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Aloha Aina: The Overthrow

Name: _______________________

March 28-April 6
This Packet is Due Thursday, April 6
Mon, March 27 Tues, March 28 Wed, March 29 Thurs, March 30 Fri, March 31


NO SCHOOL: Drama Day Aloha Aina Arguments & Petitions Primary
Prince Kuhio Song-Writing Committee Documents
Kalanianaole Challenge Hearing
Day

Mon, April 3 Tues, April 4 Wed, April 5 Thurs, April 6 Fri, April 7

Hook Activity: Review for Aloha Aina Unit 11: Aloha Unit 11: Aloha Aina
Gallery Walk Assessment Song-Writing Aina Assessment Assessment Data
Challenge Tracking

Day 1: Annexation of Hawaii Play


Tuesday, March 28
Learning Target: I can use evidence from the Annexation of Hawaii Play to describe the unique
roles of leaders during this time period (D3).

DO NOW: Why do you think other countries would want to own Hawaii?

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Players:

Narrator, this player exists outside of time and space

Lorrin Thurston, a Hawaiian-born American politician and businessman in Hawaii during the late
1800s-early 1900s

King Kalakaua, King of the Kingdom of Hawaii

Queen Lilioukalani, Queen of the Kingdom of Hawaii (post Kalakaua)

John L. Stevens, American minister at Honolulu

Nurse, attendant to the Queen

Charles Wilson, Marshall of the Hawaiian government

When the stage is black, the projector screen shows Hawaii, 1878 . Imposed over the date is a picture of King
Kalakaua. It is titled The King and the Honolulu Ri es. When the lights come up, Kalakaua is seated at the
desk reading through a document, the ri es are around his desk and Thurston is downstage left.

Kalakaua: I see you have been busy, Thurston. This is a di erent constitution.

Thurston: Ive just made changes, sir.

Kalakaua: Is that the haole way of saying it?

Thurston: Sir, weve changed speci c parts so that they re ect the attitude of

Hawaiis new people. Things have changed since 1864. Americans

and Europeans are land owners now. We want to be represented.

Kalakaua continues reading the document.

Kalakaua: Youve changed the way my people are represented. Only twenty- four
representatives and they shall serve until 1890. Representatives are elected every two
years, Thurston.

Thurston: Weve made things simpler, king.

Kalakaua: (reading) shall be based upon the principles of equality. I see that youve also
changed who can vote. All men, Hawaiian, European, and American who can read
and write. And own at least $3000 in property. Are you aware of how many of my
people can read and write? And you know very well, that many Hawaiians dont have
that much property.

Thurston: It is important for voters to be informed.

Kalakaua: I refuse to sign this constitution.

Thurston: Sir, you tried to re us. And then you refused to sign the treaty with the US allowing
free trade of sugar cane.

Kalakaua: Minister, the US demanded that Pearl Harbor be a coaling station. I feel that our
islands are owned by enough haoles: I dont want the US military to have ownership.

Thurston: You and your damned nationalism. Do you really think that your

monarchy is going to last? Look at you in your throne now! Its in the middle of the
night and Im forcing you to read a new version of your constitution. Read and
understand, Kalakaua. This is your future. Pick up your pen and sign the constitution.

Kalakaua: I know what youre up to.

Thurston: This is obviously against the law; so was the Declaration of Independence. If you need
any encouragement to sway your loyalty from your peoples uncivilized ways, look
behind you. Let the bayonets speak convince you to sign.

After hesitation, Kalakaua signs. Narrator snaps ngers: players freeze.

Narrator: This became known as the bayonet constitution. And this paved the way for the
destruction of the Hawaiian monarchy. Lets fast forward sixteen years to January
14,1893. There is a new monarch: Queen Lilioukalani.

Slide on screen changes to show the courtyard at Iolani Palace. The Queen approaches narrator. He
gives her the crown and then bows.

Why dont you tell us why today is important?

Queen: As you all know, King Kalakaua was forced to sign a new constitution that limited
Hawaiian rights and increased the in uence of mainlanders upon the Hawaiian
government. On this Saturday, I announced my plans to correct the constitution so
that it gives rights and power back to the Hawaiian people.

