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1. Scope.................................................................................................................................................
2. Codes and Standards.........................................................................................................................
3. Design Conditions.............................................................................................................................
4. Materials............................................................................................................................................
5. Pipe Sizing.........................................................................................................................................
6. Piping Design and Layout..................................................................................................................
7. Valving...............................................................................................................................................
8. Line Blinds.........................................................................................................................................
9. Relief Valves and Vents......................................................................................................................
10. Service Piping..................................................................................................................................
11. Equipment Piping.............................................................................................................................
12. Equipment Layout...........................................................................................................................
13. Elevation, Clearance and Access Requirements...........................................................................30
14. Platform, Stair and Ladder Access...................................................................................................
15. Miscellaneous - Personnel Protection..............................................................................................


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1. Scope
1.1. This specification describes the requirements for spacing and layout of equipment, piping
arrangement, and pressure piping design for Reliance Industries Ltd., Jamnagar Export Refinery

1.2. The spacing and layout of equipment shall comply with OISD Standard - 118 Layout for Oil
and Gas Installations, GE Insurance Solutions, GAP. 2.5.2 plant layout recommendations, Indian
Petroleum Act 1934, The Petroleum Rules 2001, safety, adequate allowance for hazard separation,
and accessibility.

1.3. The design of pressure piping shall comply with the codes and standards referenced herein
and with accepted practices currently applicable to piping systems.

1.4. The units of measure shall be metric except that pipe sizes, flange ratings and flange bolt
diameters shall use imperial units. Dimensions and sizes quoted are not intended as literal
conversions from one system to the other.

1.5. Non pressurised underground drainage, domestic sewer piping and plumbing are excluded
from the scope of this specification.

2. Codes and Standards

2.1. The Codes and Standards (latest Editions and Addenda) which are applicable to this
specification are :

The Petroleum Act and Petroleum Rules

Staticand Mobile Pressure Vessel Rules.

The Indian Boiler Regulations, 1950
ASME B31.1 - Code for Power Piping
ASME B31.3 - Code for Process Piping

ASME B31.4 - Code for Liquid Transportation Systems for

Hydrocarbons, LPG, Anhydrous Ammonia
and Alcohols
ASME B31.8 - Code for Gas Transmission and Distribution
Piping Systems
NFPA 30 - Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code
NFPA 58 - Standard for the storage and Handling of
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
OISD-STD-144 - LPG Bottling Plant Operations
OISD-STD-116 - Fire Protection Facilities for Petroleum
Refineries and Oil / Gas Processing Plants.
OISD-STD-156 - Fire Protection Facilities for Port Oil
OISD-STD-118 - Layout for oil and gas installations
OISD-STD-117 - Fire Protection Facilities for Petroleum
Depots & Terminals
IP Model Code of Safe - Fire Precautions at Petroleum Refineries
Practice - Pt 19 and Bulk Storage Installations

IP Model Code of Safe - Liquefied Petroleum Gas Large Bulk

Practice Pt 9, Volume 1 Pressure Storage and Refrigerated LPG

GE Insurance Solutions Oil and Chemical Plant Layout and Spacing


GE Insurance Solutions Hazard Classification of Process Operations

GAP.2.5.2.A for Spacing Requirements

API RP520 Part 1 & 2 - Design and Installation of Pressure

Relieving Systems in Refineries
API RP521 - Guide for Pressure Relief and Depressuring
API RP550 - Installation of Refinery Instruments and
Control Systems
OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health
AGA Gas Measurement - Orifice Metering of Natural Gas
Committee Report No. 3

UOP - Std Spec - Typical Plot Plan Procedures


2.2. Any requirements contained in the latest editions and amendments of local and National
Codes and Standards, which are more stringent than the codes and standards listed in para 2.1, shall
be adhered to.

2.3. Other Requirements

Separate specifications cover the special requirements for sewer and drainage
systems. Special requirements in accordance with NFPA requirements apply to
fire protection systems. Heating, ventilating, air and water systems serving
buildings rather than plant or process areas may conform to applicable plumbing,
heating, and ventilating, or refrigeration codes.

2.4. Designation on Piping & Instrument Diagrams

The P & I Diagrams are to show limits of the piping governed by the Boiler
Code. They shall indicate which codes or requirements, other than Refinery
Piping Code, apply to various parts of the piping systems. The extent of all
package units are to be shown in full on P&ID's.

3. Design Conditions
3.1. Operating conditions

3.1.1. Normal Conditions

Normal design conditions of pressure and temperature are the most severe
conditions expected to coexist under usual long-time operating conditions. These
usual operations include all manipulation and control functions such as throttling,
blocking and by-passing likely to be used for operation and control.

3.1.2. Temporary Conditions

Usual operating conditions do not include more severe temporary conditions,

such as those incidental to start-up, shutdown, steamout or abnormal operation.
Temporary conditions govern as design conditions only when there is clear
evidence they definitely exceed time and severity limits in Paragraph 302.2.4 of
ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping.

3.2. Design Temperature

3.2.1. Definition

Design temperature is the most severe sustained fluid temperature, subject to

conditions of section 3.1 above and is generally based on the design temperature
of connected equipment. Design temperature of non-insulated components shall
be in accordance with Paragraph of 301.3.2 ASME B31.3.

3.2.2. Steam Traced Piping

Design temperature for steam traced piping shall be the fluid temperature or
11C below saturation temperature of tracing steam, whichever is greater.

3.2.3. Low Temperature Piping

Design temperature for piping with a fluid operating temperature below minus
29C, shall be the normal fluid operating temperature. In addition, design shall be
suitable for the design pressure at 38C.

3.3. Design Pressure

3.3.1. Definition

The design pressure is the most severe condition of internal or external fluid
pressure, subject to conditions of Section 3.1 above. The design pressure for
Boiler Code piping is to be established in accordance with the Code for Power
Piping ASME B31.1, or The Indian Boiler Regulations 1950, whichever is

3.3.2. DELETED.

3.3.3. Pump Discharge Systems Design pressure for unrelieved piping systems subject to pump discharge pressure shall be
either normal operating pump discharge pressure or pump shut-off discharge pressure, whichever is
greater, where:

i. Normal operating pump discharge pressure is the pump differential pressure

plus normal suction pressure and hydrostatic head.
ii. Pump shut-off discharge pressure is pump differential pressure at shut-off or
stalling conditions plus suction pressure and hydrostatic head, adjusted for
allowances per para. 302.2.4 of the Process Piping Code ASME B31.3. Design pressure for relieved piping systems subject to pump discharge shall be either the
normal operating pump discharge pressure or the safety valve set pressure, whichever is greater,

i. Normal operating pump discharge pressure is the pump differential pressure

plus normal suction pressure and hydrostatic head.

ii. Relief or safety valve set pressure is this pressure plus hydrostatic head
below relief valve adjusted for allowances per para. 302.2.4 of ASME

3.3.4. Lines with Two Ratings

Where a line with a lower rating connects to a pipe or equipment with a higher
rating, such line shall be rated at the higher rating (and shall be the same material
as the line of the higher rating) to and including the first block valve or, when
double block valves are used, to and including the second block valve. Block
valves on both sides of a control valve and the by-pass valve shall all be rated at
the same specification as the line with the higher rating.

3.3.5. Vacuum Systems

Design pressure for piping systems operating under vacuum shall be full vacuum.
Exception shall be taken where suitable protection against vacuum failure is

3.4. Loads Affecting Piping Stresses

Allowable stress values apply to total loads imposed on piping materials. Design
shall provide for all loading significantly affecting pipe material stresses. See
para. 301.4 through 301.7 of Process Piping Code for loadings, in addition to
fluid pressure which may affect piping stresses and chapter VIII for piping in
category M fluid services. Refer to Piping Stress Analysis Procedure 3PS-PL-
008, Appendix C.
4. Materials
4.1. Piping Materials Specification

The Piping Material Classes shall list in detail the pipe, valve, flange, fitting,
bolting, gasket, branch connection and other specific material requirements for
various classes of fluid, temperature and pressure services. Refer to Specification
No. 25194-3PS-PL-001. All components listed in a Piping Class shall be suitable
for use within the pressure/temperature limits of that class.

4.2. Corrosion Allowances

Corrosion allowances shown in the Piping Materials Classes is the maximum for
the respective service and material.

4.3. Wall Thickness and Reinforcement

4.3.1. Wall thickness and branch connection reinforcement requirements shown in Piping Material
Classes are to be suitable for use in the most severe pressure-temperature conditions within the class
limits. Pipe wall thicknesses may not be specified for the full pipe size range within a class, but shall
be calculated to suit specific line service conditions.

4.3.2. For wall thicknesses not specified in the pipe classes, wall thickness shall be selected on the
basis of calculations to suit individual line conditions.

4.3.3. Branch reinforcement is to be based on "limited" corrosion, where all excess metal in the pipe
wall, other than that required for pressure and corrosion allowance, is credited to branch

5. Pipe Sizing
5.1. Piping is to be sized for normal operating conditions. Provision for future increased capacity
shall be made when specifically requested.

