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CAUSATION

Annotated Bibliography

Compiled by the AHRC Metaphysics of Science Project


October 2008

An excellent means of obtaining a quick overview of the causation literature is via the survey articles in the online
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy www.plato.stanford.edu. These articles provide an thorough review of the
history of philosophical debate on causation, as well as an introduction to all of the major extant theories, and the
difficulties they each face. Each article contains an extensive bibliography (from which this annotated bibliography
is in part drawn).

The forthcoming Oxford Handbook of Causation (ed. Hitchcock, Beebee and Menzies) is an extremely
comprehensive, encyclopedic treatment of all aspects, philosophical, scientific and applied, of causation and is
expected to become an indispensable resource. It should perhaps be the starting point for any serious investigation
of the topic.

This bibliography is divided into eight sections:

1.Metaphysics of Causation
2.The Relata of Causation
3.Univocal Theories of Causation
a. Regularity Theories
b. Counterfactual Theories
c. Manipulability Theories
i. Causation and Action
d. Probabilistic Theories
e. Causal Process Theories
i. Backward Causation
4.Pluralistic Theories of Causation
5.Medieval Theories of Causation
6.Early Modern Theories of Causation
7.Hume on Causation
8.Causation and the Law
9.Mental Causation

Section 10 contains a full alphabetic listing of all the references from sections 1-9, unclassified.

Some major monographs on causation that have appeared in the last ten years are:
Hausman (1998) Causal Asymmetries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dowe (2000) Physical Causation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Pearl (2000) Causality. Cambridge University Press.
Spirtes, Glymour and Scheines (2000) Causation, Prediction and Search. 2nd edition. MIT Press.
Woodward (2003) Making Things Happen. Oxford University Press
Cartwright (2007) Hunting Causes and Using Them. Cambridge University Press.
Hall and Paul (forthcoming).

Two recent important anthologies are:


Causation and Counterfactuals (ed. Collins, Hall and Paul). 2004. MIT Press.
Causal Republicanism (ed. Price and Corry). 2007. Oxford University Press
1
1. METAPHYSICS OF CAUSATION
A particularly helpful introduction to some of the issues is Schaffers Stanford Encyclopedia article The
Metaphysics of Causation.
Achinstein, Peter (1975) Causation, Transparency, and Emphasis, Canadian Journal of Philosophy 5, pp.
1-23.
Achinstein, Peter (1983) The Nature of Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Anscombe, G. E. M. (1975) Causality and Determination, in E. Sosa, ed., Causation and Conditionals.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 63-81.
Armstrong, D. M. (1997) A World of States of Affairs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Armstrong, D. M. (1999) The Open Door, in H. Sankey, ed., Causation and Laws of Nature. Dordrecht:
Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 175-85.
Aronson, Jerrold (1971) On the Grammar of Cause, Synthese 22, pp. 414-30.

Beauchamp, Tom and Alex Rosenberg (1981) Hume and the Problem of Causation. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Beebee, Helen (2004a), Causing and Nothingness, in J. Collins, N. Hall, and L. A. Paul, eds., Causation
and Counterfactuals. Massachusetts: The M. I. T. Press, pp. 291-308.
Beebee, Helen (2004b), Chance-changing Causal Processes, in P. Dowe and P. Noordhof, eds., Cause
and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World. London: Routledge, pp. 39-57.
Bennett, Jonathan (1988) Events and their Names. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishers.

Black, Max (1956) Why Cannot an Effect Precede its Cause, Analysis 16, pp. 49-58.

Brand, Myles (1980) Simultaneous Causation, in P. van Inwagen, ed., Time and Cause: Essays Presented
to Richard Taylor. Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing, pp. 137-53.
Campbell, Keith (1990) Abstract Particulars. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Carroll, John (1994) Laws of Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cartwright, Nancy (1983) How the Laws of Physics Lie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Castaneda, Hector-Neri (1984) Causes, Causity, and Energy, in P. French, T. Uehling, Jr., and H.
Wettstein, eds., Midwest Studies in Philosophy IX. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 17-27.
Coady, David (2004) Preempting Preemption, in J. Collins, N. Hall, and L. A. Paul, eds., Causation and
Counterfactuals. Massachusetts: The M. I. T. Press, pp. 325-40.
Collingwood, R. G. (1940) An Essay on Metaphysics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Collins, John (2000), Preemptive Prevention, Journal of Philosophy 97, pp. 223-34.

Davidson, Donald (1980a) Actions, Reasons, and Causes, orig. 1963, in Essays on Actions and Events.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 3-19.

2
Davidson, Donald (1980b) Causal Relations, orig. 1967, in Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, pp. 149-62.
Davidson, Donald (1980c) The Individuation of Events, orig. 1969, in Essays on Actions and Events.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 163-80.
Davidson, Donald (1980d) Mental Events, orig. 1970, in Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford:
Clarendon Press pp. 207-27.
Davidson, Donald (1985) Reply to Quine on Events, in E. LePore and B. McLaughlin, eds., Actions and
Events: Essays on the Philosophy of Donald Davidson. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 172-6.
Davidson, Donald (1993) Thinking Causes, in J. Heil and A. Mele, eds., Mental Causation. Oxford:
Clarendon Press, pp. 3-17.
Dowe, Phil (1992) Wesley Salmon's Process Theory of Causality and the Conserved Quantity Theory,
Philosophy of Science 59, pp. 195-216.
Dowe, Phil (2000) Physical Causation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dowe, Phil (2001) A Counterfactual Theory of Prevention and Causation by Omission, Australasian
Journal of Philosophy 79, pp. 216-26.
Dretske, Fred (1977) Referring to Events, in P. French, T. Uehling, Jr., and H. Wettstein, eds., Midwest
Studies in Philosophy II. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 90-9.
Ducasse, C. J. (1926) On the Nature and Observability of the Causal Relation, Journal of Philosophy 23,
pp. 57-68.
Dummett, Michael (1964) Bringing About the Past, Philosophical Review 73, pp. 338-59.

Eells, Ellery (1991) Probabilistic Causality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ehring, Douglas (1986) The Transference Theory of Causality, Synthese 67, pp. 249-58.

Ehring, Douglas (1997) Causation and Persistence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, Brian (1999) Causal Powers and Laws of Nature, in H. Sankey, ed., Causation and Laws of Nature.
Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 19-34.
Fair, David (1979) Causation and the Flow of Energy, Erkenntnis 14, pp. 219-50.

Fales, Evan (1990) Causation and Universals. London: Routledge Press.

Ganeri, Jonardon, Paul Noordhof, and Murali Ramachandran (1996) Counterfactuals and Preemptive
Causation, Analysis 56, pp. 219-25.
Gasking, Douglas (1955) Causation and Recipes, Mind 64, pp.479-86.

Gdel, Kurt (1949) A Remark about the Relationship between Relativity Theory and Idealistic
Philosophy, in P. Schilpp, ed., Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. La Salle: Open Court, pp. 557-62.
Good, I. J. (1961) A Causal Calculus I, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 11, pp. 305-18.

Good, I. J. (1962) A Causal Calculus II, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 12, pp. 43-51.

3
Hall, Ned (2000) Causation and the Price of Transitivity, Journal of Philosophy 97, pp. 198-222.

Hall, Ned (2004) Two Concepts of Causation in J. Collins, N. Hall, and L. A. Paul, eds., Causation and
Counterfactuals. Massachusetts: The M. I. T. Press, pp. 181-204.
Hall, Ned (2007) Structural Equations and Causation,, Philosophical Studies 132, pp. 109-136.

Hall, Ned and L. A. Paul (manuscript) Causation and the Counterexamples: A Traveler's Guide

Halpern, Joseph and Judea Pearl (2005) Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach Part 1:
Causes, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56, pp. 843-87.
Hart, H. L. A. and A. M. Honore (1985) Causation in the Law, orig. 1959. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hausman, Daniel (1998) Causal Asymmetries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hitchcock, Christopher (1993) A Generalized Probabilistic Theory of Causal Relevance, Synthese 97, pp.
335-64.
Hitchcock, Christopher (1995a) The Mishap at Reichenbach Fall: Singular vs. General Causation,
Philosophical Studies 78, pp. 257-91.
Hitchcock, Christopher (1995b) Salmon on Explanatory Relevance, Philosophy of Science 62, pp. 304-
320.
Hitchcock, Christopher (1996) The Role of Contrast in Causal and Explanatory Claims, Synthese 107, pp.
395-419.
Hitchcock, Christopher (2001) The Intransitivity of Causation Revealed in Equations and Graphs,
Journal of Philosophy 98, pp. 273-99.
Hitchcock, Christopher (2004) Do All and Only Causes Raise the Probabilities of Effects? in J. Collins,
N. Hall, and L. A. Paul, eds., Causation and Counterfactuals. Massachusetts: The M. I. T. Press, pp. 403-
18.
Hitchcock, Christopher (forthcoming) Prevention, Preemption, and the Principle of Sufficient Reason,
Philosophical Review.
Horwich, Paul (1987) Asymmetries in Time. Massachusetts: The M. I. T. Press.

Hume, David (1975) An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, orig. 1748. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kant, Immanuel (1965) Critique of Pure Reason, orig. 1781, trans. N. Kemp Smith. New York: Macmillan
Press.
Kim, Jaegwon (1973) Causation, Nomic Subsumption, and the Concept of Event, Journal of Philosophy
70, pp. 217-36.
Kim, Jaegwon (1976) Events as Property Exemplifications, in M. Brand and D. Walton, eds., Action
Theory. Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing, pp. 159-77.
Kistler, Max (1998) Reducing Causality to Transmission, Erkenntnis 48, pp. 1-24.

Kvart, Igal (1986) A Theory of Counterfactuals. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.