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Narrator: Congratulations.

Thurston approaches narrator on the left.

Thurston: Lets not celebrate too soon.

Narrator: Why not?

Thurston: My safety committee thought about the situation gured out ways to keep the peace
and protect lives and property.

Narrator: (to Queen) Oh, so your announcement caused a public stir?

Queen: Hardly. Thurstons safety committee agreed upon a provisional government until
Hawaii joins with the United States. Isnt that what you said,Thurston?

Thurston: They sound familiar.

Queen: It was a quiet and slow afternoon.

Narrator: Do you agree, Thurston?

Thurston: Our safety committee wrote to Mr. John L. Stevens, the

American minister at Honolulu.

Queen pulls out a piece of paper from the desk. She reads.

Queen: We cant protect ourselves without help, and ask the

United States to protect us. Remember that, Mr.

Thurston?

Thurston: Mr. Stevens asked the Captain of the U.S.S. Boston to land marines to protect
American lives and property.

Queen: I feel as though it was done as a show of power.

Narrator: What happened Thurston?

Thurston: Troops came accompanied with gatling guns. They marched through the streets to a
public hall.

Queen: I was worried by this bold display of power. Like I said

before, the streets were silent: there were no protests. We sent a letter to Mr. Stevens
telling him that we were able and willing to protect American lives and property.

Thurston: We were taking precautions, queen. There, in the hall across from the

government building and across from your palace. Stevens, why dont you step

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forward and say what you have to say.

Narrator: With all due respect, Thurston, you are not narrating. Thats my job.

Narrator: I now introduce Mr. John L. Stevens.

Stevens approaches DSL.

Stevens: The provisional government that has been announced, is now in control of the
Government department buildings, the archives, and the treasury, and is in control of
the city. We ask that you will, on behalf of the United States, recognize it as the real
government of the Hawaiian Islands and give it the support of your Government, and,
if needed, the support of American troops to help keep the peace.

Queen: Stevens, was there anyone there when the announcement was

read?

Thurston: You dont have to answer, Stevens.

Narrator: The announcement of a new government was read, but the people being governed
were there to hear about the change in government?

Narrator: Sanford B. Dole was named the president of the new government.

Queen: Later that day, I was told by Stevens that the Provisional Government

would be kept in place--forcibly--if necessary.

Stevens: Resistance would cause useless deaths. Dear queen, you could

surrender under protest and your case would be considered later at Washington.

Narrator snaps ngers. Players freeze.

They return to their benches USL.

Narrator: At this point, our story leads us to the interior room of the Iolani Palace where the
Queen is imprisoned. Thats right, imprisoned: House Arrest. Outside the palace,
American naval troops have barricaded her in order to keep the peace.

The slide changes and projects an interior room of the palace.

Narrator: The stress of the situation has taken its toll, and the Queen has been struggling with ill
health. Nurse, please come and take your place next to the Queen.

Narrator snaps. The nurse comes forward and begins to attend to the Queen. The Queen unfreezes
and responds to her medical attendant.

Narrator: Mr. Charles Wilson, please take your place. He is the current Marshall of Hawaiis
government. Here, he met the queen at her palace during her imprisonment. For a
while they had been friends.

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Narrator snaps again. Wilson comes forward and stands next to the desk.

Wilson: Come, fair Queen and take your place. Are you feeling better?

She shakes her head, no. Then she sits at the desk. She places the crown on her head. Wilson places some
papers in front of her on the desk.

Queen: What is this?

Wilson: It is a letter saying that you will step down as queen, and stop this nonsense.

Queen: I would rather die than sign this, and am prepared to do so in order to save my people.

Wilson: I believe you. Tell me though, are you willing to have the blood of six of your allies on
your hands?

Queen: Of course not, why would you even suggest this?

Wilson: If you refuse to sign, those six will die.

Queen: And if I do? What promise do I have that they will be safe?

Wilson: If you will sign this document, I can promise you that your friends will be immediately
released.