5.2. Piping smaller than inch shall not be used except in instrument and steam tracing services.

5.3. Pipe sizes 1", 2", 3", 5" and 9" are not to be used except where equipment connections
are these sizes. In such cases, transitions to other commercial pipe sizes is to be made as close as
possible to the equipment connection.

6. Piping Design and Layout

6.1. Piping Routing

Piping is to be arranged in an orderly manner and routed as directly as practical,

preferably in established banks or pipeways, as follows:

6.1.1. Piping on elevated racks shall run at different elevations designated for north-south and east-
west banks, and change elevation when changing direction.

6.1.2. Piping outside of main pipeways shall run parallel to main pipeways wherever possible.

6.1.3. Relative elevations of pipeways shall be set to provide sufficient clearance between lines at
6.1.4. Flat turns at changes in direction are to be avoided on elevated pipe racks.

6.1.5. Dead ends and pockets in line are to be avoided.

6.1.6. All process piping within unit plot limits shall be carried overhead.

6.1.7. Lines whose temperature can drop to such a degree that the moisture in the surrounding
earth would freeze shall not be buried but carried overhead or run in trenches.

6.1.8. Offplot piping between units shall be run on sleepers at grade, where practical.

6.1.9. Overhead lines in acid, caustic or other corrosive services shall not have flanged joints
located above access ways or platforms. Overhead flanged joints in these services shall be fitted with
a plastic shield.

6.1.10. Piperacks and sleeperways shall be sized to allow 20% spare capacity on completion of
engineering. An additional 20% spare capacity shall be allowed at commencement of detailed
engineering to allow for design development.

6.1.11. Lines requiring limited pressure drop shall be routed as directly as practical.

6.1.12. Piping line size to be a minimum of 2" in pipeways / piperacks.

6.1.13. Piping located in paved areas to be elevated 600mm to bottom of pipe.

e.g. Control valve sets and manifold sets.

Where pipes are running at grade in graded areas the minimum BOP of pipes is
to be 500 mm.

Where pipes are running in sloping trenches passing under roads, the minimum
sleeper height is to be 400mm above the bottom of the concrete trench.

Where pipes are running through interconnecting corridor and anywhere else that
the pipe runs over the ungraded natural contours of the terrain, the minimum
sleeper height is to be 600mm.

6.1.14. Small bore thin walled lines SCH 10S or less for 2", 3" & 4", should be grouped together so
that the intermediate supports may be simplified.
6.2. Piping Flexibility

6.2.1. Piping shall be designed with sufficient flexibility to absorb any excessive stresses. Anchors,
stops or guides shall be used to direct thermal expansion away from pumps and turbines etc.

6.2.2. Expansion loops shall be used to reduce thermal expansions and absorb excess stresses where
the normal pipe routing is too stiff. Expansion bellows shall not be used without prior approval of
the Engineering Manager.

6.2.3. Lines subject to dynamic loading shall be designed to ensure that its size, configuration,
mechanical strength, supports and restraints will prevent excessive stress, pressure drop, vibration or
noise. Dynamic loading may be expected when pulsating flow (such as at reciprocating
compressors), high velocity flow, flashing fluid, fluctuating temperature or pressure, or mechanical
vibration (including wind) conditions exist.

6.2.4. All lines shall be designed in compliance with the relevant code requirements.

6.3. Pipe Spacing

Minimum spacing between pipes shall be based on staggered flanges with at least
25mm clearance between outside of bare pipe or outside of insulation, to outside
of bare flange or outside of flange insulation on adjacent line. Piping without
flanges to have 100mm clearance between bare pipes or between insulation.
Adequate spacing to be allowed for expansion / contraction between lines at
loops and any change of direction.

For details of pipe spacing refer to project standard drawing Nos 25194-P14-
JG000-001, 002 and 003.

6.4. Pipe Supports, Anchors & Guides

6.4.1. Pipe Support Procedure shall be in accordance with Specification 25194-3PS-


All piping shall be adequately supported and restrained so as to prevent undue

vibration, deflection, stresses or loads on equipment. Piping shall be supported
from below in preference to hanging from above. For strain sensitive equipment
such as turbines, piping may be supported by rigid / spring hangers to take
benefit of low friction and to permit any size adjustments that may be required.

Consideration shall be given to the intermediate supporting of smaller lines from

larger lines.

All pipe supports, guides, shoes etc. will be shown on the 3D PDS Electronic
Model. Welded support attachments, other than shoes, such as trunnions, lugs,
etc., shall be shown and located on electronic isometrics. The exception to the
above is that shoes welded to stress relieved lines shall be shown and
dimensioned on electronic isometrics.
6.4.2. Pipe Shoes

Horizontal lines 2" and larger with insulation shall be run on shoes as per spec.

On 1-" and smaller horizontal lines shoes are not to be provided, the bottom half
of insulation is to be cut away a distance of 150 mm on each side of the support.
Bare lines shall be laid directly on the piperack beam or sleeper. The need for wear
plates or shoes shall be investigated for large diameter and thin wall alloy piping.

6.5. Underground Pipes

6.5.1. Direct buried Carbon Steel Pipe shall be coated and wrapped.

6.5.2. The use of pipe trenches shall be avoided, where flammable heavier than air gases can collect.

6.5.3. Multiple lines running below roads or railway lines shall be either sleeved or run in culverts
dependant on the most economic installed cost. Consideration must be given to the drainage of
culverts and the effect on the hazardous area layout.

6.5.4. When located below grade, piping provided with protective heating and
piping in services requiring inspection and servicing, shall be in trenches.
Other piping shall be direct buried.

7. Valving
7.1. Valves

7.1.1. Operating and block valves are to be provided in minimum quantity consistent with good
design and operating practice.

7.1.2. Unless specifically required for operation, block valves shall not be provided at vessel nozzles
when the following conditions exist: Line to or from the vessel can be blocked by a valve located within 12 metres horizontal
radius from vessel surface. No undrainable liquid pocket in the line between vessel and valve.

7.1.3. No block valve shall normally be provided in lines or at vessel nozzles for services as follows: Vapour lines to condensers. Liquid and vapour lines to and from syphon reboilers. Lines from condensers to accumulators. Lines between exchangers in series. No block valves to be placed upstream and downstream on steam and boiler feedwater
service relief valves (requirements of Indian Boiler Regulations). For all other services paragraph
9.3 applies.

7.1.4. Block valves shall be provided at all 1- and smaller connections at equipment.
7.1.5. Valves shall be installed so that stems are not below the horizontal position except cryogenic
valves with extended bonnets which shall not be less than 45 above the horizontal. Locked open or
car sealed open valves will have accessibility from fixed or a rolling platform or scaffold and not from
a fixed or portable ladder.

7.1.6. Globe valves shall be installed so as to close against pressure.

7.1.7. Where a locked open valve is required, a metal tag shall be attached to the valve: reading
"This valve must not be closed without written permission from responsible authority".

7.2. Header Block Valves

7.2.1. Branch line block valves from pipeway headers shall be provided in primary branch lines
serving groups of lines to equipment, except where the main header may be shut off without affecting
unit operation in the event of failure in a branch line.

7.2.2. Branch line block valves must be located at edge of pipeway for access by portable ladder.

7.3. Unit Block Valves

7.3.1. Block valves shall be fitted on the unit side of plot limits to all overhead and underground
process lines entering or leaving a process unit. Drain valves shall be fitted on unit side of the block

7.4. Double Block & Bleed Valves

7.4.1. For double block and bleed requirements see isolation philosophy document 25194-
G98- JG000-001 and P&IDs.

7.5. Line Vents and Drains

7.5.1. Vents and Drains conforming to the following table shall be added to large bore lines. this
will apply mainly to the pipeway between the Refinery and Marine Tank Farm and lines on the main
interconnecting piperack.

Pipe Size Up to 150 m Greater than 150 m

10" 2" 3"

12" 2" 3"
14" 3" 3"
16" 3" 3"
18" 3" 4"
20" 3" 4"
24" 3" 4"
30" 3" 4"
36" 3" 4"
42" 4" 4"
48" 4" 4"
7.5.2. The vent / drain connections shall be branch connections according to the relevant branch
table complete with blind flange. Valves shall be included in the MTO for drains only.

7.5.3. Line vents and drains fall into two categories, operating and non operating. Operating Vents for equipment and piping shall be valved, incorporating a blind flange when
venting to atmosphere. Open drains shall be valved, together with a blind flange. Non-Operating Vents and Drains shall conform to the following:

i) For all hydrocarbon and hazardous service lines, non-operating vents and
drains shall be closed with a cap and seal welded. Valves shall not be
provided on such connections to eliminate the chance of leakage through the
valve gland.

ii) Systems for air, inert gas, and steam not exceeding design pressure or
temperatures of 9.6 bar and 117C do not require high point vent
connections on piping.

iii) All other services shall have vent and drain connections provided at the high
and low points of the piping system to facilitate maintenance and hydrostatic
testing. (The vents and drains shall not be shown on Piping & Instrument
Diagrams). Generally vents and drains are to be " dia. For assembly details
refer to Drg 25194-P14-JG000-027.