4
Kvart, Igal (1997) Cause and Some Positive Causal Impact, in J. Tomberlin, ed., Philosophical
Perspectives 11: Mind, Causation, and World. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 401-32.
Kvart, Igal (2004) Probabilistic Cause, Edge Conditions, Late Preemption and Discrete Cases, in P. Dowe
and P. Noordhof, eds., Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World. London: Routledge.
Lewis, David (1979) Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow, Nous 13, pp. 455-76.

Lewis, David (1986a) Causation, in Philosophical Papers 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 159-
213.
Lewis, David (1986b) Events, in Philosophical Papers 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 241-69.

Lewis, David (2000) Causation as Influence, Journal of Philosophy 97, pp. 182-97.

Lewis, David (2004) Void and Object, in J. Collins, N. Hall, and L. A. Paul, eds., Causation and
Counterfactuals. Massachusetts: The M. I. T. Press, pp. 277-90.
Mackie, J. L. (1965) Causes and Conditions, American Philosophical Quarterly 2, pp. 245-64.

Mackie, J. L. (1974) The Cement of the Universe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maslen, Cei (2004) Causes, Contrasts, and the Nontransitivity of Causation, in J. Collins, N. Hall, and L.
A. Paul, eds., Causation and Counterfactuals. Massachusetts: The M. I. T. Press, pp. 341-58.
McDermott, Michael (1995) Redundant Causation, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46, pp.
423-44.
McDermott, Michael (2002) Causation, Influence, and Sufficiency, Journal of Philosophy 99, pp. 84-101.

McGrath, Sarah (2005) Causation by Omission: A Dilemma, Philosophical Studies 123, pp. 125-48.

McGrath, Sarah (manuscript) Uneventful Causation.

Mellor, D. H. (1981) Real Time. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mellor, D. H. (1988) On Raising the Chances of Effects, in J. Fetzer, ed., Probability and Causality.
Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing, pp. 229-40.
Mellor, D. H. (1995) The Facts of Causation. London: Routledge Press.

Menzies, Peter (1989a) A Unified Account of Causal Relata, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67, pp.
59-83.
Menzies, Peter (1989b) Probabilistic Causation and Causal Processes: A Critique of Lewis, Philosophy of
Science 56, pp. 642-63.
Menzies, Peter (1996) Probabilistic Causation and the Pre-emption Problem, Mind 105, pp. 85-117.

Menzies, Peter (2004) Difference-Making in Context, in J. Collins, N. Hall, and L. A. Paul, eds.,
Causation and Counterfactuals. Massachusetts: The M. I. T. Press, pp. 139-80.
Menzies, Peter and Huw Price (1993) Causation as a Secondary Quality, British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science 44, pp. 187-203.
Mill, J. S. (1846) A System of Logic. New York: Harper & Brothers.

5
Noordhof, Paul (1999) Probabilistic Causation, Preemption and Counterfactuals, Mind 108, pp. 95-125.

Northcott, Robert (forthcoming) Causation and Contrast Classes, Philosophical Studies.

Papineau, David (1993) Can We Reduce Causal Direction to Probabilities?, in Hull, D. M. Forbes, and K.
Okruhlik, eds., PSA 1992 vol. 2. East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 238-52.
Paul, L. A. (1999) Keeping Track of the Time: Emending the Counterfactual Analysis of Causation,
Analysis 58, pp. 191-8.
Paul, L. A. (2000) Aspect Causation, Journal of Philosophy 97, pp. 223-34.

Pearl, Judea (2000) Causality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Price, Huw (1991) Agency and Probabilistic Causality, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42,
pp. 157-76.
Price, Huw (1996) Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Quine, W. V. O. (1966) The Ways of Paradox. New York: Random House.

Quine, W. V. O. (1985) Events and Reification, in E. LePore and B. McLaughlin, eds., Actions and
Events: Essays on the Philosophy of Donald Davidson. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 162-71.
Ramachandran, Murali (1997) A Counterfactual Analysis of Causation, Mind 106: 263-77.

Reichenbach, Hans (1956) The Direction of Time. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rosen, Deborah (1978) In Defense of a Probabilistic Theory of Causality, Philosophy of Science 45, pp.
604-13.
Russell, Bertrand (1992) On the Notion of Cause, orig. 1912, in J. Slater, ed., The Collected Papers of
Bertrand Russell v6: Logical and Philosophical Papers 1909-1913. London: Routledge Press, pp. 193-210.
Russell, Bertrand (1948) Human Knowledge: Its Scope and Limits. New York, Simon and Schuster.

Salmon, Wesley (1984) Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Princeton: Princeton
University Press.
Salmon, Wesley (1997) Causality and Explanation: A Reply to Two Critiques, Philosophy of Science 64,
pp. 461-77.
Salmon,Wesley (1998) Causality and Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sartorio, Carolina (2005) Causes as Difference-Makers, Philosophical Studies 123, pp. 71-96.

Sayre, Kenneth (1977) Statistical Models of Causal Relations, Philosophy of Science 44, pp. 203-14.

Schaffer, Jonathan (2000a) Trumping Preemption, Journal of Philosophy 97, pp. 165-81.

Schaffer, Jonathan (2000b) Overlappings: Probability-Raising without Causation, Australasian Journal


of Philosophy 78, pp. 40-6.
Schaffer, Jonathan (2000c) Causation by Disconnection, Philosophy of Science 67, pp. 285-300.

Schaffer, Jonathan (2001) Causes as Probability-Raisers of Processes, Journal of Philosophy 98, pp. 75-
92.
6
Schaffer, Jonathan (2005) Contrastive Causation, Philosophical Review 114, pp. 327-58.

Schaffer, Jonathan (manuscript) Causal Contextualisms: Contrast, Default, and Model.

Shoemaker, Sydney (1980) Causality and Properties, in P. van Inwagen, ed., Time and Cause: Essays
Presented to Richard Taylor. Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing, pp. 109-35.
Shoemaker, Sydney (1998) Causal and Metaphysical Necessity, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 79, pp.
59-77.
Skyrms, Brian (1984) EPR: Lessons for Metaphysics, in P. French, T. Uehling, Jr., and H. Wettstein, eds.,
Midwest Studies in Philosophy IX. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 245-55.
Sober, Elliott (1985) Two Concepts of Cause, in P. Asquith and P. Kitcher, eds., PSA 1984 vol. 2. East
Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association, pp. 405-24.
Spirtes, Peter, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines (1993) Causation, Prediction, and Search. New York:
Springer-Verlaag.
Strawson, P. F. (1985) Causality and Explanation, in B. Vermazen and M. Hintikka, eds., Essays on
Davidson: Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 115-36.
Steward, Helen (1997) The Ontology of Mind. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Suppes, Patrick (1970) A Probabilistic Theory of Causality. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing.

Swain, Marshall (1978) A Counterfactual Analysis of Event Causation, Philosophical Studies 34, pp. 1-
19.
Taylor, Richard (1966) Action and Purpose. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Tooley, Michael (1987) Causation: A Realist Approach. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Tooley, Michael (2004) Probability and causation, in P. Dowe and P. Noordhof, eds., Cause and Chance:
Causation in an Indeterministic World. London: Routledge, pp. 77-119.
Van Fraassen, Bas (1980) The Scientific Image. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Von Wright, G. H. (1975) On the Logic and Epistemology of the Causal Relation, in Causation and
Conditionals. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 95-113.
Woodward, James (1984) A Theory of Singular Causal Explanation, Erkenntnis 21, pp. 231-62.

Woodward, Jim (2003) A Theory of Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yablo, Stephen (2002) De Facto Dependence, Journal of Philosophy 99, pp. 130-48.

7
2. THE RELATA OF CAUSATION

Again, Schaffers Stanford encyclopedia article provides a useful introduction to this topic.

Achinstein, P. (1983). The Causal Relation, in his The Nature of Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press,

193-217.

Anscombe, G.E.M. (1969). Extensionality Reconsidered. Journal of Philosophy 66: 152-9.

Armstrong, D.M. (1997). A World of States of Affairs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Aronson, J. L. (1971). On the Grammar of Cause . Synthese 22: 414-30.

Beebee, H. (2004). Causing and Nothingness, in Collins, Hall and Paul 2004, 291-308.

Bennett, J. (1988). Events and Their Names. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.

Brawn, D. (1995). Causally Relevant Properties. Philosophical Perspectives 8: 447-75.

Byerly, H. (1979). Substantial Causes and Nomic Determination. Philosophy of Science 46: 57-81.

Campbell, K. (1990). Abstract Particulars. Oxford: Blackwell.

Clarke, R. (1969). Agent Causation and Event Causation. Philosophical Topics 24: 19-48.

Collins, J., E.J. Hall and L.A. Paul. (eds.). (2004). Causation and Counterfactuals. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Cummins, R., and Gottlieb, D. (1972). On an Argument for Truth-Functionality. American Philosophical

Quarterly 9: 265-9.

Davidson, D. ([1967] 1980). Causal Relations. Journal of Philosophy 64: 691-703. Reprinted in his 1980, 149-62.

------- ([1969] 1980). The Individuation of Events, in N. Rescher (ed.), Essays in Honor of Carl G. Hempel.

Dordrecht: Reidel, 216-37. Reprinted in his 1980, 163-80.

-------(1980). Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

----- (1985). Reply to Quine on Events, in LePore and McLaughlin 1985, 172-6.

Dretske, F. (1977). Referring to Events. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2: 369-78.

Ehring, D. (1987a). Causal Relata. Synthese 73: 319-28.

--------- (1987b) Compound Emphasis and Causal Relata. Analysis 47: 209-13.

--------- (1997). Causation and Persistence: A Theory of Causation. New York: Oxford University Press.

---------- (2003). Part-Whole Physicalism and Mental Causation. Synthese 136: 359-88.
8
Hall, E.J. (2004a). Causation and the Price of Transitivity, in Collins, Hall and Paul 2004, 181-204.

