent, meaning that the actions of one party very often directly
affects the other party. Interpersonal communication can take place face to face as well as
through electronic channels like video-conferencing, chat rooms, e-mail and Twitter.
1.3.3 Small Group Communication
Small group communication takes place in a group, usually comprising five to 10 people
(please refer to Figure 1.7). This form of communication serves relationship needs (like
companionship, family bonding and affection or support) as well as task-based needs, for
example, deciding on disciplinary action or resolving conflict in the workplace.
In academic institutions, students often form small groups which meet regularly for study
discussions or to work collaboratively on projects. At the workplace, small groups may meet to
discuss issues related to work, or for problem-solving or team-building purposes. Learning to
communicate effectively in teams contributes to success and advancement in many careers.
Small group communication allows you to interact with others, be it at home, in school, at the
workplace or in public. You learn to exchange ideas, solve problems and share experiences.
1.3.4 Public Communication

Public communication, also known as public speaking, involves communication between a

speaker and an audience. This audience may range from just a few people to thousands or even
millions of people. The aim of the speaker is usually to inform or to persuade the audience to act,
buy, or think in a certain way. A teacher may address an assembly of students on codes of
behaviour or school rules. A politician may make speeches on how he will be dealing with certain
issues in order to win their votes. An executive may give a business presentation to get more
sales. It is important to understand some of the basic principles of effective public speaking so
that you are able to influence, persuade as well as entertain your audience when you
communicate with them.

1.3.5 Mass Communication

Mass communication is communication that is sent out from a source to many receivers all over
the world. It takes place through media like films, radio, videos and television. Modern avenues
of mass communication like the Internet and blogs can be very powerful indeed as information is
disseminated instantly.
1.3.6 Corporate Communication

Corporate communication is communication that takes place among members of an

organisation, within that organisation. Interacting in teams, conferencing with co-workers, talking
with a supervisor or manager, giving employees explanations and directions, interviewing and
making presentations are some examples of corporate communication. Effective corporate
communication skills enhance corporate image and impact positively on morale, commitment,
and productivity in corporations.

Is corporate communication compatible with morality and ethics? Please view the following
thought-provoking video and form your own opinions on this matter:
1.3.7 Intercultural Communication
Intercultural communication is communication between people of diverse cultures and
ethnicity. The world is increasingly becoming a global village and every country has people of
various ethnicities. Thus, it is important to note differences in the communication practices of
different cultures if intercultural harmony and understanding is to be maintained. For example, in
many Asian countries, students will seldom contradict or disagree with a teacher in the
classroom as this shows disrespect. In Western academic institutions, however, it is the norm for
students to think for themselves and engage their teachers in debate and discussion. It is
important to make efforts to recognise and respect the communication practices of people from
different cultures and nationalities.
Advantages of Oral Communication
More effective and efficient
Speedy and immediate feedback
More transparent and economical
Harmonious relations and personal touch
Motivation possible
Suitable for emergencies
Disadvantages of Oral Communication
Distortion off message
Lack of written proof
Unsuitable for lengthy communication
Emotional barriers
Misuse of time
Spontaneous response not well though
Example of Oral Communication An Impromptu Speech An impromptu speech is the most
difficult form of public speaking assignment. Its a type of speech that will not give you enough
time to prepare. But even with little to no preparation, you are still expected to deliver a great
speech. A badly delivered speech is inexcusable even though you didnt have any time to

Speech Communication
Speech refers to the processes associated with the production and perception of sounds used in
spoken language. Many skills are required for speech and language to develop effectively and
there are many ways in which speech development can go wrong. Some people may have
difficulty in moving the muscles that control speech, while others can't understand how a
conversation works or the meaning of a sentence. Some people can't understand or use
language whatsoever.

Speech and language are terms that are sometimes used interchangeably. Speech involves
articulation (how sounds are made), voice (the use of the vocal folds and breathing to produce
sound) and fluency (the rhythm of speech). Language is the set of rules shared by the individuals
who are communicating with each other that allows them to exchange thoughts, ideas, or
emotions. Each language (spoken, written or signed) includes its own set of rules for phonology
(phonemes or speech sounds or, in the case of signed language, hand shapes), morphology
(word formation), syntax (sentence formation), semantics (word and sentence meaning), prosody
(intonation and rhythm of speech) and pragmatics (effective use of language).