7.6. Sample Connections

7.6.1. Sample connections shall be located for easy access from grade (preferred) or fixed platform.

7.6.2. Length of sample piping to be kept to minimum.

7.6.3. Where a connection connects to a process line the tie in shall be made at the side or top of
the line.

7.7. Valves in Caustic and Acid Services

7.7.1. Valves in vertical pipe runs shall be located at a maximum height of 1350 mm from grade or
platform. All other valves shall have stems orientated in the vertical.

7.8. Valve Access

Type of Access Required

Grade Fixed Platf Rolling Fixed Port

Platf or Ladder Ladder
Operating Valves (7.8.1) Yes Yes No No No
Operating Valves, Small Yes Yes No Yes No
(7.8.1, 7.8.3)
Non Operating Valves * * Yes No No
Non Operating Valves, * * Yes Yes Yes
Small (7.8.2, 7.8.3)
Instrument Valves (See Para. 10. 8. 7 - Instrument Access)
* To be used if available.

7.8.1. Operating valves are valves that are essential for plant operation.

7.8.2. Non operating valves are valves that are not essential for plant operation.

7.8.3. Small valves are defined as valves that can be easily operated with one hand, the other
holding a ladder and are normally 2" and smaller.

In cases such as sample points where one hand holds the container and the other
the valve, then a platform access is required.

7.8.4. Chain Operators

Operating valves with bottom of handwheel over 2000mm above actual grade or
platform shall be chain operated. Chains shall not hang in walkways or access
areas and shall terminate approx 1000mm above grade or platform. Chain
operators shall not be used for screwed, locked/car sealed valve or any valve 1-
" and smaller.

8. Line Blinds
8.1. Operational blinds shall be provided where process requirements indicate that part of the unit
may logically be idle during operation of balance of the unit. For details of blinds refer to project
standard drawing Nos. 25194-P14-JG000-018 and 019.

8.2. All lines entering or leaving process unit limits shall be provided with operational blinds as

8.2.1. No blinds required on air, steam, water and lines containing non-toxic materials.

8.2.2. Provide blinds on unit side of block valve on all overhead and underground process lines and
all lines containing toxic material. All flanges 3 and larger adjacent to blinds to be complete with
jack screws. For details of jackscrews refer to project standard drawing Nos 25194-P14-JG000-020
and 021.

8.2.3. Blinds/spacer shall be provided where indicated on the flowdiagram.

8.2.4. For handling purposes blinds are to be installed preferably in the vertical (between flanges in
horizontal part of line).

8.2.5. Blinds shall be accessible from grade or platform.

8.2.6. When binds/spacer exceeds 45 kg. Lifting shall be by mobile equipment. If the blinds/spacer
is not accessible, hitching point shall be provided.

8.2.7. Grouped flanges with blinds (e.g. at battery limit) are to be staggered.

8.2.8. Special attention must be given to the line flexibility when ring joint blinds are used. When
possible, install a blind in combination with flanged elbow sections.

8.3. Blind and Spacer Installation on Vessel Top Nozzles

8.3.1. Where possible all blind and spacer sets for overhead lines 14" and above should be located
in the horizontal axis, either by use of a 90 degree spool piece or preferably by incorporation of an
appropriately designed 90 degree flanged nozzle on the vessel.

8.3.2. Lines below 14"which have high pressure flanges with ring type joints down to 6" dia
should be considered in the same way.

9. Relief Valves and Vents

9.1. Relief valves discharging into a closed blowdown system shall be elevated to provide self
draining of the discharge line into the blowdown system.

9.2. Relief valve tail pipes discharging to atmosphere shall terminate not less than 3 metres
above any platform within a radius of 7.5 metres. A 6 mm diameter weep hole shall be provided in
the bottom of tail pipes, to prevent liquid accumulation.

9.3. Block valves located upstream of a relief valve shall be full bore and the valve noted as
"Locked open" on the Piping & Instrument Diagram. Refer also to para. of this document.

9.4. Small relief valves, protecting blocked-in process piping or equipment against fluid thermal
expansion shall discharge to a suitable drain or closed blowdown system.

9.5. All relief valves shall be accessible from fixed platforms with the exception of thermal relief
valves which can be accessed by portable ladder. Lifting devices shall be provided for valves
weighing more than 45 kg.

9.6. Vents from manholes shall be elevated 3 metres above grade or platform within a radius of
4.5 metres. Vents adjacent to piperacks shall be elevated a minimum of 3 metres above the
top rack level.

9.7. Manhole vents shall not be located closer than 15 metres to fired equipment.

9.8. The discharge of steam, air, or similar non-flammable vapours from relief valves, safety
valves, and continuously operating vents, shall be located to prevent hazard to personnel.

9.9. A guide and linestop which is capable of withstanding the relief valve reaction force, will be
provided at the discharge of each relief valve.

10. Service Piping

10.1. Steam Piping

10.1.1. Piping shall be designed for complete condensate removal. Drip legs shall be provided on all
steam lines at all low points and dead ends. Drip legs shall be located such that they do not foul pipe
support steel or rack structures due to expansion.

10.1.2. Branch connections shall be made from the top of the headers.

10.1.3. Block valves shall be installed in a horizontal run of each branch line to group of common

10.1.4. Piping shall be designed to make use of sub-headers to serve an area of process equipment or
groups of drivers.

10.2. Steam Traps

10.2.1. Provide steam traps at low points and drip legs of steam lines.

10.2.2. Discharge steam traps to a lower pressure steam or condensate system (All steam traps shall
be accessible from grade or platform).

10.2.3. Provide valves on each side of trap for trap removal on closed systems.

10.2.4. For details of steam trap arrangements refer to Project Standard Drawing No. 25194-P14-

10.3. Steamout Connections

10.3.1. Steamout connections are required for purging vessels and pipelines containing hydrocarbon
and hazardous fluid, except for cryogenic or LPG systems.

10.3.2. Steamout connections shall not be less than 1NB.

10.3.3. Hoses serving steam out connections shall not exceed 15 metres in length.

10.3.4. For details of steamout connections refer to Project Standard Drawing No. 25194-P14-

10.4. Steam Tracing

10.4.1. Where process lines require steam tracing they are to be indicated by a dotted line on the
Piping & Instrument Diagrams. Above ground liquid lines subject to freezing are to be steam traced
if the liquid cannot be circulated.

10.4.2. For details of steam tracing requirements refer to Project Standard Drawings No. 25194-P14-
JG000-008 to 010 inc.

10.5. Utility Stations

10.5.1. Utility stations at grade, consisting of air, steam and water, shall be located throughout the
operating area of each process unit, so that a 15 metre length of hose can service any point in the

10.5.2. Additional utility hose connections for air and steam shall be supplied at platforms for tower
manholes and elevated structures, as required.

10.5.3. Utility stations shall be installed such that they remain in operation during unit shutdowns.

10.5.4. No extension of Nitrogen lines to utility hose stations.

10.5.5. Use of Nitrogen only through hard piping.

10.6. Water System Piping

10.6.1. 2NB and below branch connections from cooling water headers shall be taken from the top
of the line. Drains shall be provided on the dead end portion of lines.

10.7. Air System Piping

10.7.1. Air piping system shall be designed for good drainage. Provide drain valves and drip legs at
the low points of systems. Branch connection shall be taken-off from the top of the header.
10.7.2. Instrument air headers within process units shall be provided with a valved connection every
6 metres for field routing of air supplies to instrument distribution manifolds.

10.8. Instrument Piping

10.8.1. Control Valve Manifolds Where required by the P & ID control valves shall be supplied with block valves located up
and down stream of control valve and a by-pass. Block Valves are normally line size, but where control valve is two or more sizes smaller than
line size, the block valves may be one size smaller than line size. By-pass valve and piping shall be same size as control valve. Supports at control valve manifolds shall be located so that the assembly is self supporting
when the control valve is removed.The assembly shall be suitably supported to avoid unnecessary
movement due to expansion. Bleed valves shall be located between upstream block valve and control valve for fail open
valves. For fail closed valves, bleed valves shall be located upstream and downstream of the
control valve between the control valve and block valve. For configurations of Control Valve Manifolds refer to Project Standard Drawing No. 25194-

10.8.2. Location of Control Valves Control valves shall be located at grade or on conveniently accessible platforms. Their
locations must be consistent with their function and with convenience of plant operation. In general,
they shall be located in sight of instruments or indicators showing the variables they control. Control valves in flashing service shall be located as far downstream of the line as possible
whilst complying with the requirements of

10.8.3. High Pressure Drop at Control Valves Where high pressure drop conditions exist across control valves, high fluid velocities along
with extreme noise levels can be expected. Piping subjected to these conditions shall be analysed and
designed to ensure that its size and configuration downstream of the valve prevents excessive
vibration and noise. In case of high pressure drop, vendor shall be consulted for provision of a
suitable diffuser.