Kim, J. ([1973] 1993). Causation, Nomic Subsumption, and the Concept of an Event. Journal of Philosophy 70:

217-36. Reprinted in his 1993, 3-21.

--------- ([1976] 1993). Events as Property Exemplifications, in Brand, M. and Walton (eds.), Action Theory.

Dordrecht: Reidel, 159-77. Reprinted in his 1993, 33-52.

---------(1977). Causation, Emphasis, and Events. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2: 100-03.

Kvart, I. (1991).Transitivity and Preemption of Causal Impact. Philosophical Studies 64: 125-60.

LePore, E. and McLaughlin, B. (eds.) (1985). Actions and Events: Perspectives on the Philosophy of Donald

Davidson. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Lewis, D. ([1973] 1986c). Causation. The Journal of Philosophy 70: 556-67. Reprinted in his 1986c, 159-71.

---------(1986a). Events, in his 1986c, 241-70.

----- (1986b). Postscripts to Causation , in his 1986c, 172-213.

--------(1986c). Philosophical Papers, vol. II. New York: Oxford University Press.

------- ([2000] 2004a). Causation as Influence. Journal of Philosophy 97: 182-97. Expanded version in Collins,

Hall and Paul 2004, 75-106.

--------(2004b). Void and Object, in Collins, Hall and Paul 2004, 277-90.

Mackie, J.L. (1974). The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Maslen, C. (2004). Causes, Contrasts, and the Nontransitivity of Causation, in Collins, Hall and Paul 2004, 341-

58.

Meinertsen, B. R. (2000). Events, Facts and Causation. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of Sciences and the

Humanities 76: 145-81.

Mellor, D. H. (1995). The Facts of Causation. London: Routledge.

-------- (2004). For Facts as Causes and Effects, in Collins, Hall and Paul 2004, 309-57.

Menzies, P. (1989). A Unified Account of Causal Relata. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67: 59-83.

Moore, M. (2005). Causal Relata. Philosophia Pratica Universalis: Festschrift for Joachim Hruschka, Annual

Review of Law and Ethics 13: 589-641.


9
Neale, S. (2001). Facing Facts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Needham, P. (1988). Causation: Relation or Connective?. Dialectica 42: 201-19.

Noorhof, P. (1998). Do Tropes Resolve the Problem of Mental Causation?. The Philosophical Quarterly 48: 221-

6.

Paul, L.A. (2004). Aspect Causation. Journal of Philosophy 97:235-56 (2000). Reprinted in Collins, Hall and

Paul 2004, 205-24.

Persson, J. (2002). Cause, Effect and Fake Causation, Synthese 131: 129-43.

Quine, W.V. (1985). Events and Reification, in LePore and McLaughlin 1985, 162-76.

Robb, D. (1997). The Properties of Mental Causaiton. The Philosophical Quarterly 47: 178-94.

Rodriguez-Pereyra, G. (1998). Mellors Facts and Chances of Causation. Analysis 58: 175-81.

Sanford, D. (1985). Causal Relata, in LePore and McLaughlin 1985, 282-93.

Schaffer, J. (2003). The Metaphysics of Causation. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2003

Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2003/entries/causation-

metaphysics/>.

10
3. UNIVOCAL THEORIES OF CAUSATION

3a. Regularity Theories Of Causation

Humes treatment of causation is perhaps the most famous and influential work on causation of all time. Mackie

provides a more recent regularity theory, partly in response to which subsequent major theories of causation emerged

as rivals.

Armstrong, D. M. (1983). What Is a Law of Nature? Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press.

Beebee, H. (2006). Hume on Causation. Abingdon: Routledge.

------ (2006). Does Anything Hold the Universe Together?. Synthese 149: 509-33.

Baumgartner, M. (2008). Regularity Theories Reassessed Philosophia 36, 327-354.


Brown, T. (1822). Inquiry Into The Relation of Cause and Effect. Andover: Flaggand

Gould Printers.

Clendinnen, J. F. (1992). Nomic Dependence and Causation. Philosophy of Science

59: 341-60.

Davidson, D. (1967). Causal Relations. Journal of Philosophy 64: 691-703. Reprinted

in E. Sosa & M. Tooley (eds.) Causation. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1993: 75-87.

Ducasse, C. J. (1951). Nature, Mind and Death. LaSalle, IL: Open Court.

Goodman, N. (1983). Fact, Fiction and Forecast. (fourth edition). Cambridge

MA: Harvard University Press.

Mackie, J. L. (1974). The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation. Oxford:

Clarendon Press.

Mill, J. S. (1911). A System of Logic: Ratiocinative and Inductive. London: Longmans,

Green and Co.

Pap, A. (1952). Philosophical Analysis, Translation Schemas, and the Regularity Theory of Causation. The

Journal of Philosophy 49: 657-66.

Psillos, S. (2002). Causation and Explanation. Chesham: Acumen.

11
------ (2007). What is Causation?. In Beena Choksi & Chitra Natarajan (eds) epiSTEME Reviews: Research

Trends in Science, Technology and Mathematics Education. Macmillan India Ltd.

Ramsey, F. P. (1928) Universals of Law and of Fact in D. H. Mellor (ed.) Foundations: Essays in Philosophy,

Logic, Mathematics and Economics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1978.

Strawson, G. (1987). Realism and Causation. Philosophical Quarterly 37: 253

77.

------ (1989). The Secret Connexion. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Venn, J. (1889). The Principles of Empirical or Inductive Logic. London & New

York: MacMillan

12
3b Counterfactual Theories of Causation
The locus classicus for counterfactual theories of causation is David Lewiss 1973 paper Causation.
Counterfactual theories have lately enjoyed a resurgence, and today are probably the most popular of all extant
accounts. See Causation and Counterfactuals (2004) ed. Collins, Hall and Paul for a comprehensive treatment of
the topic.
Arntzenius, F. (1993): The Classical Failure to Account for Electromagnetic Arrows of Time in G.
Massey, T. Horowitz and A. Janis (eds.), Scientific Failure. Lanham: Rowman and Littlfield, pp.29-48.
Barker, S. (2004): Analysing Chancy Causation without Appeal to Chance-raising, in Dowe, P and P.
Noordhof (2004), pp.120-137.
Beebee, H. (2004):Chance-changing Causal Processes, in Dowe and Noordhof (2004), 39-57.

Bennett, J. (1987): Event Causation: the Counterfactual Analysis, Philosophical Perspectives, 1, pp.367-
86.
Collins, J., Hall, E., and Paul, L. (2004): Causation and Counterfactuals. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Collins, J. (2000): Preemptive Preemption, Journal of Philosophy, 97, pp.223-34.

Dowe, P. (2000): Physical Causation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(2004): Chance-lowering Causes, in Dowe and Noordhof (2004), pp.28-38.

Dowe, P and P. Noordhof (2004): Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World. London:
Routledge.
Elga, A. (2000): Statistical Mechanics and the Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence,Philosophy of
Science, Supp Vol. 68, PSA 2000, pp.313-324.
Ehring, D (1987):Causal Relata, Synthese, 73, pp.319-328.

Fine, K. (1975): Review of Lewis (1973a), Mind, 84, pp.451-8.

Frisch, M. (2005):Inconsistency, Asymmetry and Non-Locality: Philosophical Issues in Classical


Electrodynamics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Garfinkel, A. (1981). Forms of Explanation. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Goodman, N. (1947): The Problem of Counterfactual Conditionals, Journal of Philosophy, 44, pp.113-
128. Reprinted in Goodman (1983).
. (1983): Fact, Fiction, and Forecast. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Hall, N. (2000): Causation and the Price of Transitivity, Journal of Philosophy, 97, pp.198-222.

(2002): Non-locality on the Cheap?,Nous,36, pp.276-294.

(2004): Two Concepts of Causation, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp.225-76.

(2007): Structural Equations and Causation, Philosophical Studies, pp.109-136.

13
Halpern, J. and Pearl, J. (2001): Causes and Rxplanations: A Structural-model Approach Part I:
Causes, Proceedings of the Seventeenth Conference on Uncertainty in Artifical Intelligence. San
Francisco: Morgan Kaufman, pp.194-202.
(2005): Causes and Rxplanations: A Structural-model Approach Part I: Causes,(expanded
version), British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 56, pp.843-887.
Hart, H. L. and Honore, A. (1965): Causation in the Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Second edition 1985.

Hausman, D. (1998): Causal Asymmetries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hitchcock, C. (1996a): The Role of Contrast in Causal and Explanatory Claims, Synthese, 107, pp.395-
419.
(1996b): Farewell to Binary Causation, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 26, pp.335-364.

(2001): The Intransitivity of Causation Revealed in Equations and Graphs, Journal of Philosophy,
98, pp.273-99.
(2004): Do All and Only Causes Raise the Probabilities of Effects?, in Collins, Hall and Paul (2004),
pp.403-418.
(2007): Prevention, Preemption, and the Principle of Sufficient Reason, Philosophical Review, 116,
No. 4 (October).
Horwich, P. (1987): Asymmetries in Time. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Hume, D. (1748): An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding.

Kim, J. (1973): Causes and Counterfactuals, Journal of Philosophy, 70, pp.570-72.

Kvart, I. (2001): Counterexamples to Lewis' Causation as Influence, Australasian Journal of


Philosophy, 79, pp.411-23.
(2004): Causation:Probabilistic and Counterfactual Analyses, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004),
pp.359-386.
Lewis, D. (1973a): Counterfactuals. Oxford: Blackwell.

(1973b): Causation, Journal of Philosophy, 70, pp.556-67. Reprinted in his (1986a). Page references
to reprinted version.
(1979): Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow, Nous, 13, pp.455-76. Reprinted in his
(1986a).
(1980): A Subjectivist's Guide to Objective Chance, in R. Jeffrey, ed., Studies in Inductive Logic and
Probability: Volume II, Reprinted in his (1986a).
(1986a): Philosophical Papers: Volume II. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(1986b): Events, in his (1986a).