Queen: Is there another alternative to signing?

Wilson: Those people have been imprisoned because of their love and loyalty towards you,
Queen. It would seem heartless and cruel to see them killed because of your
stubbornness.

Queen thinks for a moment, clearly struggling with the weight of the decision.

Queen: It seems that the only way to prevent bloodshed is for me to sign.

She reaches out her hand for the document on the table.

Queen: How shall I sign?

Wilson: Liliuokalani Dominis.

Queen: What?

Wilson: (With a bit more force, and in a somewhat condescending tone).

Liliuokalani Dominis.

Queen signs the document, with obvious reluctance.

Wilson: (hands the queen another document) And this.

Queen: I have done what was agreed!

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Wilson: Read it and sign.Do I need to remind you of what will happen if you dont?

Queen: I, Liliuokalani Dominis, wear to God that I will support the Constitution, Laws and
Government of the Republic of Hawaii, and will not try to bring the monarchy back to
Hawaii.

She again reluctantly signs. Wilson leaves. Then the attendant leaves. Lilioukalani slowly removes her crown
and lowers her head. The lights fade. A new picture is projected, it is of the Iolani palace when the Hawaiian
ag was replaced by the American ag.

Narrator: It is May 12, 1898. Lets have some music.

Narrator snaps. Hawaii Pono is played over the sound system.

Narrator: You are looking at the Iolani palace. Today the Hawaiian ag will be lowered and
replaced by the American ag. There are no Hawaiians to watch. They are shuttered
in their homes and silent. Western businessmen and their families surround the
agpole, the warm tropical breeze cascades over their face, through their hair. They
are hot and sweaty in their western clothes. When the American ag is raised, the
band plays The Star Spangled Banner.

There is no retirement for the Hawaiian ag. It is not folded. It is not given back to the
Queen. It is cut into 2 or 3 inch strips and distributed to those present. Their ag is a
souvenir to remember a fallen kingdom.

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Drama Reflection
Answer the following using complete sentences.

1. What were the circumstances of King Kalakaua signing the Bayonet Constitution?

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2. Why were signed documents important in the play?

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3. What were the circumstances of Queen Lilioukalani abdicating the throne? Why did she step

down?

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4. What is President Clinton seeking to accomplish in his speech?

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Day 2: Aloha Aina Song-Writing Challenge
Wednesday, March 29 & Wednesday, April 5
Learning Target: I can use write my own song based on Mele Aloha Aina (D4).

DO NOW: Describe something you love. Why is it important to protect what you love?
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MEANING OF ALOHA AINA:
"Aloha 'aina simply means to love and respect the land, make it yours and claim stewardship for
all of mother nature. The song below, composed by Ellen Kekoaohiwaikalani Wright
Prendergrast, showcases Native Hawaiian peoples loyalty to the Hawaiian Kingdom, in ghting
for justice.

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Write a song/rap/poem about something you love and why it is important for you to protect it. I
will give you extra credit if you perform this to the class. :)

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Lesson 3: Arguments and Committee Hearing
Thursday, March 30
Learning Target: I can communicate my conclusions about reasons for and against annexation
of Hawaii to the US (D4).

DO NOW: Do you think Hawaii should or should not have been annexed to the US (AKA
established as US territory)?

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ARGUMENTS FOR & AGAINST ANNEXATION OF HAWAII TO US:

Arguments for and against annexation of Hawaii to the United States taken from the May 17, 1898
Report of the Committee on Foreign A airs on H.Res 259 (House Report 1355, 55th Congress, 2d
session):

Too remote, too costly to defend


Strategic location to secure U.S. eet and coastline
No protests by any other government
Unconstitutional method of increasing domain
Commercial interests
Hawaii is too small and weak to maintain independence
American people not consulted
Not militarily necessary
Cordial consent of both governments
Hawaiian people not consulted
Secure independence of Hawaiian people with policy rather than takeover
Outpost of Americanism against increasing Asiatic invasion (this means an American
presence will prevent a country like Japan from attacking)
Not commercially necessary

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Directions:
Place these arguments in the appropriately marked boxes below. Which arguments are FOR
annexation (that Hawaii should become a US territory) and which arguments are AGAINST
annexation (that Hawaii should remain independent)?
Arguments FOR Annexation of Hawaii to the US Arguments AGAINST Annexation of Hawaii to the US

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Lesson 4: Petitions and Primary Documents
Friday, March 31
Learning Target: I can use petitions and primary documents to explain how foreigners altered
Hawaii (D3).