10.8.4. Level Instruments Location

Level instruments shall be accessible from grade, platform or ladder. Their

location is to be consistent with function and with convenience of plant
operation. Strong Backs

Where strong backs are provided for external level instruments, their minimum
pipe size shall be 2". Block valves shall be provided at the vessel connections.

10.8.5. Orifice Runs Horizontal meter runs are preferred, and the minimum length shall be in accordance with
API.RP. 550 PART I, and AGA Gas Measurement Committee Report No 3, Orifice Metering of
Natural Gas. Provide sufficient clearance at orifice flanges for installation of instrument piping and
seal pots where required. Refer to Systems Standard Drawing No 25194-J10-JG000-026.

10.8.6. Orifice Taps Orifice taps are to be located vertically upwards for gas flow on horizontal lines, the location
of taps in steam flow shall be horizontal or at 45 upwards from the horizontal and in liquid flow
shall be horizontal or at 45 downwards from the horizontal, if the meter is located in piperacks.
Orifice flanges may be located in horizontal or vertical lines, pipe nipples shall be seal welded.
10.8.7. Instrument Access Table

Instrument Access requirements shall be provided in accordance with the

following table.

Type of instrument Access Access from Grade and/or

Required Portable
for Ladder Fixed Fixed
Operation Ladder Platform
Thermocouples & No Yes Yes Yes
Resistance Bulbs
Test Thermowells Yes No Yes Yes
Dial thermometers Yes No Yes Yes
Pressure Gauges Yes No Yes Yes
Level Gauges/Level Yes No Yes Yes
Transmitters (blind or Yes No Yes Yes
indicating including
sensing element)
Field Controllers & Yes No Yes Yes
Field Switches (Alarm & No Yes Yes Yes
Control Valves & other Yes No No Yes
final Control Elements
Analytical & Other Yes No Yes Yes
Special Instruments
Orifice Flanges No Yes Yes Yes

11. Equipment Piping

11.1. Vessel and Column Piping

11.1.1. Piping at columns shall be located radially about the column on the pipeway side. Manways
and platforms shall be located on the access side. Over-head vapour lines and similar connections 18"
and larger may have a welded connection to the vessel, except where flanges are required for
maintenance or blinding. Vertical lines down columns or vessels shall be suitably supported from
vessel and have a minimum of 300mm clearance from the outside of shell to back of pipe. When
vessel is insulated allow a minimum clearance of 150mm between back of pipe and insulation.

Locate items such as bridles with level instruments at dead end of platforms if
possible, thereby eliminating normal operator travel around such items.

Cold pull piping shall not be used in piping between maintenance joints. Client
shall be consulted before using cold pull in any piping.

11.1.2. Connections Inside Skirts

Valves and flanges shall not be located inside vessel skirts.

11.1.3. Platforms or fixed ladder shall be provided at all nozzles which require blinding
during maintenance periods. Platforms shall be provided at manways above 3 metres above high point of
finished surface. The interval between platforms shall not exceed 9000mm. Platforms shall be positioned so that the manhole centreline is not less than 610
mm above the platform, with 760 mm preferred. The bottom of the manhole
entry shall not be more than 1070 mm above the platform. Adjacent columns shall be provided with combined platforms and manways at
common elevations whenever possible. Vessel davits for handling internals, relief valves, etc., shall be provided on
vertical vessels, and on vessels not accessible by mobile crane. Davits shall be
oriented to allow the lowering of appurtenances into the access area.

11.1.4. Draw-off Boots

Draw-off boots on elevated horizontal vessels may be extended a reasonable

amount to place the centres of gauge glass and level controller not over 1.5
metres from grade, platform, or ladder access.

11.1.5. Vents and Drains A valved and blinded atmospheric vent shall be provided at vessel high points
and/or overhead piping with platform access provided for valve operation. Drains provided at vessels shall run to underground systems with open
connections terminating 50mm above the drain hub, so that discharge is plainly
visible. When practicable, connection shall be piped from the bottoms-out line.

11.2. Exchanger Piping

Piping to shell and tube exchangers shall be provided with break-out flanges to
permit easy removal of shell covers, channel covers, channels and bundles. Allow
adequate clearance for mobile handling equipment. Piping must be adequately
supported such that bundles can be removed without use of additional temporary
supports on piping. Hot piping shall be routed in such a way that line movement
due to thermal expansion matches that of equipment it is connected to.

11.2.1 Water Lines Piping is to be arranged where practical, or check valves properly located, so

that water remains in all units on loss of cooling water supply. Cooling water supply and return piping connected to underground headers shall
be piped as directly as possible. Allowing sufficient flexibility for final fit up with
equipment nozzles.

11.2.2 Thermowells
When thermowell connections cannot be provided on exchanger inlet & outlet
nozzles, they shall be installed on adjacent piping.

11.3. Air Cooled Exchanger Piping

11.3.1. Inlet piping to a heat exchanger units made up of multiple bundles shall be
designed to provide for balanced flow and pressure drop through the tubes.
Possible two phase flow must be considered.

11.3.2. Split Header Bundles

Piping connections to split header bundles shall incorporate necessary flexibility to

accommodate the anticipated movement produced by differential temperature
within the bundle. (Forces and movements at nozzles shall not exceed those
allowed by the equipment manufacturer).

11.4. Pump and Turbine Piping

11.4.1. Pump Suction Piping

Pump suction piping shall be arranged with particular care to avoid unnecessary
pressure drop and vapour pockets. Sources of disturbance such as bends and
branches shall be minimised to avoid vortex formation and uneven velocity
distribution. Pipe bends before suction nozzles to be positioned where possible in
the same plane as the pump shaft. Concentric reducers are preferred where size
changes are necessary in pump suction lines. Eccentric reducers with flat side top
shall be used at all horizontal pump nozzles. Pumps with side suction and
discharge nozzles may require up to 7 diameters length of straight pipe before
suction nozzle in accordance with manufacturers recommendations.

11.4.2. Access to Pumps and Turbines

Piping at pumps and turbines shall be arranged to avoid interference with

operation or maintenance access. Removable spool pieces shall be provided as
appropriate, such as at end suction pump inlets. Pump suction and discharge
piping shall be designed to be self supporting to permit maintenance without
major piping and pipe support disassembly.

11.4.3. Weight and Thermal Stress

Where possible, pump discharge piping to be brought down to pump centre line
level with check valve and isolation valve located horizontally. This will allow
piping to be supported without the use of springs.

Suitable supports or anchors shall be provided so that excessive weight and

thermal stresses are not applied to the casings. Consideration shall be given to
piping configurations to minimise these stresses. (Forces and moments are not to
exceed those allowed by the equipment manufacturers). Grade level pipe
supports at pumps are to be adjustable type.

If grade level supports are required at pumps, centrifugal compressors or turbines

they shall be installed on an integral extension of the equipment foundation, to
avoid differential settlement.

11.4.4. Suction and Inlet Strainers

Temporary strainers with a pipe spool shall be provided at all pump suction,
between block valve and suction flange and turbine inlet nozzles, unless
permanent strainers are specified.

11.4.5. Pump Valves Check valves shall be installed in the discharge line of each centrifugal and rotary
pump. Block valves shall be installed in the suction and discharge of all pumps,
the discharge valve being located downstream of the check. Suction valve to be
located upstream of strainer. When a positive displacement pump is not equipped with a built-in relief valve, a
relief valve shall be installed in the discharge piping between the pump nozzle and
the first block valve and shall normally discharge into the pump Suction Line. Firewater Pump valves and Relief valves shall conform to the requirements of
NFPA 20, Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC).

11.5. Compressor Piping

11.5.1. Suction Piping Centrifugal Compressor Suction piping shall be designed to ensure that the
configuration of the piping and the length of straight pipe at inlet nozzle is
adequate and does not adversely affect the compressor performance. Piping shall be run to avoid the possibility of trapping of collecting liquid. If this is
not practical then knock-out equipment shall be installed as required by the P &
ID. Temporary conical strainers with pipe spool shall be installed in compressor
suction lines between the block valve and suction flange and indicated on Piping
& Inst. Diagrams.

11.5.2. Vibration (Reciprocating Compressor) Particular consideration must be given to design of piping subject to vibration

from dynamic loading associated with reciprocating compressors. Volume bottles
may be provided as required. These lines shall also be subject to an analog /
digital study. Suction and discharge piping shall be run on sleepers at grade. This arrangement
permits simple and effective supports of the lines to reduce vibration. Suction and discharge lines shall be supported independently of the compressor

11.5.3. Removable Piping for Maintenance Removable spool pieces shall be provided at compressors where needed to permit
maintenance without major piping disassembly.

11.6. Direct Fired Heater Piping

11.6.1. Inlet & Outlet Process Piping Preference shall be given to the inlet piping to heater, being symmetrical, and of
the same length, with similar fittings, from the point where the flow splits at the
heater inlets. Symmetry of outlet piping from heater is not so critical, however non symmetrical
piping may contribute to the uneven heating and possible coking up and
overheating of tubes. Consideration shall be given to the Symmetry of heater
outlet piping.