(1986c): Postscripts to Causation, in his (1986a).

(1986d): Causal Explanation, in his (1986a).

14
(1986e): The Plurality of Worlds. Oxford: Blackwell.

(2000): Causation as Influence, Journal of Philosophy, 97, pp.182-97.Reprinted in his (2004a). Page
references to reprinted version.
(2004a): Causation as Influence, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004),pp,75-106.

(2004b): Void and Object, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp.277-90.

Lipton, P. (1991): Inference to the Best Explanation. London: Routledge.

Lyon, A. (1967): Causality, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 18, pp.1-20.

Maslen, C. (2004): Causes, Contrasts, and the Nontransitivity of Causation, in Collins, Hall, and Paul
(2004), pp.341-358.
Maudlin, T. (2004): Causation, Counterfactuals, and the Third Factor, in Colins, Hall, and Paul (2004),
pp.419-443.
Mill, J. S. (1843): A System of Logic.

McDermott, M. (1995): Redundant Causation, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 40, pp.523-
544.
Mackie, J. L. (1973): Truth, Probability, and Paradox. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(1974): The Cement of the Universe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Second edition 1980.

Mellor, D. H. (1995): The Facts of Causation. London: Routledge.

(2004): For Facts as Causes and Effects, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp.309-324.

Menzies, P. (1989): Probabilistic Causation and Causal Processes: A Critique of Lewis, Philosophy of
Science, 56, pp.642-663.
(1996): Probabilistic Causation and the Pre-emption Problem, Mind, 105, pp.85-117.

(1999): Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Conceptions of Causation, in H. Sankey, ed., Causation and Laws
of Nature, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.313-29.
(2004a): Difference-Making in Context, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp.139-80.

(2004b): Causal Models, Token Causation, and Processes, Philosophy of Science, Suppl Vol. 71, PSA
2002, pp.820-832. Long version archived at: http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/00001039/PSA2002_long.pdf.
Deposited 14 March 2003.
(2007): Causation in Context, in Price and Corry (2007), pp.191-223.

North, J. (2003: Understanding the Time-Asymmetry of Radiation, Philosophy of Science (Proceedings)


70: pp.1086-1097.
Noordhof, P. (1999):Probabilistic Causation, Preemption, and Counterfactuals, Mind, 108, pp.95-125.

(2004): Prospects for a Counterfactual Theory, in Dowe and Noordhof (2004), pp.188-201.

Paul, L. (2004): Aspect Causation, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004), pp.205-224.

15
Pearl, J. (2000): Causality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Popper, K. (1956): The Arrow of Time, Nature, 1777, p.538.

Price, H. (1996): Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Price, H and Corry, R. (2007): Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic
Revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ramachandran, M. (1997): A Counterfactual Analysis of Causation, Mind, 106, pp.263-77.

(2004): A Counterfactual Analysis of Indeterministic Causation, in Collins, Hall, and Paul (2004),
387-402.
Schaffer, J. (2000): Trumping Preemption, Journal of Philosophy, 9, pp.165-81.

(2005): Contrastive Causation, Philosophical Review, 114, pp.297-328.

Spirtes,P., Glymour, C, and Scheines, R. (1993): Causation, Prediction, and Search. New York: Springer.

van Fraassen, B. (1981): The Scientific Image. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Woodward, J. (1984): A Theory of Singular Causal Explanation, Erkenntnis, 21, pp.31-62.

(1990): Supervenience and Singular Causal Statements, in Dudley Knowles, ed., Explanation and its
Limits, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.215-61.
(2003): Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation,Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Woodward, J. and Hitchcock, C. (2003): Explanatory Generalizations. Part I: A Counterfactual Account,


Nous, 37, pp.1-24.

16
3c. Manipulability Theories of Causation
Early manipulability theories were provided by Collingwood (1940) and Gasking (1955). More recently,
Woodward has presented an extensive and technical treatment in Making Things Happen (2003).
Cartwright, N. (forthcoming): "Two Notions of Intervention, Two Notions of Invariance and Two Notions
of What it is For a Causal Claim To Be Correct"
Collingwood, R.(1940): An Essay on Metaphysics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Cook, T. and Campbell, D. (1979): Quasi-Experimentation: Design and Analysis Issues for Field Settings.
Boston: Houghton Miflin Company.
Gasking, D. (1955): "Causation and Recipes", Mind, 64, pp. 479-487.

Haavelmo, T. (1944): "The Probability Approach in Econometrics", Econometrica, 12 (Supplement).

Hauseman, D. (1986): "Causation and Experimentation" American Philosophical Quarterly 23, pp. 143-54

Hausman, D. (1998): Causal Asymmetries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Hitchcock, C. (2001): " The Intransitivity of Causation Revealed in Equations and Graphs", The Journal of
Philosophy, pp. 98, 273- 299.
Hitchcock, Forthcoming, "A Tale of Two Effects".

Holland, P. (1986): "Statistics and Causal Inference", Journal of the American Statistical Association,
81,pp. 945-960.
Lewis, D. (1973): "Causation", Journal of Philosophy, 70, pp. 556-567.

Lewis, D. (1979): "Counterfactuals Dependence and Time's Arrow", Nous, 13, pp. 455-76.

Meek, C. and Glymour, C. (1994): "Conditioning and Intervening", British Journal for the Philosophy of
Science, 45, pp. 1001-1021.
Menzies, P. and Price, H. (1993): "Causation as a Secondary Quality", British Journal for the Philosophy of
Science, 44, pp. 187-203.
Pearl, J. (2000): Causality. New York: Cambridge University Press, New York.

Price, H. (1991): "Agency and Probabalistic Causality", British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 42,
pp. 157 -76.
Rubin, D. (1986): "Comment: Which Ifs Have Causal Answers?", Journal of the American Statistical
Association, 81, pp. 961-962.
Sosa, E. and Tooley, M. (eds.)(1993): Causation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Spirtes, P., Glymour, C. and Scheines, R.(1993): Causation, Prediction and Search. New York: Springer-
Verlag.,
von Wright, G.(1971): Explanation and Understanding. Ithica, New York: Cornell University Press.

Woodward, J. (1997): "Explanation, Invariance, and Intervention" PSA 1996, volume 2, pp.S26-41.

17
Woodward, J. (2000): "Explanation and Invariance in the Special Sciences, British Journal for the
Philosophy of Science, 51, pp. 197-254.
Woodward, J. and Hitchcock, C. (Forthcoming): "Explanatory Generalizations: A Counterfactual Account",
Nous.
Woodward, J. (2003): Making Things Happen. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

18
3c.1 Causation And Action

Anscombe, G. E. M. (1963). Intention (2nd edn). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Audi, Rober. (1997). Acting for Reasons, in A. Mele (ed.), The Philosophy of Action. Oxford: Oxford University

Press.

Bishop, J. (1989). Natural Agency. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brand, M. (1984). Intending and Acting. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Clarke, R. (2002). Libertarian Views: Critical Survey of Noncausal and Event-causal Accounts of Free Agency, in

Kane 2002.

-- (2003). Libertarian Accounts of Free Will. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Davidson, D. (1963). Actions, Reasons, and Causes. Journal of Philosophy 60: 685-700.

-- (1980). Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Dretske, F. (1988). Explaining Behaviour: Reasons in a World of Causes. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Ginet, C. (1990). On Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

-- (2002). Reasons Explanations of Action: Causalist versus Noncausalist Accounts, in Kane 2002.

Goldman, A. (1970). A Theory of Human Action. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Jackson, F. (2000). Psychological Explanation and Implicit Theory. Philosophical Explorations 3: 83-95.

Jackson, F. and P. Pettit (1988). Functionalism and Broad Content. Mind 97: 381-400.

-- (1990). Program Explanation: A General Perspective. Analysis 50: 107-17.

Kane, R. (1996). The Significance of Free Will. New York: Oxford University Press.

-- (1999). Responsibility, Luck and Chance: Reflections on Free Will and Indeterminism. Journal of Philosophy

96: 217-40.

McCann, H. (1974). Volition and Basic Action. Philosophical Review 83: 451-73.

-- (1998). The Works of Agency. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Mele, A. (1992). Springs of Action. New York: Oxford University Press.

-- (1995). Autonomous Agents. New York: Oxford University Press.

-- (1997). Agency and Mental Action. Philosophical Perspectives 11: 231-49.


19
-- (ed.) (1997). The Philosophy of Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mele, A. and P. Moser (1997). Intentional Action, in Mele 1997b.

OConnor, T. (2000). Persons and Causes. New York: Oxford University Press.

Searle, J. (1983). Intentionality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thalberg, I. (1984). Do Our Intentions Cause Our Intentional Actions? American Philosophical Quarterly 21:

249-60.

Thomson, J. (1977). Acts and Other Events. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Velleman, J. D. (1992). What Happens When Someone Acts? Mind 101: 461-81.

Wilson, G. (1989). The Intentionality of Human Action. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

20
3d. Probabilistic Theories of Causation
Eelss Probabilistic Causality (1991) and Hausmans Causal Asymmetries (1998) provide perhaps the most recent
and comprehensive discussions.
Arntzenius, Frank. (1993) The Common Cause Principle, in Hull, Forbes, and Okruhlik (1993), pp. 227 -
237.
Bennett, Jonathan. (1988) Events and Their Names. Indianapolis and Cambridge: Hackett.

Carroll, John. (1991) Property-level Causation? Philosophical Studies 63: 245-70.

Cartwright, Nancy. (1979) ?usal Laws and Effective Strategies, Nos 13: 419-437.