The Hawaiian islands had a well-established culture and long history of self-governance when
Captain James Cook, the rst European explorer to set foot on Hawaii, landed in 1778. The
in uence of European and American settlers quickly began to alter traditional ways of life.
Originally governed by individual chiefs or kings, the islands united under the rule of a single
monarch, King Kamehameha, in 1795, less than two decades after Cook's arrival. Later the
traditional Hawaiian monarchy was overthrown in favor of aconstitutionalmonarchy.Eventually,
the monarchy itself was abandoned in favor of a government elected by a small group of
enfranchised voters, although the Hawaiian monarch was retainedastheceremonialheadofthe
government. Even elements of daily life felt thesocialandeconomicimpactofthewhiteplanters,
missionaries and businessmen.Thelandholdingsystemchanged,andmanyaspectsoftraditional
culture were prohibitedincludingteachingtheHawaiianlanguageandperformingthenativeHula
dance.

1. What does alter mean? How did the European and American settlers alter Hawaii?

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In 1887, the struggle for control of Hawaii was at its height as Kalakaua was elected to the
Hawaiian throne. King Kalakaua signed a reciprocity treaty with the United States making it
possible for sugar to be sold to the U.S. market tax-free, but the haole - or "white" - businessmen
were still distrustful of him. They criticized his ties to men they believed to be corrupt, his revival of
Hawaiian traditions such as the historic Hula, and construction of the royal Iolani Palace. A
scandal involving Kalakaua erupted in the very year he was crowned, and it united his opponents,
a party of businessmen under the leadership of Lorrin Thurston. The opposition used the threat
of violence to force the Kalakaua to accept a new constitution that stripped the monarchy of
executive powers and replaced the cabinet with members of the businessmen's party. The new
constitution, which e ectively disenfranchised most native Hawaiian voters, came to be known as
the "Bayonet Constitution" because Kalakaua signed it under duress.

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2. Who is King Kalakaua? Why is he signi cant?

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3. Who is Lorrin Thurston? Why is he signi cant?

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4. What does disenfranchised mean? What does it mean that Hawaiian voters were
disenfranchised?

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5. What was the Bayonet Constitution? Why was it called that?

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When King Kalakaua died in 1891, his sister Lili'uokalani succeeded him, and members of the
native population persuaded the new queen to draft a new constitution in an attempt to restore
native rights and powers. The move was countered by the Committee on Annexation, a small
group of white businessmen and politicians who felt that annexation by the United States, the
major importer of Hawaiian agricultural products,wouldbebene cialfortheeconomyofHawaii.
Supported by John Stevens, the U.S. Minister to Hawaii, and a contingent of Marines from the
warship, U.S.S. Boston, the Committee on Annexation overthrew Queen Lili'uokalaniinabloodless
coup on January 17, 1893 and established a revolutionary regime.

6. What does countered mean? What did the Committee on Annexation counter?

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7. What does annexation mean? What does it mean for Hawaii to be annexed?

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8. Who is John Stevens? Why is he signi cant?

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9. Who is Queen Liliuokalani? Why is she signi cant?

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10. What does coup mean? How does a coup change Queen Lilioukalanis position?

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Without permission from the U.S. State Department, Minister Stevens then recognized the new
government and proclaimed Hawaii a U.S. protectorate. The Committee immediately proclaimed
itself to be the Provisional Government. President Benjamin Harrison signed a treaty of
annexation with the new government, but before the Senate could ratify it, Grover Cleveland
replaced Harrison as president and subsequently withdrew the treaty.

11. What does provisional mean? How is a Provisional Government supposed to work?

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12. Who is Benjamin Harrison? Why is he signi cant?