11.6.2. Burner and Snuffing Steam piping at Fired Heaters

Burner piping shall be kept clear of all access and observation openings. Space
required for tube maintenance shall be kept free of all piping. Piping to the
burners shall be made using flanges, or other specified means, to provide for
easy and convenient removal of burners for maintenance. Piping shall be located
to maintain a minimum of 2 metres clearance under the heater. In general, burner
piping is to conform to the following requirements: Take-off connections shall be made from the top of the steam and gas headers and
piping arranged for equal flow distribution. Condensate legs, knockout pots or
other approved methods for the collection and elimination of condensate shall be
provided. Burner pipe valving shall be accessible when viewing through peephole. Inlet /outlet piping shall be supported such that imposed loads on coil flanges are
kept to the absolute minimum, and that minimum loads are transferred to the
heater coil supports. This will reduce the risk of refractory lining damage. Snuffing steam manifold shall be located 15 metres minimum distance away from

11.7. Storage Tank Piping

11.7.1. Adequate flexibility shall be provided in connecting piping so that the tank nozzles are
not distorted if tank settlement occurs.

11.7.2. Storage tank isolation valves shall be located at the tank nozzles. Any further
isolation valves required as per P & ID are to be located outside of the bund wall
with access readily available. Tank isolation valve and first pipe support shall be
preferably supported from tank foundation to avoid differential settlement and use
of spring supports.

12. Equipment Layout

12.1. General

12.1.1. DELETED.

12.1.2. Process Units shall be located on high ground to avoid flooding, these and Utility
Units shall be arranged to suit independent operation and shutdown. Equipment
within process and offsite areas shall be arranged to satisfy safety, operational,
maintenance and construction requirements. Unless required for common
operation or safety reasons, equipment is to be located in process sequence to
minimise interconnecting piping. Equipment shall be spaced to allow for safe
operation and maintenance with due consideration to construction space
Each unit shall have a rectangular shape of maximum size 183 meters by 92
meters recommended for fire fighting purposes.

12.1.3. Space for future expansion shall be provided where specifically requested by job

12.1.4. For Minimum Spacing required between Facilities and Units refer to Table 4. For
Minimum Spacing required within Process Unit Layouts refer to Table 5.

12.2. Buildings

12.2.1. Administration buildings shall be grouped and located upwind of operating plant
areas. Adequate parking facilities shall be provided at buildings which are
normally occupied.

12.2.2. Control rooms and Switch rooms shall be in a non-hazardous

area if located 30 metres from the nearest source of flammable
hazard in a Process Unit, and Processing Units. They shall be of
blast resistant and pressurised design, located at Unit periphery
and adjacent to a roadway.

12.2.3. Firestations shall be close to main entry gate with straight approach to critical areas.
Firewater Storage and Pumps shall be located a minimum distance of 60 metres
from Hydrocarbon Storage and Process Units. For petroleum depots and
terminals refer to clause 4.3.5(v) of OISD - 117.

12.2.4. Buildings comprising of more than one floor, are to be provided with
adequate access openings in floors, or walls, to enable
equipment from upper floors to be lowered, by means of
overhead lifting gear, down to grade for removal by mobile

12.3. Pumps

12.3.1. Pumps shall be located close to the associated equipment so that suction line
lengths are minimised, but with sufficient space required to provide adequate

12.3.2. Pumps handling flammable materials shall not be located below piperacks.

12.3.3. Pumps shall be located such that the pump discharge is a minimum of 4500 mm
min. from the centre line of piperack column or outside edge of cantilevers for
pumps operating at 260C or above, and a minimum of 3000 mm for pumps
operating at 250 C or less, as required by GE Insurance Solutions, (GAP),

12.3.4. Minimum edge to edge between pump foundations shall be 1.5 metres.

12.4. Compressors

12.4.1. Compressors shall be housed in shelters to provide protection for

equipment and personnel. Located adjacent to a roadway and downwind from

12.4.2. Centrifugal Compressors shall be a minimum of 7.6 metres from Reciprocating

12.4.3. Suction and Interstage Knockout Drums shall be a minimum of 4 metres from

12.4.4. A bridge or gantry crane shall be provided for removal of compressor components.
Provision shall be made for removal of such items via removable roof panels, a
drop area shall be provided at one end of compressor shelters.

12.4.5. Compressors may be elevated sufficiently to permit piping and

auxiliaries to be located below operating platform. Small
compressors may be grade mounted with piping and auxiliaries
arranged for convenient access and maintenance.

12.4.6. Where possible all compressors in a process unit shall be

grouped together and located in a single shelter to reduce the
cost of structures and cranes. This includes combining different
types of compressors where an economic shelter design can be

12.5. Vessels

12.5.1. Vertical vessels are to be placed on a common centreline parallel to the main pipeway.

12.5.2. Horizontal vessels shall be located to minimise piping runs and

where practical, be lined up with their tangents on a common
locating line on the piperack side of the unit. Vessels and
associated piping should not encroach into established
operating or access aisles.

12.5.3. Davits shall be provided on top of vessels to handle relief valves 4" and larger,
internals, etc. that are not accessible by mobile equipment. Davits shall be
orientated in such a way, as to permit the lowering of this equipment to a clear
drop out area at grade.

12.5.4. Reactors shall be located for ease of access during catalyst unloading and loading
operations. Permanent facilities will not be provided unless expressly required by
the process licensor. Space shall be allowed for cranes and storage of spent and
new catalyst. Where necessary provision shall be made for the installation of
temporary handling equipment during catalyst unloading.

12.5.5. There shall be three hazard groups for Reactors:

High Moderate

This category shall include endothermic reactions and other operations, such as
distillation, absorption, mixing and blending of flammable liquids. Exothermic
reactions with no flammable liquids or gases shall also be included in this hazard
group. Typical process examples include:
Acetic anhydride (carbonylation of methyl acetate)
Acetone (dehydrogenation of alcohol)
Amine Treating (ATU)
Crude distillation
CRU Platformer
Dimethyl formamide
Ethanol (from methanol)
Ethylene glycol
Fluid cat Cracking (FCC)
Formaldehyde (methanol oxidation)
Heavy Naphtha Hydrotreater
IC5 Extractive LMG Merox
Methyl amines
Methyl ethyl ketone (dehydrogenation of alcohol)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polypropylene Recovery (PRU)
Sat. & Unsat. LPG Merox & Dec3
Solvent extraction
Sour Water Stripping (SWS)
Sulphur Recovery (SRU)
Tail Gas Treating (TGT)
VGO Hydrotreating
Visbreaking Intermediate

Processes or operations having an appreciable explosion hazard and a moderate

fire hazard are included. This category shall include slightly exothermic
reactions. Typical process examples include:
Acetic anhydride (from acetic acid)
Alkylation (Refinery)
Benzene (from toluene-xylene)
Benzene-Toluene-Xylene (BTX)
Ethyl benzene
Hydrogen Unit (HMU)
Methanol (Reforming)
Polyethylene HD (small units)
Reforming (Refinery)
Terephtalic Acid High

This category includes highly exothermic or potential run-away reactions and high
hazard products handling. Typical process examples include:
Acetic acid
Acetaldehyde (oxidation)
Acetone (cumene oxidation)
Acrylic acid
Butadiene (oxidation)
Cumene hydroperoxide
Dimethyl terephtalate
Ethylene oxide
Hydrocracking (MHC & LCO)
Maleic anhydride (butane oxidation)
Methyl metacrylate
Phenol (cumene oxidation)
Phtalic anhydride
Polyethylene LD (high pressure)
Polyethylene HD (large units)
Propylene oxide
Vinyl acetate
Vinyl chloride (VCM-EDC)
12.6. Exchangers

12.6.1. Shell and tube exchangers shall be located with the channel end away from
pipeways to facilitate tube bundle removal, with a clearance length of 1 metre plus
length of bundles, this area shall not encroach on plant roadways.

12.6.2. For exchangers under drums or unit structures, where ever possible the channel
end shall be clear of overhead structures for handling of channel end by mobile

12.6.3. Shell and tube exchangers shall be located with the backs of
exchangers on a common line with horizontal vessels, with the
exception of those having channel ends connected to an
underground cooling water system. These exchangers when
grouped shall be located with their channel nozzles on a
common centreline, with the largest exchanger setting the
distance from the piperack in a similar manner as indicated

12.6.4. Stacked tube exchangers shall be limited to two units high.

12.7. Air Coolers

12.7.1. Air coolers shall be located so as to provide for safe and practical access for
operation and maintenance. They may be located in equipment areas or over
piperacks, no equipment to be located above or below coolers.

12.7.2. If air coolers are located over piperacks platforms shall be provided for access to
motors, and header boxes. Access shall be provided by ladders consistent with
para 14.4 of this specification.

12.7.3. Access for removal or replacement of tube bundles, fans and drivers for air coolers
located over piperacks shall be achieved by providing accessways, suitable for
heavy craneage, between process equipment on one side of the piperack. For
major banks of air coolers this shall require a number of accessways which shall
be located on either side of the piperack.