Dupr, John. (1984) Probabilistic Causality Emancipated, in Peter French, Theodore Uehling, Jr., and
Howard Wettstein, eds., (1984) Midwest Studies in Philosophy IX (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
Press), pp. 169 - 175.
Earman, John. (1986) A Primer on Determinism. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Eells, Ellery. (1991) Probabilistic Causality. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Good, I. J. (1961) A Causal Calculus I, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 11: 305-18.

-----. (1962) A Causal Calculus II, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 12: 43-51.

Hausman, Daniel. (1998) Causal Asymmetries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hausman, Daniel, and Woodward, James. (1999) Independence, Invariance, and the Causal Markov
Condition, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 50: 1 - 63.
Hesslow, Germund. (1976) Discussion: Two Notes on the Probabilistic Approach to Causality,
Philosophy of Science 43: 290 - 292.
Hitchcock, Christopher. (1993) A Generalized Probabilistic Theory of Causal Relevance, Synthese 97:
335-364.
-----. (1995) The Mishap at Reichenbach Fall: Singular vs. General Causation, Philosophical Studies 78:
257 - 291.
----. (2001a) A Tale of Two Effects, Philosophical Review 110: 361 - 396.

-----. (2001b) Causal Generalizations and Good Advice, Monist 84: 218 - 241.

-----. (2002) Do All and Only Causes Raise the Probabilities of Effects? in John Collins, Ned Hall, and
L.A. Paul (eds.), Causation and Counterfactuals (Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 2002).
Hull, David, Mickey Forbes, and Kathleen Okruhlik, eds. (1993) PSA 1992, Volume Two. East Lansing:
Philosophy of Science Association.
Hume, David. (1748) An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.

Humphreys, Paul. (1989) The Chances of Explanation: Causal Explanations in the Social, Medical, and
Physical Sciences, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

21
Kvart, Igal. (1997) Cause and Some Positive Causal Impact, Nos 11: 401 - 432.

Lewis, David. (1986a) Causation and Postscripts to Causation, in Lewis (1986c), pp. 172-213.

-----. (1986b) Counterfactual Dependence and Time's Arrow and Postscripts to Counterfactual
Dependence and Time's Arrow, in Lewis (1986c), pp. 32 - 66.
-----. (1986c) Philosophical Papers, Volume II. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mackie, John. (1974) The Cement of the Universe. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

McKim, Vaughn, and Stephen Turner, eds. (1997) Causality in Crisis? Notre Dame: University of Notre
Dame Press.
Menzies, Peter. (1989) Probabilistic Causation and Causal Processes: A Critique of Lewis, Philosophy of
Science 56: 642-63.
Menzies, Peter. (1996) Probabilistic Causation and the Pre-emptionProblem, Mind 105: 85-117.

Mill, John Stuart. (1843) A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive. London: Parker and Son.

Noordhof, Paul. (1999) Probabilistic Causation, Preemption and Counterfactuals, Mind 108: 95 - 125.

Papineau, David. (1993) Can We Reduce Causal Direction to Probabilities? in Hull, Forbes and Okruhlik
(1993), pp. 238-252.
Pearl, Judea. (1999) Reasoning with Cause and Effect, in Proceedings of the International Joint
Conference on Artificial Intelligence (San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman), pp. 1437 - 1449.
-----. (2000) Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Price, Huw. (1991) Agency and Probabalistic Causality, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42:
157 -76.
Reichenbach, Hans. (1956) The Direction of Time. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California
Press.
Salmon, Wesley. (1980) Probabilistic Causality, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 61: 50 - 74.

Scheines, Richard. (1997) An Introduction to Causal Inference in McKim and Turner (1997), pp. 185 -
199.
Skyrms, Brian. (1980) Causal Necessity. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Sober, Elliott. (1985) Two Concepts of Cause in Peter Asquith and Philip Kitcher, eds., PSA 1984, Vol. II
(East Lansing: Philosophy of Science Association), pp. 405-424.
Spirtes, Peter, Clark Glymour, and Richard Scheines. (2000) Causation, Prediction and Search, Second
edition. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.
Suppes, Patrick. (1970) A Probabilistic Theory of Causality. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing
Company.
Woodward, James. (1990) Supervenience and Singular Causal Claims, in Dudley Knowles, ed.,
Explanation and its Limits (Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press), pp. 211 - 246.

22
23
3e. Causal Processes Theories of Causation
David Fairs Causation and the Flow of Energy(1979) is a stimulating an underrated early attempt to outline a
physical theory of causation. Causal process theories currently represent the minority view, but still have a number
of defenders. Salmon, and especially Dowe (2000) have provided extensive and technical treatments.
Armstrong, D. M. (1978). Nominalism and Realism. Cambridge: University Press.

Armstrong, D. M. (1980). Identity Through Time. In P. van Inwagen (Ed.), Time and Cause (pp. 67-78).
Dordrecht: Reidel.
Armstrong, D.M. (2004). Going through the Open Door Again, in J. Collins, N. Hall and L. Paul (eds.),
Causation and Counterfactuals. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 445-58.
Aronson, J. (1971). On the Grammar of Cause. Synthese 22: 414-430.

Beebee, H. (1998). Douglas Ehring, Causation and Persistence. British Journal for the Philosophy of
Science, 49:181-84.
Beebee, H. (2004). Causing and Nothingness, in J. Collins, N. Hall and L. Paul (eds.), Causation and
Counterfactuals. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 291-308.
Bigelow, J., Ellis, B., and Pargetter, R. (1988). Forces. Philosophy of Science, 55: 614-30.

Bigelow, J. and Pargetter, R. (1990). Science and Necessity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cartwright, N. (2004). Causation: One Word, Many Things. Philosophy of Science, 71: 805-19.

Castaneda, H. (1980). Causes, Energy and Constant Conjunctions, in P. van Inwagen (ed.) Time and Cause.
Dordrecht: Reidel, 81-108.
Chakravartty, A. (2005). Causal Realism: Events and Processes. Erkenntnis, 63:7-31.

Choi, S. (2002). Causation and gerrymandered world lines: A critique of Salmon.Philosophy of Science, 69:
105-17.
Choi, S. (2003). The conserved quantity theory of causation and closed systems. Philosophy of Science, 70:
510-30.
Collier, J. (1999). Causation is the Transfer of Information. in H. Sankey, (ed.), Causation and Laws of
Nature. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 215-245.
Dowe, P. (1992). Wesley Salmon's Process Theory of Causality and the Conserved Quantity Theory.
Philosophy of Science 59: 195-216.
Dowe, P. (1995). Causality and Conserved Quantities: A Reply to Salmon. Philosophy of Science 62: 321-
333.
Dowe, P. (1999). Good Connections: Causation and Causal Processes. In H. Sankey (Ed.), Causation and
Laws of Nature Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp.247-63.
Dowe, P. (2000). Physical Causation New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Dowe, P. (2001). A Counterfactual Theory of Prevention and Causation by Omission. Australasian


Journal of Philosophy, 79: 216-26.

24
Dowe, P. (2004). Why Preventers and Omissions are not Causes. in Hitchcock, C (ed) Contemporary
Debates in Philosophy of Science, ch 9, Blackwell, 2004.
Ehring, D. (1997). Causation and Persistence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ehring, D. (2003). Physical Causation. Mind, 112: 529-33.

Fair, D. (1979). Causation and the Flow of Energy. Erkenntnis 14: 219-250.

Garcia-Encinas M. (2004). Transference, or identity theories of causation?. Theoria, 19: 31-47.

Hall, N. (2004). Two Concepts of Causation. in J. Collins, N. Hall and L. Paul (eds.), Causation and
Counterfactuals. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 225-276.
Hanna, J. (1986). Book Review: Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Review of
Metaphysics 39: 582.
Hausman, D. (1998). Causal Asymmetries. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hausman, D. (2002). Physical Causation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 33B: 717-
24.
Heathcote, A. (1989). A Theory of Causality: Causality = Interaction (as Defined by a Suitable Quantum
Field Theory). Erkenntnis. 31: 77-108.
Hitchcock, C. (1995). Salmon on Explanatory Relevance. Philosophy of Science, 62: 304-20.

Hitchcock, C. (2001). The intransitivity of causation revealed in equations and graphs. Journal of
Philosophy, 98 (6): 273-299.
Hitchcock, C. (2004). Causal processes and interactions: What are they and what are they good for?.
Philosophy of Science, 71: 932-41.
Hunt, I. (2005) Omissions and Preventions as Cases of Genuine Causation. Philosophical Papers 34:209-
33.
Kim, S. (2001). Physical process theories and token-probabilistic causation. Erkenntnis, 54: 235-45.

Kistler, M. (1998). Reducing Causality to Transmission. Erkenntnis, 48: 1-24.

Kistler, M. (2006). Causation and Laws of Nature. London: Routledge.

Kitcher, P. (1989). Explanatory Unification and the Causal Structure of the World. In P. Kitcher and W.
Salmon (Eds.), Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science Volume XIII (pp. 410-505). Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press.
Koons, R. (2003). Physical Causation. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 67:244-48.

Krajewski, W. (1997). Energetic, Informational, and Triggering Causes. Erkenntnis, 47:193-202.

Lewis, D. (1986). Philosophical Papers Volume II. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lewis, D. (2004). Void and Object, in J. Collins, N. Hall and L. Paul (eds.), Causation and Counterfactuals.
Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 277-90.

25
Machamer, P., Darden, L., and Craver, C. (2000). Thinking About Mechanisms. Philosophy of Science,
67:1-15.
McDaniel, K. (2002). Physical Causation. Erkenntnis, 56: 258-63.

Menzies, P. (1989). Probabilistic Causation and Causal Processes: A Critique of Lewis. Philosophy of
Science, 56: 642-63.
Miguel, H., and Paruelo, J. (2002). Overlapping Causal Interactions in Phil Dowe's Theory. Analisis
Filosofico, 22: 69-84.
Norton, J. (2007). Causation as Folk Science. in H. Price and R. Corry, (eds.), Causation, Physics and the
Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited. Oxford: Clarendon.
Persson, J. (2002). Cause, Effect, and Fake Causation. Synthese, 131: 129-43.