Types of Speech Communication

Informative This speech serves to provide interesting and useful information to your
audience. Some examples of informative speeches: A teacher telling students about
earthquakes A student talking about her research A travelogue about the Tower of London A
computer programmer speaking about new software
15. Types of Speech CommunicationDemonstrative This has many similarities withan
informative speech. A demonstrative speech alsoteaches you something. The main difference
lies inincluding a demonstration of how to do the thingyoure teaching. Some examples of
demonstrativespeeches: * How to start your own blog * How to bake a cake * How to write a
speech * How to just about anything
16. Types of Speech CommunicationPersuasive A persuasive speech works toconvince people
to change in some way: they think,the way they do something, or to start doingsomething that
they are not currently doing. Someexamples of persuasive speeches: Become an organ donor
Improve your health through better eating Television violence is negatively influencing our
children Become a volunteer and change the world
17. Types of Speech CommunicationEntertaining The after-dinner speech is atypical example
of an entertaining speech. Thespeaker provides pleasure and enjoyment that makethe audience
laugh or identify with anecdotalinformation. Some examples of entertainingspeeches: Excuses
for any occasion Explaining cricket to an American How to buy a condom discreetly Things
you wouldnt know without the movies

Effective Communication Preparation

21. Effective Communication Practice - practice makes perfect - revision - get time right
22. Effective Communication Presence -overcome nervousness -Body language -voice tone
-gestures -eye contact -positive attitude
23. What makes a GOOD host? Attitude Personality Voice BE YOURSELF.

1. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE FEAR Know your Environment Know your Audience Know your Speech
Learn to Relax Visualize a Successful Speech Evaluate Yourself
2. 34. Things You Shouldnt Do Read directly from notes Read directly from screen Turn back on audience
Slouch, hands in pockets No um, ah, you knows, so No nervous gestures Talk too fast, Talk too
3. 35. Things You Should Do Eye contact Can glance at notes Appropriate gestures Rhetorical questions
to involve audience
4. 36. Ten Successful Tips Control the Butterflies Know the room- become familiar with the place of
presentation Know the audience- greet or chat with the audience before hand. Its easier to speak to friends
than to strangers Know your material-increased nervousness is due to un-preparedness
5. 37. Control the Butterflies Relaxation- relax entire body by stretching and breathing so as to ease the
tension Visualize giving your speech-Visualize yourself giving your speech from start to finish. By visualizing
yourself successful, you will be successful
6. 38. Control the Butterflies People want you to succeed-the audience is there to see you succeed not to
fail Dont apologize-by mentioning your nervousness or apologizing, youll only be calling the audiences
attention to mistakes
7. 39. Control the Butterflies Concentrate on your message-not the medium. Focus on the message you
are trying to convey and not on your anxieties Turn nervousness into positive energy- nervousness
increases adrenaline, transform it into vitality and enthusiasm
8. 40. Control the Butterflies Gain experience-experience builds confidence, which is key to effective public

The organs of speech and their function

Speech is produced in the throat, mouth and nasal passage, but there are no speech organs as
such, strictly speaking; all of the organs used in speech have other, and perhaps more
fundamental, purpose involving eating and breathing. Nevertheless the term is familiar and
meaninful in the contex of articulatory phonetics, and will be used here. The speech organs are
shown in a diagram, a cross-section of the head and throat.
The lungs, diaphragm, chest muscles and windpipe also act in the production of speech, but
they will not be discussed in detail as their function is more or less automatic.
Speech is produced by causing a column of enclosed air to vbrate. It is the same prosses,
basically, as the production of sound by a wind instrument in music. Air is forced under pressure
from the lungs trough the windpipe (trachea), to the voice box (larnyx), a structure that sits on
top of the windpipe and contains the vocal cords, as they are called. (These are not cords at all,
really, and would be more properly named band sor membranes). The vocal cords have the
capability of closing off entirely the opening (glottis) and can hold considerable air pressure (as
when a person coughs or strains to lift a heave weight). They can also assume other positions.
They may be wide open, allowing the air to pass unimpeded. Or they may be closed almost but
not quite completely, so that the scaping air, forced through the narrow opening between them
causes them to vbrate like the reed in a musical instrument. This vibration makes tthe all-
important vocal tone. known technically asvoice, without which speech would be
impossible. Speech sounds that have this tone as part of their makeup are called voiced., and
those without it are called unvoiced or voiceless. Varying the amount of tensin on the vocal
cords causes the vocal tone to vary in quality and in number of cycles per second; in other
words, the timbre and pitch of the tone can be changed voluntarily, within limits. by the
The air stream issuing from the larynx w ith or without voice, can now be modified in many
ways; that is, we are at the stage of articulation. Almost all the parts of the throat and
lower head that are accesible to the air stream can take part in articulation. For discussion
purposes, we can divide these parts into three groups; resonating cavities, ariticulators, and
points of articulation.