12.8. Fired Heaters and Boilers

12.8.1. Furnaces and boilers shall be located at plot boundaries for ease of access. Tube
pulling shall be by mobile crane and adequate dropout and swinging space shall be
provided. External piping shall be minimised at the tube pulling end of equipment.

12.8.2. Fired equipment on each process or utility unit shall be grouped together and
common stacks provided wherever this is possible and economically viable.

12.8.3. Fired heaters shall be located at one corner and upwind of process units and
storage tanks to minimise the possibility of vapours being carried towards these
ignition sources. Within congested process areas, heater locations will be
determined to provide the lowest risk of fire or explosion.

12.8.4. A minimum clearance of 15 metres shall be provided between the shell of fired
heaters and other hydrocarbon containing equipment with the exception of
reactors and their feed effluent exchangers where high temperature, expensive
alloy pipe runs must be minimised.
12.8.5. A minimum clearance of 3 metres shall be provided between the shell of fired
heaters and access roads.

12.8.6. Adjacent circular fired heaters shall be provided with interconnected firing
platforms at a common elevation.

12.9. Storage Tanks

12.9.1. Tanks Containing Hydrocarbon Liquids:

Hydrocarbon liquids are classified in the Petroleum Act:

Class "A" Liquid which has a flash point below 23C

Petroleum -
Class "B" Liquid which has a flash point of 23C and above
Petroleum - but below 65C
Class "C" Liquid which has a flash point of 65C and above
Petroleum - but below 93C The spacing and bunding requirements for tanks containing hydrocarbon liquids
shall be determined in accordance with the Petroleum Act and Tables 6 & 7. Bund walls shall not exceed a height of 1800mm plus 200mm free board. Any tank shall have at least one side adjacent to a road within a distance of 90
metres. Tanks larger than 50,000m3 shall be arranged in single file, i.e. 2 sides
minimum to road. Drainage from bunded areas shall be controlled so as to prevent hydrocarbon

liquids entering the natural water course or rainwater drainage system where their
presence would constitute a hazard. Drainage shall have fire barriers between two
different bunded areas to prevent the spread of fire.

12.9.2. Tanks Containing Non Hydrocarbon Liquids Tanks containing non-flammable liquids shall be located to suit their service
requirements. Fire water and foam storage tanks shall be located in a safe area with ease of
access to fire fighting personnel. Tanks storing chemicals or non-contaminated water shall not normally require
bunding for containment of the total volume of liquid stored unless any spillage
would seriously impact the surrounding area affecting refinery operations. Kerbed areas shall be provided around hazardous chemicals so as to minimise the
impact of spillage on surrounding equipment and personnel. Drainage from such
areas shall be designed to prevent harmful chemicals entering other drainage
systems where corrosion, chemical reactions, or ecological damage could occur.
Kerbed areas shall also be provided to prevent hydro-carbon spills/fires from

12.9.3. Refrigerated Storage Tanks

The spacing and bunding requirements for refrigerated LPG storage Tanks shall
be determined in accordance with the Institute of Petroleum Model Code of Safe
Practice Part 9 and OISD-Std-144.

12.10. Pressure Storage of LPG

12.10.1. The spacing and bunding requirements for pressure storage of LPG shall be
determined in accordance with the OISD-Std-144 and Tables 9 & 10.

12.10.2. LPG spheres and bullets shall be treated as separate groups and provided with
curb wall a minimum of 30 cms and a maximum of 60 cms at shallow sump
position. Spillage of LPG shall be directed by means of diversion walls to the
containment area. Grading shall not permit any depressions and spillage from one
vessel to flow under another.

12.10.3. Each group shall have a maximum of 6 vessels, with aggregate capacity
limited to 15000m3. Each group of vessels shall be separated by 30 metres

12.10.4. Bullets shall be orientated such that they do not point towards process or
administration areas.

12.10.5. The arrangement of spheres and bullets shall be to permit the free flow of air
below the vessel. The minimum height below the shell of such vessels shall be

12.11. Roads

12.11.1. Primary traffic roads in the installation shall be clear of hazardous classified
areas. A distance of 16 metres shall be the minimum distance between
hydrocarbon equipment and a hard shoulder or edge of road if there is no hard

12.11.2. Roads separating units shall provide fire breaks and have facilities for fire fighting

12.11.3. All roads used for fire fighting shall be 6 metres wide minimum. Headroom
requirements for all roads shall be as per Table 3.

12.12. Road Tanker Loading Facilities

12.12.1. Road tanker loading facilities for product export shall be laid out to suit the
smooth flow of traffic which avoids cross-flow.

12.12.2. Parking areas shall be provided for both empty and full tankers consistent with
planned operations.

12.12.3. Facilities for loading LPG shall be segregated from those for other hydrocarbons.

12.13. Rail Tanker Loading facilities

12.13.1. Facilities shall be provided for both solids and bulk liquid loading of railcars.
Sidings shall be provided for marshalling, receiving, shipping and cleaning of
empty railcars and handling of sick wagons.

12.13.2. Road access for fire fighting equipment shall be provided around loading sidings.
12.13.3. Loading racks shall be located at least 15 metres from the nearest running line or
roadway or 30 metres for LPG.

12.13.4. Separate rail spurs shall be provided for LPG loading.

13. Elevation, Clearance and Access Requirements

13.1. Elevations, clearances and access requirements shall be in accordance with the
requirements contained in Tables 1 through 3 and the applicable notes.

13.2. Plants shall be serviced by primary roads adjacent to processing units, utility
plants, materials handling and loading/unloading areas. Secondary roads shall be
provided between process units, utility plants and offsite areas for maintenance
and fire fighting access.

13.3. Equipment, structures, and piping are to be arranged to permit crane access to
compressors, air coolers and major equipment parts not provided with built-in
maintenance facilities.

13.4. Clear access, both vertically and horizontally is to be provided under main
pipeways for trucks or mobile equipment to service pumps.

13.5. Whenever possible, shell and tube heat exchanger tube bundles are to be removed
with a mobile crane and tube bundle extractor. Permanent monorail structures are
to be provided only where crane access is impractical. Where required, the
monorail is to extend far enough beyond exchanger channel end to permit full use
of hoists to pull and lower tube bundle to grade.

Where built-in handling facilities are not provided, clear space for tube-bundle
removal by mobile crane must be provided. A clearance of 1 metre plus length of
bundles in front of the exchanger measured from the tube sheet and extending 6
metres on at least one side is to be provided.

13.6. A minimum of 7.5 m. vertical clearance must be allowed for access of heavy lift
cranes at road crossings. A vertical clearance of 10M is required at identified
major road crossings where there is a need for heavy lift crane access.

Platform, Stair and Ladder Access

13.7. General

The extent of platforms shall be the minimum consistent with safety, operation
and maintenance. Where practical, walkways, catwalks, accessways, etc. should
be provided between elevated platforms. Examples would include: provisions to
move from a major structure to a platform on an adjacent tower in close
proximity, or to an air cooler header box catwalk. Care should be taken however
to ensure that differential expansion will not cause problems.

13.8. Platforms with Stair Access

13.8.1. Platforms with stair access shall be provided for the following:

1. Platforms which require operator attention more than once in an eight

hour shift.
2. Platforms at elevated rotating equipment items.

3. Stairways shall be provided for access on storage tanks which exceed

4500 mm in diameter and 6 metres in height.

13.9. Platforms with Ladder Access

13.9.1. Platforms with ladder access shall be provided for the following:

1. Points requiring operating access less than once in an eight hour shift,
including valves, instruments, etc.

2. Service platforms for manholes, pressure safety valves, removable heads,

i.e., at vertical reboilers.

3. Storage tanks smaller than those in 14.2 (3)

4. Exchangers with centreline located 3.5 metres or more above grade.

5. Platforms are not required for manways, when manway centreline

elevation from grade is :

3.3 metres and under without internals.

3.3 metres and under with internals.

6. Air coolers, with interconnecting walkways provided to service valving

fan motors and instruments.

13.10. Dual Access/Emergency Egress

13.10.1. Provisions for emergency egress must be provided per current OSHA
guidelines as follows:

1. When dead end is greater than 6 metres.

(This does not apply to horizontal vessels less than 12m length).

2. Maximum distance of unobstructed travel to any means of escape when

two or more exist, is 23 metres. (Refer to OSHA for all other provisions
of access/egress).

3. Any platform servicing two or more pieces of equipment which may be

concurrently maintained.

4. Platforms at fired equipment.

13.11. Ladder Requirements

1. Wherever possible, ladders shall be arranged so the user faces toward the

2. Front access ladders may be used with discretion.

3. Any single ladder run may not exceed 9 metres in length without a
landing or platform.
14. Miscellaneous - Personnel Protection
14.1. Eye wash and emergency showers shall be provided in areas where operators are
subject to hazardous sprays or spills.