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13. Who is Grover Cleveland? Why is he signi cant?

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14. What does withdrew mean? Was Grover Cleveland in support of annexation?

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Shortly into his presidency, Cleveland appointed James Blount as a special investigator to
investigate the events in the Hawaiian Islands. Blount found that Minister Stevens had acted
improperly and ordered that the American ag be lowered from Hawaiiangovernmentbuildings.
He also ordered that Queen Lili'uokalani be restored to power, but Sanford Dole,thepresidentof
the Provisional Government of Hawaii, refused to turn over power. Dole successfully argued that
the United States had no right to interfere in the internal a airs of Hawaii. The Provisional
Government then proclaimed Hawaii a republic in 1894, and soon the Republic of Hawaii was
o cially recognized by the United States.

15. Who is James Blount? Why is he signi cant?

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16. What does restored mean? What did Blount think should happen to Queen Lilioukalani?

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17. Who is Sanford Dole? Why is he signi cant?

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The overthrow of Lili'uokalani and imposition of the RepublicofHawaiiwascontrarytothewillof


the native Hawaiians. Native Hawaiians staged mass protest rallies and formed two
gender-designated groups to protest the overthrow and prevent annexation. One was the Hui
Hawaii Aloha Aina, loosely translated as the Hawaiian Patriotic League, and the other was its
female counterpart, the Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina o Na Wahine. On January 5, 1895, the protests
took the form ofanarmedattempttoderailtheannexationbutthearmedrevoltwassuppressed
by forcesoftheRepublic.TheleadersoftherevoltwereimprisonedalongwithQueenLili'uokalani
who was jailed for failing to put down the revolt.

18. What does contrary mean? What did the native Hawaiians think and do about the
overthrow?

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19. What were the Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina and Hui Hawaii Aloha Aina o Na Wahine? Whatwas
the purpose?

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In March of 1897, William McKinley was inaugurated as President of the United States. McKinley
was in favorofannexation,andthechangeinleadershipwassoonfelt.OnJune16,1897,McKinley
and three representatives of the government of the Republic of Hawaii --LorrinThurston,Francis
Hatch, and William Kinney-- signedatreatyofannexation.PresidentMcKinleythensubmittedthe
treaty to the U.S. Senate for rati cation.

20. Who is William McKinley? Why is he signi cant?

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21. Who are Francis Hatch and William Kinney? Why are they signi cant?

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22. What does rati cation mean? What happens if the treaty is rati ed?

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The Hui Aloha Aina for Women and the Hui Aloha Aina for Men now organized a mass petition
drive. They hoped that if the U.S. government realized that the majority of native Hawaiian
citizens opposed annexation, the move to annex Hawaii would be stopped. Between September 11
and October 2, 1897, the two groups collected petition signatures at public meetings held on each
of the ve principal islands of Hawaii. The petition, clearly marked "Petition Against Annexation"
and written in both the Hawaiian and English languages, was signed by 21,269 native Hawaiian
people, or more than half the 39,000 native Hawaiians and mixed-blood persons reported by the
Hawaiian Commission census for the same year.

Four delegates, James Kaulia, David Kalauokalani, John Richardson, and William Auld, arrived in
Washington, DC on December 6 with the 556-page petition in hand. That day, as they met with
Queen Lili'uokalani, who was already in Washington lobbying against annexation, the second

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session of the 55th Congress opened. The delegates and Lili'uokalani planned a strategy to
present the petition to the Senate.

23. Who are James Kaulia, David Kalauokalani, John Richardson, and William Auld? Why are
they signi cant?

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The delegation and Lili'oukalani metSenatorGeorgeHoar,chairmanoftheSenateCommitteeon


Foreign Relations on the following day, and on December 9, with the delegates present, Senator
Hoar read the text of the petition to the Senate. It was formally accepted. The next day the
delegates met with Secretary of State John Sherman and submitted a formal statement
protesting the annexation to him. In the following days, the delegates met with many senators,
voicing opposition to the annexation. By the time the delegates left Washington on February 27,
1898, there were only 46 senators willing to vote for annexation. The treaty was defeated in the
Senate.