stage of articulation
The size, the shape, and the material composition of the vessel enclosing a vibrating air
column all have important effects on the quality of the sound that comes from it. There are
quite a few spaces in the speech tract that effect sounds by their resonating qualities; in
acousting terms, their reinforce (amplify) certain frecuencies and and suppress or weaken
(dampen) others. In addition to te sinuses and other spaces in the head, which
function passively and without the control of the speaker, the resonating cavities involved in
speech production are these: the pharnyx, the space formed by the root of the tongue and the
walls of the throat, which affects the sound by its shape but is not actively used in
English; the nose, which adds its quite distinctive quality to the sounds if the air is allowed to
pass through it whether or not the mouth is involved at the same time; and finally, the mouth,
the most important of all because it contains a number of highly mobile organs and can assume
a tremendous number of different shapes.
These are movile organs that can be brough close to, or into contact withi, various locations in
the speech tract (known as points of articulation) so as to stop or impede the free passage of
the air stream. The manner of articulation is determined by the kind of closure or near closure
that is made, as well as its manner of release. The articulators are the lips, especially the lower
one; the tongue, usually divided into four parts; tip, front, middle, and back; the uvula; and, to an
extent, the jaw, through its role is minor (it is posible to speak quite clearly with the jaws
clenched, as ventriloquist do).

These are fixed locations againts which the movile articulators operate in order to produce
speech sounds: the teeth, the gums, the alveolar ridge, the various parts of the palate
(sometimes called hard palate to distinguish it from the soft palate or velum), the velum,
the walls of the pharynx and the glotis.
1. Lips- they serve for creating different sounds - mainly the labial, bilabial (e.g. /p/, /b/,
/m/, /hw/, and /w/) and labio-dental consonant sounds (e. g. /f/ and /v/ - and thus create an
important part of the speech apparatus.
2. 4. Upper Lip Lower Lip
3. 5. - small whitish structures found injaws- responsible for creating soundsmainly the labio-
dental (e.g. /f/and /v/and lingua-dental (e.g. //and//)
4. 6. Teeth
5. 7. tongue- with its wide variety of possiblemovements, it assists in forming thesounds of
6. 8. TONGUE Back Middle(Dorsum)Front(Blade)Tip(Apex)
7. 9. Alveolar ridge- hard ridge behind the upper front teeth. It is between the roof of the
mouth and the upper teeth.
8. 10. For the sound /s/, air from the lungs passes continuously through the mouth, but the
tongue is raised sufficiently close to the alveolar ridge (the section of the upper jaw
containing the tooth sockets) to cause friction as it partially blocks the air that passes.
9. 11. Alveolar Ridge
10.12. Hard palate a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth.
the interaction between the tongue and the hard palate is essential in the formation of
certain speech sounds, notably /t/, /d/, and /j/.
11.13. Hard Palate
12.14. Velum (soft palate)- it should have holes forming that function during speech to
separate the oral cavity (mouth) from the nose, in order to produce the oral speech
sounds. If this separation is incomplete, air escapes through the nose during speech and
the speech is perceived as hyper nasal.
13.15. Velum or SoftPalate
14.16. Uvula- it functions in tandem with the back of the throat, the palate, and air coming up
from the lungs to create a number of guttural and other sounds.- In many languages, it
closes to prevent air escaping through the nose when making some sounds.
15.17. Uvula
16.18. Glottis combination of vocal folds and space in between the folds as the vocal folds
vibrate, the resulting vibration produces a buzzing quality to the speech called voice or
voicing or pronunciation. sound production involving only the glottis is called glottal.
Example is the sound /h/.
17.19. Glottis