14.2. Consideration shall be given to incorporating breathing air stations in facilities

handling extremely toxic gases.
Table 1


(4) (4) (4) (4)
Grade, Floors High Point N/A 000 300 mm 300 mm

and Paving Low Point N/A -150 mm 150 mm 150 mm

Column Piers U/S Baseplate 300 mm 300 mm 450 mm 450 mm

Pumps (3) U/S Baseplate 150 mm 150 mm 450 mm 450 mm

Stair and
U/S Baseplate 150 mm 150 mm 400 mm 400 mm
Ladder Pads

Vert. Vessels U/S Baseplate 300 mm 300 mm 400 mm 400 mm

Top of piperack column footings. .150 mm 150 mm N/A N/A

Furnace Floor Wall or Roof

N/A As required. N/A N/A
Bottom of Fired

Floor Plate Floor Fired N/A As required. N/A N/A

Blowers and
U/S Baseplate As required As required As required As required

Pipe Trenches Flush with Flush with

Top of Cover 50 mm Flush with Floor
and Pits Paving Floor

Flush with Flush with

Sewer Boxes Top of Cover 50 mm Flush with Floor
Paving Floor

Plinth for Skid 150 mm 150 mm N/A N/A

Mounted (above Grade)

Figures in parentheses refer to notes below;


1. All elevations shall be referred to the High Point Of Paving (H.P.P.). H.P.P. elevation shall
be referenced to Mean Sea Level EL.00.000 on plot plans.

2. All concrete support levels shown for equipment and structural items, except stairs and
ladders, shall include an allowance for at least 25 mm of grout.

3. Small size pumps such as proportioning, injection, and other small gear pumps may have
bottom of baseplates located at elevation 450 mm above H.P.P.

4. Dimensions shown above are above high point of paving. Final elevation of H.P.P. to be
determined when complete site terracing is finalised.
Table 2
Headroom over platforms, walkways, passageways and working areas 2150mm
Headroom height for projections over platforms, walkways, passageways and 2150mm
working areas
Headroom height over stairs 2100mm
Access Width of stairways (Inside stringers) For Access 750mm
Main Access 1000mm
Walkways Width of Landings 1200mm
Width of walkways (At grade and elevated) For Access 750mm
Main Access 1200mm
Maximum vertical rise of stairways (One flight) 3040mm
Maximum horizontal distance from any point on platform to a primary or auxiliary 23M
Maximum length of dead-end platform in escape route (1) 6.M
Vertical Distance of platform below vessel manhole centreline 600-1500mm
Vessel Width of manhole platform (Minimum)(2) 900mm
Shell Platform extension beyond centre line of manhole 1*M'hole dia.
Platforms Vessel Distance of platform below face of manhole flange 180-1000mm
(3) (4) Top Head Width of platform from three sides of manhole 750mm
Horizontal Clearance from bottom edge of channel or bonnet flanges 450mm
Vertical Maximum distance of platform below top flange of channel or bonnet 1500mm
Exchanger Width of platform from three sides of flange 750mm
Fired Width of platform at sides of horizontal and vertical tube furnaces 750mm
Heaters Width of platform at ends of horizontal tube furnaces 1200mm
Maximum vertical rise of operational ladders (Single run) 9M
Ladders Maximum Allowable slope of ladders from vertical 15
(5)(6)(7)(8) Toe clearance from centreline of rung to any obstruction 230mm
Clear climbing space for vertical ladders 680mm
Clear climbing space for inclined ladders (9) 900mm
Operation Width of platform required at bonnet or channel end of exchanger 1500mm
and Maximum elevation to the bottom of handwheel on valves 6" NB and smaller from 2000mm
Maintenance platform or grade (14)
(10) (11) (12) Horizontal clearance required between paired exchanger flanges 1000mm
(13) Horizontal clearance between insulation on paired exchanger flanges 750mm
Clearance below furnace raised floors (15) 750mm

Figures in parentheses refer to notes table notes


1. Dead-end platforms greater than 6 metres long are prohibited where such dead-ends are in
escape routes or where it may be reasonably anticipated that, because of confusion arising from
an emergency or panic situation, an individual might select an escape path which would lead to
such a dead-end .

2. Check clearance required to open manhole covers.

3. Toe plates shall be provided on the edges of all platform areas and around openings, except at
the platform entrance and exit locations.

4. Standard handrailing shall be provided on all sides of all platform areas 1200mm or more above
grade and stairways.

5. Ladders shall generally be arranged for side exit; however, step-through ladders are permissible.

6. Ladders which are located at, 2300mm or more above grade shall be provided with safety cages.
Ladders which serve platforms from 1500mm to 2300mm, above grade shall be provided with
top rail hoops only. Ladders which serve platforms less than 1500mm above grade do not
require a top rail hoop.

7. Self-closing gates and top rail hoops shall be provided across ladder openings at all landing
except for ladders located at or less than 1200mm above grade.

8. Clear climbing space is defined as the climbing area clearance for caged ladders, and shall be
provided throughout the length of the ladder.

9. The clear climbing space required for ladders that deviate in pitch between 75 and 90 degrees.

10. A height adjustable mobile stair stand shall be available for access to equipment, valves,
instruments, and manholes located within 2.1 metres to 4.5 metres above grade. Except relief
valves - see 9.5. Portable ladders shall be 4.0 m max.

11. Adequate tube removal space shall be provided for all exchangers that require tube bundles to
be removed.

12. Horizontally installed wrench operated plug, ball, or butterfly valves shall be positioned so that
wrench and wrench movement arc is at no point higher than 2.3 metres above grade or

13. Valves shall be installed in valve pits and not buried.

14. Manually operated valves which normally require manipulation during plant operation or in an
emergency, and which cannot be located vertically within 2 metres of a platform or grade, shall
be furnished with chain operators or extension stems.

15. Clearance specified applies to wall or roof fired furnaces.

Table 3


Headroom for primary access and main plant access roads 8.0M
Headroom for electrical transmission lines 6.7M
Width of primary access roads 6.0M
Headroom for secondary access roads 6.0M
Width of accessways other than roads 3.0M
Width of secondary roads 6.0M
Access for heavy lift cranes 10.0M
Slope of road from centreline to edge 1/40
Width of main plant access road 16.0M
Distance from pump foundation to edge of paving 1200mm
Paving, Grading, Freeboard height of bund walls 200mm

Surfacing Maximum drop in paving 150mm

(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) Maximum average height of bund walls above grade + 200mm 1800mm
(9) (10) freeboard
Headroom over refinery railway lines (From top of rail) 4.9M
Railways Headroom over public railways 6.7M
Clearance from track centreline to obstructions 2.6M

Figures in parentheses refer to notes below


1. All roads shall be surfaced with tarmac.

2. A 1.0 metres wide shoulder shall be provided each side of primary and
secondary roads which is in addition to the widths stated.

3. Walkways and the following areas shall be paved with concrete:

a) Paving shall extend to the outside edge of the supporting column piers, under bottom oil-
fired or combustible liquid containing furnaces and elevated structures supporting coke

b) Around catalyst containing vessels.

c) Around groups of two (2) or more pumps, located outdoors.

d) Around compressors and their related servicing equipment, i.e., lube oil consoles.

e) Inside fully enclosed equipment buildings.

f) Around all equipment in process units.

g) Around exchangers or other types of equipment in dirty service that require frequent turn
around maintenance.
h) Around equipment handling potentially toxic liquids. Controlled drainage facilities shall be
provided to recover spilled materials.

i) A 1.5 metres width of concrete pavement shall be provided either side of offplot piperacks
to serve as both a walkway and a base support for control stations, manifolds, etc.

j) Accessways under main piperacks.

4. Kerbs and walls required only to contain limited spillage shall normally extend to a height of
150mm above High Point of Paving. These kerbed areas shall drain to a sump or area drain
provided with a valve in the sewer outlet.

5. All indoor and outdoor paving, except as otherwise noted (note 6), shall be sloped for

6. The floors of control rooms and switch gear rooms shall be level.

7. General equipment areas within the unit limits, all parking, and administrative areas shall be
graded and surfaced with crushed stone.

8. The edges of paving adjacent to open sided buildings shall be at the same elevation as the
edges of the floor of the building with paving sloping away from the building.

9. All paving surrounding vessels, tanks, or other equipment containing hydrocarbons which
could reach the paving in a liquid state, shall be sloped a minimum of 1/100 away from the
container towards the drainage system located at the greatest practical distance from the tank.

10. Bund walls shall provide sufficient volumetric capacity to contain the liquid that can be
released from the largest tank in the enclosed area plus freeboard, with other contained
equipment and tankage in place. Maximum height 2.0 m including 200 mm freeboard.