Other events brought the subject of annexation up again immediately. On February 15, 1898, the
U.S. Battleship Maine was blown up in Havana harbor in Cuba. The ensuing Spanish-American
War, part of which was fought in the Philippine Islands, established the strategic value of the
Hawaiian islands asamid-Paci cfuelingstationandnavalinstallation.Thepro-annexationforces
in Congress submitted a proposal to annex the Hawaiian Islands by joint resolution, which
required only a simple majority vote in both houses. This eliminated the 2/3 majority needed to
ratify atreaty,andbyresult,thenecessarysupportwasinplace.HouseJointResolution259,55th
Congress, 2nd session, known as the "Newlands Resolution," passed Congress and was signed
into law by President McKinley on July 7, 1898.

24. What is the Newlands Resolution? Why did it come about? What does its passing mean?

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OnceannexedbytheUnitedStates,theHawaiianIslandsremainedaU.S.territoryuntil1959,when
they were admitted to statehood as the 50th state. The story of the annexation is a story of
con icting goals as the white businessmen struggled to obtain favorable trade conditions and
native Hawaiians sought to protect their cultural heritage and maintain a national identity. The
1897 Petition by the Hawaiian Patriotic League stands as evidence that the native Hawaiian
people objected to annexation, but because the interests of the businessmen won out, over the
coming decades most historians who wrote the history of Hawaii emphasized events as told by
the Provisional Government and largely neglected the struggle of the Native Hawaiians. Today,
there is a growing movement on the Islands to revive interest in the native Hawaiian language
and culture. Primary sources such as this petition bear witness that there is another side to the
story.

The annexation petition with its voluminoussignatures,alongwithmanyrelatedrecords,is ledin


the Records of the U.S. Senate, Record Group 46, at the National Archives and Records
Administration. The petitions are available on micro lm as publication M1897.

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Gallery Walk
Monday, April 3
Learning Target: I can use several sources to make an informed decision about the annexation
of Hawaii to the US (D3).

DO NOW: Imagine the following scenario: Mililani Middle School has decided to annex our school.
We will now go by their name and all of our students will go to their school even though we will
stay in our building. You will continue to go to class as normal, but your school ID card will change
and all after-school activities will be merged. With a partner/small group, discuss the following
questions and write down your answers:

1. Are there elements of our school culture that are unique? Do we have traditions, names, or
activities that we want to preserve? How might these change due to annexation?
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2. Think about all the extra-curricular activities that you participate in during or after school,
such as clubs or sports. Which of these do you think will get better after the annexation?
Which might get worse? Why?
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3. Is this annexation fair?
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4. Are there any circumstances in which this is a good idea for our school? Who bene ts more
from this annexation, the other school or our school?
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Directions: Look at each of the displayed documents and, working with other people in the class,
respond to the questions based on each document below.

Document A

1. What do you think Foster believes the results of these negotiations will be?

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2. Does Foster question whether or not Hawaii will remain independent?

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Document B

1. What do the top images of oppressed people show of U.S. perceptions of foreign people?
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2. According to this cartoon, has life as U.S. citizens improved for persons facing oppression?

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Document C

1. What is James saying about the ability and the desire of the natives to govern themselves?

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2. Do you think James is for or against annexation of Hawaii to the U.S.?

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Document D

1. How does the cartoonist portray Uncle Sam? What expressions does the cartoonist give
President Cleveland (sitting)?

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2. How is Queen Lilioukalani portrayed on the chess board?

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3. How might the annexation of Hawaii be like a game of chess?

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When you have looked at all four documents and responded to the corresponding questions,
answer the question below:

What attitudes do these documents display about the annexation of Hawaii?

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Aloha Aina: Review
Tuesday, April 4
Learning Target: I can demonstrate my mastery of the importance of Aloha Aina (D2 & D3).

DO NOW: Complete the following quiz as practice for your Unit Test on Thursday, April 6! Do your
best to answer the questions without using your notes.

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