Psillos, S. (2002). Causation and Explanation. Chesham: Acumen.

Quine, W. (1973). The Roots of Reference. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court.

Rieber, S. (2002). Causation as property acquisition. Philosophical Studies, 109: 53-74.

Reichenbach, H. (1956). The Direction of Time. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Reichenbach, H. (1958). The Philosophy of Space and Time. New York: Dover.

Reuger, A. (1998). Local Theories of Causation and the A Posteriori Identification of the Causal Relation.
Erkenntnis, 48: 25-38.
Rogers, B. (1981). Probabilistic Causality, Explanation, and Detection. Synthese 48: 201-223.

Russell, B. (1913). On the Notion of Cause. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 13: 1-26.

Russell, B. (1948). Human Knowledge. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Salmon, W. (1978). Why ask, Why?? Proceedings of the American Philosophical Association 51: 683-
705.
Salmon, W. (1982). Further Reflections. In R. McLaughlin (Ed.), What? Where? When? Why? (pp. 231-
280). Dordrecht: Reidel.
Salmon, W. (1984). Scientific Explanation and the Causal Structure of the World. Princeton: Princeton
University Press.
Salmon, W. (1994). Causality Without Counterfactuals.Philosophy of Science 61: 297-312.

Salmon, W. (1997). Causality and Explanation: A Reply to Two Critiques. Philosophy of Science, 64: 461-
77.
Salmon, W. (1998). Causality and Explanation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Schaffer, J. (2000). Causation by Disconnection. Philosophy of Science, 67: 285-300.

Schaffer, J. (2001). Physical Causation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 52: 809-13.

Schaffer, J. (2004). Causes Need Not be Physically Connected to their Effects. In C. Hitchcock (ed.)
Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Science. Oxford: Blackwell, 197-216.
26
Skyrms, B. (1980). Causal Necessity. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Sober, E. (1987). Explanation and Causation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38: 243-257.

Sober, E. (1988). The Principle of the Common Cause. in J. Fetzer. (ed.), Probability and Causality: Essays
in Honor of Wesley C. Salmon. Dordrecht: Reidel, 211-29.
Thalos, M. (2002). The reduction of causal processes. Synthese, 131: 99-128.

Twardy, C. (2001). Physical causation. Philosophy of Science, 68: 266-68.

Venn, J. (1866). The Logic of Chance. London: Macmillan.

Woodward, J. (2003). Making Things Happen: A Theory of Causal Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University
Press.

27
3e.1. BACKWARD CAUSATION
Arons, M.E. & E.C.G. Sudarshan (1968), "Lorentz Invariance, Local Field Theory and Faster-than-Light
Particles", Physical Review, 173, 5, pp. 1622-1628.
Bilaniuk, O.M.P, V.K. Despande and E.C.G. Sudarshan (1962), "Meta Relativity", American Journal of
Physics, 30, 2, pp. 718-723.
Bilaniuk, O.M.P. et al. (1969), "More About Tachyons", Physics Today, 22, 12, pp. 47-51.

Bilaniuk, O.M.P., and E.C.G. Sudarshan (1969), Physics Today, 22, 5, pp. 43-51.

Black, M. (1956), "Why Cannot an Effect Precede its Cause", Analysis, 16, pp. 49-58.

Csonka, P.L. (1970), "Causality and Faster than Light Particles", Nuclear Physics, B21, pp. 436-444.

de Beauregard, C. (1977), "Time Symmetry and the Einstein Paradox," Il Nuovo Cimento, 42B, pp. 41-64.

de Beauregard, C. (1979), "Time Symmetry and the Einstein Paradox- II," Il Nuovo Cimento, 51B, pp. 267-
279.
Dorato, M. (1995), Time and Reality: Space-Time Physics and the Objectivity of Temporal Becoming,
Bologna: CLUEB.
Dummett, M. (1954), "Can an Effect Precede its Cause", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supp 28,
pp. 27-44.
Dummett, M. (1964), "Bringing about the Past", Philosophical Review, 73, pp. 338-359.

Earman, J. (1967), "On going Backward in Time", Philosophy of Science, 34, pp. 211-222.

Earman, J. (1976), "Causation: A Matter of Life and Death", Journal of Philosophy, 73, pp. 5-25.

Faye, J. (1981/1989), The reality of the future, Odense: Odense University Press.

Faye, J. (1994), "Causal Beliefs and their Justification", in J. Faye, U. Scheffler & M.Ursch (eds.) Logic
and Causal Reasoning. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. 141-168.
Faye, J. (1997), "Causation, Reversibility, and the Direction of Time", in J. Faye, U. Scheffler & M. Urchs
(eds.), Perspectives on Time. In Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 189, pp. 237-266. Dordrecht:
Kluwer Academic Publisher.
Faye, J. (2002), "When Time Gets Off Track", in C. Callender (ed.) Time, Reality, and Experience,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Feinberg, G. (1967) "Possibility of Faster-Than-Light Particles", Physical Review, 159, 5, pp.1089-1105.

Feynman, P.R. (1949), "The Theory of Positrons", Physical Review, 76, pp. 749-459.

Flew, A. (1954), "Can an Effect Precede its Cause", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supp 28, pp.
45-62.
Flew, A. (1956), "Effects before their Causes - Addenda and Corrigenda", Analysis, 16, pp. 104-10.

Flew, A. (1956-7), "Causal Disorder Again", Analysis, 17, pp. 81-86.

28
Gale, R. (1965), "Why a Cause Cannot be Later than its Effects", Review of Metaphysics, 19, pp. 209-234.

Gorovitz, G. (1964), "Leaving the Past Alone", Philosophical Review, 73, pp.360-371.

Horwich, P. (1987), Asymmetries in Time, Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press.

Lewis, D.K. (1976), "The Paradoxes of Time Travel". American Philosophical Quarterly 13: 145-152.

Mellor, D.H. (1981), Real Time, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mellor, D.H. (1991), "Causation and the Direction of Time", Erkenntnis 35: 191-203.

Price, H. (1996), Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Recami, E. (1978), "How to Recover Causality in Special Relativity for Tachyons", Foundations of Physics,
8, pp.329-340.
Schlesinger, G. (1980), Aspects of Time, Indiana: Hackett.

Tanaka, S. (1960), "Theory of Matter with Super Light Velocity", Progress of Theoretical Physics, 24, 1,
pp.171-200.
Wheeler, J.A., and Feynman, R.P. (1945), "Interaction with the Absorber as the Mechanism of Radiation,"
Reviews of Modern Physics, 17, pp. 157-181.

29
4. PLURALISTIC THEORIES OF CAUSATION
In response to the continuing problems faced by univocal theories of causation, a number of pluralistic theories of
causation have recently emerged:
Sober (1985) Two Concepts of Cause. Philosophy of Science.
Hitchcock (2003) Of Humean Bondage. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
Hall (2004) Two Concepts of Causation in Causation and Counterfactuals (2004) ed. Collins, Hall and Paul.
Cartwright (1999, 2007) The Dappled World and Hunting Causes and Using Them, both Cambridge University
Press.

30
5. MEDIEVAL THEORIES OF CAUSATION
Texts
John Buridan (1942), Quaestiones super Libros Quattuor de Caelo et Mundo, ed. E. A. Moody, Cambridge,
MA: Medieval Academy of America.
John Duns Scotus (1997), On the Will and Morality, selected and translated by Allan B. Wolter,
Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press.
Marsilius of Inghen (1992), "Si essent plures mundi, (Quaestiones libri de caelo et mundo I, qu. xiv)," in
Braakhuis and Hoenen (1992), 108116.
Nicole Oresme (1968), Le Livre du ciel et du monde, tr. A. J. Menut, Madison: University of Wisconsin
Press.
Thomas Aquinas (19526), Summa Theologiae, Turin: Marietti.

William of Conches (1965), Glosa super Platonem, ed. F. Jeauneau, Paris: Vrin.

William of Ockham (1985), Expositio in Libros Physicorum Aristotelis, in Opera Philosophica IV-V, St.
Bonaventure, NY: St. Bonaventure University Press.
William of Ockham (1984), de Fine ("Utrum ex hoc quod aliquid moveat ut finis sequatur ipsum habere
aliquod esse reale extra animam"), in Opera Theologica VIII, St. Bonaventure, NY: St. Bonaventure
University Press, pp. 98154.
William of Ockham (196777), Scriptum in Librum Primum Sententiarum: Ordinatio, in Opera Theologica
I-IV, St. Bonaventure, NY: St. Bonaventure University Press.
William of Ockham (1980), Quodlibeta, in Opera Theologica IX, St. Bonaventure: St. Bonaventure
University Press.
Secondary Literature
Adams, Marilyn McCord (1979), "Was Ockham a Humean about Efficient Causality?," Franciscan Studies
39, 548.
Adams, Marilyn McCord (1987), William Ockham, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Adams, Marilyn McCord (1996), "Scotus and Ockham on the Connection of the Virtues," in Honnefelder et
al. 1996, 499522
Adams, Marilyn McCord (1998), "Ockham on Final Causality: Muddying the Waters" Franciscan Studies
56, 146 Mediaeval Academy of America.
Biard, Joel (2000), "The Natural Order in John Buridan", in J.M.M.H. Thijssen and Jack Zupko (eds.) The
Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy of John Buridan, Leiden: Brill, 7795.
Braakhuis, H. A. G. and M. J. F. M. Hoenen (1992), Marsilius of Inghen: Acts of the International
Marsilius of Inghen Symposium Nijmegen: Ingenium.
Courtenay, William J. (1971), "Covenant and Causality in Pierre d'Ailly," Speculum 46, 94119. Reprinted
in William J. Courtenay, Covenant and Causality in Medieval Thought, London: Variorum Reprints.
Craig, William Lane (1980), The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz, London: Macmillan.
31
Cross, Richard (1999), Duns Scotus, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Effler, Roy R. (1962), John Duns Scotus and the Principle "Omne quod movetur ab alio movetur," St.
Bonaventure, NY: Franciscan Institute.
Gilson, E. (1937), The Unity of Philosophical Experience New York: Scribners.