11. The drainage system for bunded areas shall be provided with a valve on the outside of the bund
wall, to control the drainage.
Table 4
Minimum Distance Between Facilities and Units as per GE Insurance Solutions, GAP. 2.5.2 & 2.5.2a recommendations
(If OISD Standard - 118) or UOP Standard 9-51-2 distances for compatible units are higher, these are included)
Service Buildings / All Dimensions are in metres
Motor Control Centres and Electrical Substations / / / = no spacing requirement
Utilities Areas 15 15 / T7 = refer to Table 7
Cooling Tow ers 15 15 30 15
Control Rooms 30 15 30 30 / Refer to paragraph 12.5.5 for total Process Hazard examples.
Compressor Buildings 30 30 30 30 30 9
Large Pump Houses 30 30 30 30 30 9 9
Process Units Moderate Hazard 30 30 30 30 30 9 9 15
Process Units Intermediate Hazard 61 30 30 30 61 15 15 30 30
Process Units w ith High Hazard 122 61 61 61 91.5 30 30 61 61 61
Atmospheric Storage Tanks 76.5 76.5 76.5 76.5 76.5 76.5 76.5 76.5 91.5 107 T7
Pressure Storage Tanks 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 T7 T7
Refrigerated Storage Tanks Dome Roof 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 107 T7 T7 T7
Flares 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 122 122 /
Unloading and Loading Racks 61 61 90 61 61 61 61 61 61 91.5 76.5 107 107 91.5 15
Fire Water Pumps 15 15 15 15 15 61 61 61 91.5 91.5 107 107 107 91.5 61 /
Fire Stations 15 15 30 30 30 61 61 61 91.5 91.5 107 107 107 91.5 90 / /

Atmospheric Storage Tanks

Refrigerated Storage Tanks

Process Units High Hazard
Process Units Intermediate
Motor Control Centres and

Pressure Storage Tanks

Process Units Moderate

Unloading and Loading

Compressor Buildings
Electrical Substations

Large Pump Houses

Fire Water Pumps

Service Buildings

Cooling Towers

Control Rooms
Utilities Areas

Fire Stations
Dome Roof


Table 5
Minimum Distance Between Equipment within Process Units as per GE Insurance Solutions, GAP. 2.5.2 & 2.5.2a
(If OISD standard - 118 or UOP standard 9-51-2 distances for compatible units are higher, these are included)

Compressors 9.15 Notes:

Intermediate Hazard Pumps 9.15 2 All dimensions are in metres
High Hazard Pumps 15.3 2 2 / = no spacing requirements
High Hazard Reactors 15.3 7 7 7.63 High Hazard Pumps handle flammable, combustible liquids operating at
Intermediate Hazard Reactors 15.3 7 7 7.63 5 260C or above and above 34.5 bar. Also liquif ied flammable gases.
Moderate Hazard Reactors 15.3 7 7 7.63 5 5 Intermediate Hazard Pumps are all other pumps.
Columns, Accumulators, Drums 15.3 4 5 15.3 7.63 7.63 5 Canned and magnetic have no specific requirements.
Rundow n Tanks 30.5 30.5 30.5 30.5 30.5 30.5 30.5 30.5 High Hazard Reactors include exothermic or run-aw ay reactions.
Fired Heaters 30 15.3 20 15.3 15.3 15.3 18 30.5 8 Intermediate includes slightly exothermic reactions and moderate
Air Cooled Heat Exchanger 9.15 5 5 7.63 5 5 5 30.5 15.3 / includes endothermic reactions.
Heat Exchangers 9.15 3.05 5 7.63 5 4 3.05 30.5 15.3 5 2 For total process hazard examples refer to paragraph 12.5.5.
Pipe Racks 9.15 3.05 5 7.63 6 6 6 30.5 15.3 / 4.5 /
Unit Block Valves 15.3 15.3 15.3 30.5 15.3 15.3 15.3 30.5 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 /
Analyzer Rooms 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 30.5 15.3 15.3 15.3 15.3 / /
Intermediate Hazard Pumps

Moderate Hazard Reactors

Air Cooled Heat Exchanger

Columns, Accumulators,
High Hazard Reactors

Intermediate Hazard
High Hazard Pumps

Heat Exchangers

Unit Block Valves

Analyzer Rooms
Rundown Tanks

Fired Heaters

Pipe Racks

Table 6
Minimum Distance between Storage Tanks and Offsite Facilities as per GE Insurance Solutions, GAP. 2.5.2 & 2.5.2a.( If OISD-118 or Petroleum
Act and Petroleum Rules distances for compatible units are higher, these are included)

This Table is applicable for installations, where aggregate storage capacity of Class A and Class B petroleum stored above grade exceeds 5000
cu. metres or a tank diameter exceeds 9 metres.

1 Class 'A' Storage Tank T7 Notes. All dimensions are in metres.

2 Class 'B' Storage Tank T7 T7 NM = Minimum to suit operation or maintenance access
3 Class 'C' Storage Tank T7 T7 T7 T7 = Refer to Table 7
4 Class 'A' & B' Filling Sheds 15 15 15 NM
5 Class 'C; Filling Sheds 15 15 NM 8 NM
6 Class 'A & B' Loading Area 15 15 8 15 8 NM
7 Class 'C' Loading Area 15 15 NM 15 NM NM NM
8 Flame Proof Elec. Pumps 15 8 NM 8 NM 8 NM NM
9 Non-flame Proof Elec. Pumps 15 15 NM 15 NM 15 NM 8 NM

Non-flame Proof Elec. Pumps

Class 'A' & B' Filling Sheds

Class 'A & B' Loading Area

Flame Proof Elec. Pumps

Clascc 'C' Storage Tank

Class 'C' Loading Area

Class 'C; Filling Sheds
Class 'A' Storage Tank

Class 'B' Storage Tank

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Table 7
As per GE Insurance Solutions, GAP. 2.5.2 & 2.5.2a.( If OISD-118 or Petroleum Act and
Petroleum Rules distances for compatible units are higher, these are included)

1xD or
Floating Roof Tank Min
1xD or 1xD or
30M 30M
Cone Roof Tank Min Min
2xD or 2xD or 1xD or
60M 60M 30M
Spheres, Spheroids and Storage Vessels Min Min Min
2xD or 2xD or 2xD or 1xD or
60M 60M 60M 30M

Spheres, Spheroids and Storage Vessels

Cryogenic Tanks Min Min Min Min

Floating Roof Tank

Cone Roof Tank

Cryogenic tanks

Notes Regarding Tanks and Spheres Spacing

Minimum spacing between groups of spheres shall be 30 metres (as per Petroleum Act).

Groups of spheres shall be limited to six, with an aggregate volume not to exceed
15,000m3 (as per Petroleum Act).

Interdistance between the nearest tanks located in two separate bunds as well as in the
same bund shall be 30 metres or the diameter of the larger tank, whichever is greater TAC
/ LPA requirement).

Minimum distance between a tank shell and the inside of the bund wall shall not be less
than one half the height of the tank.

Minimum distance between atmospheric storage tanks and pressurised or refrigerated

storage spheres / tanks shall be 2 x diameter of the larger tank/sphere or 60 metres,
whichever is the greater.
Table 8
Distances from Boundary Fencing

As per OISD-118 or Petroleum Act and Petroleum Rules (higher of these are included).

Installation Minimum Distance from

Boundary fencing around

Storage tank for Petroleum class A D. (min. 20)

Storage tank for Petroleum class B D. (min. 20)
Storage tank for Petroleum class C D. (min. 10)
Storage/filling shed for Petroleum class A and class 15
Storage/filling shed for Petroleum class C 10
Tank vehicle loading/unloading area for class A and 20
class B
Tank vehicle loading/unloading area for class C 10


1. All distances are in metres

2. This table is applicable for facilities in a installation where total quantity of petroleum class
A & B stored above ground in bulk exceeds 5000 cu. metres or where the diameter of any
such tank for the storage of petroleum exceeds 9 metres.

3. Notation:

D - diameter of larger tank.

4. Above table is based on the assumption that property beyond the boundary line is either
protected or adequate green belt is provided as a safety buffer where no structure exists.
Property beyond property line is deemed protected if it is within the jurisdiction of public
Fire Brigade or plants own Fire Brigade.
Table 9
Minimum Distances Between LPG Facilities
(If OISD standard 118, Petroleum act and Petroleum Rules, Static and Mobile Pressure Rules, or UOP standard 9-51-2 distances for
compatible units are higher, these are included)

1 LPG Storage Vessel T7 Notes. All dimensions are in metres.

2 Equip, Non LPG T10 NA NM = Minimum to suit operation or maintenance access
3 LPG Shed 30 30 15 NA = Not applicable, T10 = Refer to Table 10
4 LPG Loading Gantry 30 30 30 50 T7 = Refer to Table 7
5 LPG/Other Rail Spur 30 30 30 50 50
6 LPG Pump/Comp Hse 15 30 15 30 30 NA
7 Fire Pump House 60 NM 60 60 60 60 NA

LPG Pump/Comp Hse

LPG/Other Rail Spur
LPG Loading Gantry
LPG Storage Vessel

Fire Pump House

Equip, Non LPG

1 2 LPG Shed
3 4 5 6 7
Table 10
As per OISD-118 and Static and Mobile Pressure Vessel Rules (higher of these are included).

Minimum Distance between LPG Storage Vessels and Boundary/Property Line/Group of

Buildings not associated with LPG Plant

Capacity of each Distance Cap. of each vessel Distance

vessel (cu.mt of (cu.mt. of water)

10-20 15 451-750 60

21-40 20 751-3800 90

41-350 30 3801-above 120

351-450 40


All distances in metres.