Manner of Articulation
1. Stops or plosives. The manner of articulation of stop or plosive sounds is produced by
complete stopping of the airstream and let it go abruptly.
2. Fricatives. The manner of articulation of stop or plosive sounds is produced by almost
blocking the airstream and pushing the air through a narrow opening. By pushing the air
through, a type of friction is produced and the produced sounds are called fricatives. If
you for example put your palm in front of your mouth when producing fricative sounds,
you feel the stream of air being pushed out.
3. Affricates. The manner of articulation of affricate sounds is produced by a brief stopping
followed by an obstructed release which results in some friction.
4. Nasals. The manner of articulation of nasal sounds is produced by lowering the velum and
following the airstream to flow out through the nose to produce nasal sound (Yule:2003;
Place of articulation

1. Bilabials. Bilabials are produced through upper and lower lips.

2. Labiodentals. Labiodental sounds are produced through the upper teeth and the lower lip.
3. Dentals. Dental sound is produced by placing the tongue tip behind the upper front teeth.
4. Interdental or intra-dental is sometimes applied to describe a manner of pronunciation
with the tongue tip between the upper and lower teeth.
5. Alveolars. Alveolar sound is produced through the front part of the tongue placed on the
alveolar ridge.
6. Alveo-palatals. These are produced by placing the tongue at the very front of the palate,
which is near the alveolar ridge.
7. Velars. The production of velar sound is done by placing the back of the tongue against the
8. Glottal. This is produced without the active of the tongue and other parts of the mouth.
This sound is produced in the glottis- a space between the vocal cords and the larynx
(Yule: 2003; 42-44).
Speech Production
LANE 332
Definition of Phonetics
Sound- spelling relationship
Phonetic alphabet
Lecture outline
Speech mechanism
Speech organs
Airstream mechanism
All sounds are made with some movements
of air
The basic source of power is the lungs
The air goes up the windpipe (trachea) and
into the larynx and out of the body through
the vocal tract (i.e. mouth or nose)
Speech organs
The organs of speech fall into three
Respiratory system: Lungs generating
air stream
Phonatory system: larynx and vocal
Articulatory system: vocal tract
Speech organs
Most human sounds are produced by an
egressive pulmonic airstream.
i.e. lungs pushing the air outwards
During speech, the lungs take in air rapidly
and let it go slowly.
Found at the very top
of the trachea
Contains the two
vocal folds, one on
the left one on the
Vocal folds
Their outer edges are attached to muscle
in the larynx while their inner edges are
If the back end of the vocal folds are held
apart, a triangular space opens up
between them.
The space is called glottis.
Vocal folds
State of the vocal folds
Adjustments of the glottis is very crucial
in speech production 3 positions
1) Open glottis, i.e. the folds are apart
normal breathing
voiceless sounds
[sssssssssss] and [ffffffffffffffffff]
State of the vocal folds cont.
Open glottis
State of the vocal folds cont.
Open glottis
State of the vocal folds cont.
2) Narrow glottis: i.e. held gently together
The air from the lungs forces its way through
them causing the folds to vibrate.
Voiced sounds
[zzzzzzzz], [vvvvvvvvv] and [i]
Try it yourself!
Some consonants are voiced, but ALL vowels
are voiced.
State of the vocal folds cont.
Narrow glottis
State of the vocal folds cont.
3) Closed glottis, i.e. vocal folds are firmly
pressed together.
Airstream is stopped completely
Glottal stop
The [t] in American English in words like button
State of the vocal folds cont.
Closed glottis
Vocal tract
The air passages above the larynx are known as
vocal tract
The shape of the vocal tract is very important in
the production of speech.
Made up of:
Oral cavity (mouth and pharynx)
Nasal cavity
The parts of the vocal tract that are used to form
sounds are called articulators.
Upper and lower surface
Vocal tract cont.
Vocal tract cont.
Move upper and lower lips
[b] and [m]
Round both your lips
Lower lip contact upper teeth
Vocal tract cont.
Roof of the mouth
Alveolar ridge- behind upper teeth
Hard palate- bony structure
Soft palate or velum- at the back of the mouth
Muscular flap that can be raised to shut off the
nasal cavity velic closure
Pharynx sound production in Arabic
Vocal tract cont.
Tongue- five areas:
1) Tip at the very front
2) Blade below the alveolar ridge
3) Front below the hard palate
4) Back below the soft palate
5) Root towards the rear wall of the
Vocal tract cont.
Vocal tract cont.
Nasal cavity
Not possible to perform an articulation since
there are no moveable parts.
Sounds produced with lower velum.