Goddu, Andre (1999), "Ockham's Philosophy of Nature", in Paul Vincent Spade (ed.), The Cambridge
Companion to William of Ockham, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 143167.
Goddu, Andre (1984), The Physics of William of Ockham, Leiden: Brill.

Honnefelder, L., R. Wood, and M. Dreyer (1996), John Duns Scotus: Metaphysics and Ethics, Leiden: Brill.

Knuuttila, Simo (1993), Modalities in Medieval Philosophy, London: Routledge.

Knuuttila, S (2001), "Necessities in Buridan's Natural Philosophy", in J.M.M.H. Thijssen and Jack Zupko
(eds.) The Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy of John Buridan, Leiden: Brill, 6576.
Kretzmann, N., A. Kenny, and J. Pinborg (1982), The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lee, Sukjae (1998), "Scotus on the Will: The Rational Power and the Dual Affections," Vivarium 36, 4054.

Maier, Anneliese (1964), "Ergebnisse der Sptscholastischen Naturphilosophie," in Ausgehendes


Mittelalter: Gesammelte Aufstze zur Geistesgeschichte des 14. Jahrhunderts, Roma: Edizioni di Storia e
Letteratura, 42557.
Moonan, Lawrence (1994), Divine Power: The Medieval Power Distinction up to its Adoption by Albert,
Bonaventure, and Aquinas Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Murdoch, John E. (1975), "From Social into Intellectual Factors: An Aspect of the Unitary Character of
Medieval Learning," in The Cultural Context of Medieval Learning, ed. John E. Murdoch and Edith Sylla,
Dordrecht: Reidel, 271348.
Nadler, Steven (1996), "No Necessary Connection: The Medieval Roots of the Occasionalist Roots of
Hume," The Monist 79, 448466.
Normore, Calvin (1998), "Picking and Choosing: Anselm and Ockham on Choice," Vivarium 36, 2339.

Normore, Calvin (2003), "Duns Scotus's Modal Theory", in Thomas Williams (ed.), The Cambridge
Companion to Duns Scotus, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 129160.
Ross, James F. and Bates, Todd (2003), "Duns Scotus on Natural Theology", in Thomas Williams (ed.), The
Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 193237.
Stump, Eleonore (1999), "The Mechanisms of Cognition: Ockham on Mediating Species", in Paul Vincent
Spade (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to William of Ockham, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
168203.
Tachau, Katherine H. (1988), Vision and Certitude in the Age of Ockham, Leiden: Brill.

Weisheipl, J. (1982), "The Interpretation of Aristotle's Physics and the Science of Motion," in Kretzmann et
al. 1982, 521536.

32
Wetherbee, Winthrop (1988), "Philosophy, Cosmology and the Renaissance," in A History of Twelfth-
Century Philosophy, ed. Peter Dronke, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2153.
Wolter, A. B., and M. M. Adams (1993), "Memory and Intuition: A Focal Debate in Fourteenth Century
Cognitive Psychology," Franciscan Studies 53, 175230.
White, Graham (1990a), "Ockham and Hume's Question," in Knowledge and the Sciences in Medieval
Philosophy. Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of the SIEPM, ed. Simo Knuuttila, Reijo
Tyrinoja, and Sten Ebbesen, Helsinki: Yliopistopaino.
White, Graham (1984), "Ockham's Real Distinction Between Form and Matter," Franciscan Studies 44,
21125.
White, Graham (1990b), "Ockham and Wittgenstein", in Die Gegenwart Ockhams, ed. W. Vossenkuhl & R.
Schnberger, Weinheim, 165188.
Wood, Rega (1992), "Richard Rufus of Cornwall and Aristotle's Physics", Franciscan Studies 52, 247281.

Zupko, Jack (2001), "On Certitude", in J.M.M.H. Thijssen and Jack Zupko (eds.) The Metaphysics and
Natural Philosophy of John Buridan, Leiden: Brill, 165182.

33
6. EARLY MODERN THEORIES OF CAUSATION

Bedau, M. (1986). Cartesian Interaction. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 10: 48143-502..

Bobro, M. and Clatterbaugh K. (1996). Unpacking the Monad: Leibnizs Theory of Causality. The Monist 79/3:

408-25.

Clarke, D.M. (1995). Malebranche and Occasionalism: A Reply to Steven Nadler, Journal of the History of

Philosophy 33:3, 499-504.

Clatterbaugh, K. (1973). Leibnizs Doctrine of Individual Accidents. Studia Leibnitiana 4. Weisbaden: Franz

Steiner Verlag.

----- (1980). Descartes Causal Likeness Principle. Philosophical Review 89/3: 379-402.

----- (1999) The Causation Debate in Modern Philosoohy 1637-1739. New York/London: Routledge.

Garber, D. (1992) Descartes Metaphysical Physics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hatfield, G. C. (1979). Force (God) in Descartes Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 10/2:

113-40.

Keating, L. (1993). Un-Locke-ing Boyle: Boyle on Primary and Secondary Qualities. History of Philosophy

Quarterly 10/4: 305-23.

Nadler, S. (1993). Occasionalism and General Will in Malebranche. Journal of the History of Philosophy 31/1:

31-47.

----- (ed.) (1993). Causation in Early Modern Philosophy. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

----- (1993). The Occasionalism of Louis de la Forge, in Nadler 1993b, 57-73.

Sleigh, R. C. Jr. (1990). Leibniz on Malebranche on Causality, in Cover and Kulstad 1990, 161-93.

Watson, R. A. (1993). Malebranche, models, and causation, in Nadler 1993b.75-91.

Wilson, M. (1991) Spinozas Causal Axiom (Ethics I, Axiom 4), in Yovel, Y. (ed.) God and Nature in Spinozas

Metaphysics. Leiden and New York: Brill (1991).

34
7. HUME ON CAUSATION

Beebee, H. (2006). Hume on Causation. London: Routledge.

Blackburn, S. (1990). Hume and Thick Connexions. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 50

(supplement): 237-50. (Reprinted in Read and Richman 2000.)

-- (2000). Postscript to Hume and Thick Connexions, in Read and Richman 2000: 100-12.

Broughton, J. (1987). Humes Ideas about Necessary Connection. Hume Studies, 13: 217-44.

Buckle, S. (2001). Humes Enlightenment Tract: The Unity and Purpose of An Enquiry Concerning Human

Understanding. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Clatterbaugh, K. (1999). The Causation Debate in Modern Philosophy: 1637-1739. New York: Routledge.

Coventry, A. (2006). Hume's Theory of Causation: A Quasi-Realist Interpretation (Continuum)

Craig, E. (1987). The Mind of God and the Works of Man. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

-- (2000). Hume on Causality: Projectivist and Realist? in Read and Richman 2000: 113-21.

Costa, M. (1989). Hume and Causal Realism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 67: 172-90.

Garrett, D. (1997). Cognition and Commitment in Humes Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.

-- (Forthcoming). Humes Theory of Causation: Inference, Judgment, and the Causal Sense, in D. C. Ainslie (ed.),

The Cambridge Companion to Humes Treatise. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kail, P. J. E. (2001). Projection and Necessity in Hume. European Journal of Philosophy, 9: 24-54.

-- (2003). Is Hume a Causal Realist?. British Journal for the History of Philosophy, 11: 509-20.

-- (2007). Projection and Realism in Humes Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

-- (2008). Is Hume a Realist or an Anti-Realist, in E. Radcliffe (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Hume. Oxford:

Blackwell.

Read, R. and K A. Richman (eds.) (2000). The New Hume Debate. London and New York: Routledge. Revised

edition: 2008.

Robinson, J. A. (1962). Humes Two Definitions of Cause . The Philosophical Quarterly, 12: 162-71.

Strawson, G. (1989). The Secret Connexion: Causation, Realism, and David Hume. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

-- (2000). David Hume: Objects and Power, in Read and Richman 2000: 31-51.
35
Stroud, B. (1977). Hume. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

-- (1993). Gilding and Staining the World with Sentiments and Phantasms . Hume Studies, 19: 253-72.

(Reprinted in Read and Richman 2000.)

Winkler, K. (1991). The New Hume. The Philosophical Review, 10o: 541-79. (Reprinted in Read and Richman

2000.)

Wright, J. P. (1983). Humes Skeptical Realism. Minneapolis: University Minnesota Press.

-- (2000). Humes Causal Realism: Recovering a Traditional Interpretation, in Read and Richman 2000: 88-99.

36
8. CAUSATION AND THE LAW
Becht, A.C., and F.W. Millar, The Test of factual Causation in Negligence and Strict Liability (St. Louis:
Committee on Publications, Washington University, 1961.
Brudner, A., Owning Outcomes: On Intervening Causes,Thin Skulls and Fault-undifferentiated Crimes,
Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, 11 (1998): 89-114.
Calabresi, G., Concerning Cause and the Law of Torts University of Chicago Law Review, 43 (1975): 69-
108.
Cmmerer, E. von, Das Problem des Kausalzusammenhange im Rechte, besonders im Strafrechte,
Karlsruhe: Verlag C.F.Muller, 1956.
Coase, R.H., The Problem of Social Cost, Journal of Law and Economics, 3 (1960): 1-44.

Collingwood, R.G., An Essay on Metaphysics, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1940.

Donald Davidson, Causal Relations in Essays on Actions and Events, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980.

Epstein, R.A., A Theory of Strict Liability, Journal of Legal Studies, 2 (1973): 151-204.

-----, Causation and Corrective Justice. A reply to two Critics, Journal of Legal Studies, 8 (1979): 477-
504.
Green, L., Rationale of Proximate Cause, Kansas City: Vernon Law Book Company, 1927.

-----, The Causal Relation Issue in Negligence Law Michigan Law Review, 60 (1962): 543-576.

Hart, H.L.A., and Tony Honor, Causation in the Law, 2nd ed., Oxford: Clarendon, 1985.

Honor, A.M. (Tony), Causation and Remoteness of Damage, International Encyclopedia of Comparative
Law, Vol. XI, Ch. 7, The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1971.
-----, Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Tort Law, in Philosophical Foundations of Tort Law, D. G.
Owen (ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995, pp. 363-385.
Kadish, S., Causation and Complicity: A Study in the Interpretation of Doctrine, California Law Review,
73 (1985): 323-410.
-----, A Theory of Complicity, in Issues in Contemporary Legal Philosophy: The Influence of H.L.A. Hart,
Ruth Gavison (ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1987, pp. 287-303.
Keeton, R.E., Legal Cause in the Law of Torts, Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1963.

Kries, J. von, ber den Begriff der objektiven Mglichkeit und einiger Anwendungen desselben,
Vierteljahrsschrift fr wissenschaftliche Philosophie, 12 (1888), 179-140, 187-323, 393-428.
Landes, W., and R. Posner, Causation in Tort Law; An Economic Approach, Journal of Legal Studies, 12
(1983): 109-134.
Lucy, W., Conduct and Causation, in Principles of Private Law, Ch. 5, Oxford: Clarendon Press,
forthcoming 2006.
Mackie, J.L., The Cement of the Universe. A study of Causation, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974, 1980.

37
Malone, W.S., Ruminations on Cause-in-fact Stanford Law Review, 9 (1956-7): 60-99.

Moore, M., The Metaphysics of Causal Intervention, California Law Review, (2000): 827-878.

-----, Causation and responsibility, Social Philosophy & Policy Vol. 16, No. 2, (1999).

Peczenik, A., Causes and Damages, Lund, Juridiska Freningen i Lund, 1979.

Posner, R.A., A Theory of Negligence, Journal of Legal Studies, 1 (1972): 29-96.

Seavey, W., Mr Justice Cardozo and the Law of Torts, Harvard Law Review, 52 (1939): 371-407.

Stapleton, J., Law, Causation and Common Sense, Oxford J. Legal Studies, 8 (1988): 111-131

-----, Unpacking Causation, in Relating to Responsibility, P. Cane and J. Gardner (eds), Oxford, Portland,
OR: Hart Publishing, 2001, pp. 145-185.
-----, Legal cause: Cause-in-Fact and the Scope of Liability for Consequences, Vanderbilt Law Review, 54
(2001): 941-000.
Trger, L. Der Kausalbegriff im Straf- und Zivilrecht, Marburg: Elwert, (1904).

Waldron, J., Moments of Carelessness and Massive Loss, in Philosophical Foundations of Tort Law, D.
G. Owen (ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995, pp. 387-408.
Williams, G., The Risk Principle, Law Quarterly Review, 77 (1961): 179-212.

Wolf, J.G., Der Normzweck im Deliktsrecht. Eine Diskussionsbeitrag, Gttingen, 1962.

Wright, R.W., Causation in Tort law, California Law Review, 73 (1985): 1737-1828.

-----, Actual Causation vs. Probabilistic Linkage; The Bane of Economic Analysis, Journal of Legal
Studies, 14 (1985): 435-548.
-----, Causation, Responsibility, Risk, Probability, Naked Statistics, and Proof: Pruning the Bramble Bush
by Clarifying the Concepts, Iowa Law Review, 73 (1988): 1001-1077.
-----, Once More into the Bramble Bush: Duty, Causal Contribution and the extent of Legal
Responsibility, Vanderbilt Law Review, 54 (2001): 1071-1132.

38
9. MENTAL CAUSATION
Adams, F., D. Drebushenko, G. Fuller, and R. Stecker, 1990, Narrow Content: Fodor's Folly, Mind and
Language 5: 213-29.
Anscombe, G. E. M. and P. T. Geach (trans. and eds.), 1954, Descartes: Philosophical Writings,
Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Company.
Armstrong, D. M., 1983, What is a Law of Nature?, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

, 1989, Universals: An Opinionated Introduction, Boulder: Westview Press.

Baker, L. R., 1993, Metaphysics and Mental Causation, in Heil and Mele 1993, pp. 75-95.

Bennett, K., 2003, Why the Exclusion Problem Seems Intractable, and How, Just Maybe, to Tract It,
Nous 37: 471-97.
, 2008, Exclusion Again, in J. Hohwy and J. Kallestrup (eds.), Being Reduced: New Essays on
Reduction, Explanation, and Causation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Blackburn, S., 1990, Hume and Thick Connexions, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50,
Supplement: 237-50.
Block, N., 1990, Can the Mind Change the World?, in G. Boolos (ed.), Meaning and Method: Essays in
Honor of Hilary Putnam, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 137-70.
, 1997, Anti-Reductionism Slaps Back, Philosophical Perspectives 11: 107-32.

, 2003, Do Causal Powers Drain Away?, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 67: 133-50.

Bontly, T. D., 2001, The Supervenience Argument Generalizes, Philosophical Studies 109: 75-96.

Braun, D., 1991, Content, Causation, and Cognitive Science, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 69:
375-89.
, 1995, Causally Relevant Properties, Philosophical Perspectives 9: 447-75.

Burge, T., 1993, Mind-Body Causation and Explanatory Practice, in Heil and Mele 1993, pp. 97-120.

, 1995, Reply: Intentional Properties and Causation, in Macdonald and Macdonald 1995b, pp. 226-
35.
Campbell, K., 1984, Body and Mind, Second Edition, Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.

Chalmers, D. J., 1996, The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory, Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Cottingham, J., R. Stoothoff, D. Murdoch, and A. Kenny (trans. and eds.), 1991, The Philosophical
Writings of Descartes, Volume III: The Correspondence, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crane, T., 1992, Mental Causation and Mental Reality, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 92: 185-
202.
, 1995, The Mental Causation Debate, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Vol.
69: 211-36.

39
Crisp, T. M. and T. A. Warfield, 2001, Kim's Master Argument, Nous 35: 304-16.

Davidson, D., 1963, Actions, Reasons, and Causes, Journal of Philosophy 60: 685-700. Reprinted in
Davidson 1980, pp. 3-19.
, 1970, Mental Events, in L. Foster and J. W. Swanson (eds.), Experience and Theory, Amherst, MA:
University of Massachusetts Press, pp. 79-101. Reprinted in Davidson 1980, pp. 207-25.
, 1974, Psychology as Philosophy, in S. C. Brown (ed.), Philosophy of Psychology, New York:
Barnes and Noble Books, pp. 41-52. Reprinted in Davidson 1980, pp. 229-39.
, 1980, Essays on Actions and Events, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

, 1993, Thinking Causes, in Heil and Mele 1993, pp. 3-17.

Davies, P. C. W., 2006, The Physics of Downward Causation, in P. Clayton and P. Davies (eds.), The Re-
Emergence of Emergence: The Emergentist Hypothesis from Science to Religion, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, pp. 35-51.
Dennett, D. C., 1973, Mechanism and Responsibility, in T. Honderich (ed.), Essays on Freedom of
Action, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 159-84. Reprinted in D. C. Dennett, 1981, Brainstorms:
Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 233-55.
Descartes, R., 1642/1996, Meditations on First Philosophy, with Selections from the Objections and
Replies, trans. and ed. J. Cottingham, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dretske, F., 1988, Explaining Behavior: Reasons in a World of Causes, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

, 1989, Reasons and Causes, Philosophical Perspectives 3: 1-15.

, 1993, Mental Events as Structuring Causes of Behavior, in Heil and Mele 1993, pp. 121-36.

Ehring, D., 1996, Mental Causation, Determinables and Property Instances, Nous 30: 461-80.

, 1997, Causation and Persistence: A Theory of Causation, New York: Oxford University Press.

Fodor, J. A., 1987, Psychosemantics: The Problem of Meaning in the Philosophy of Mind, Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press.
, 1989, Making Mind Matter More, Philosophical Topics 17: 59-79.

, 1991a, A Modal Argument for Narrow Content, Journal of Philosophy 88: 5-26.

, 1991b, You Can Fool Some of the People All of The Time, Everything Else Being Equal; Hedged
Laws and Psychological Explanations, Mind 100: 19-34.
, 1997, Special Sciences: Still Autonomous After All These Years, Philosophical Perspectives 11:
149-63.
Foster, J., 1991, The Immaterial Self: A Defence of the Cartesian Dualist Conception of the Mind, London:
Routledge.
Funkhouser, E., 2002, Three Varieties of Causal Overdetermination, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 83:
335-51.
, 2006, The Determinable-Determinate Relation, Nous 40: 548-69.

40
Garrett, B. J., 1998, Pluralism, Causation and Overdetermination, Synthese 116: 355-78.

Gibb, S. C., 2004, The Problem of Mental Causation and the Nature of Properties, Australasian Journal
of Philosophy 82: 464-76.
Gibbons, J., 2006, Mental Causation without Downward Causation, Philosophical Review 115: 79-103.

Gillett, C. and B. Loewer (eds.), 2001, Physicalism and Its Discontents, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Gillett, C. and B. Rives, 2001, Does the Argument from Realization Generalize? Responses to Kim,
Southern Journal of Philosophy 39: 79-98.
Ginet, C., 1990, On Action, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hardcastle, V. G., 1998, On the Matter of Minds and Mental Causation, Philosophy and
Phenomenological Research 58: 1-25.
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