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# 3/8/2017 Ch12HW

Ch12HW
Due:11:59pmonTuesday,March7,2017
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

Exercise12.6

PartA
Whatistheaveragedensityofthesun?
ANSWER:

av = 1410 kg/m3

Correct

PartB
Whatistheaveragedensityofaneutronstarthathasthesamemassasthesunbutaradiusofonly20.0km?
ANSWER:

av
= 5.941016 kg/m3

Correct

FloatingCream

Inthe1950s,freshunhomogenizedmilkinglassbottleswasdeliveredtosuburbanites'backdoorstepswellbeforedawn.When
delivered,themilkwasthoroughlymixed,sothatitappearedhomogenized,butanyonerisingmuchaftersunrisewouldfind
thatthemilkhadseparated,thecreamhavingrisentothetop.

Creamandmilkareimmiscible(likeoilandwater),andthetotal
volumeofliquiddoesnotchangewhentheyseparate.Thetoppartof
thebottlewasintentionallygivenamuchsmallerdiameterthanthe
bottom,sothatthecream,typically3percentofthetotalvolume,
occupiedmuchmorethan3%ofthetotalverticalheightofthemilk
bottle.Forthisproblem,assumethatthetotalheightofthemilk
bottleishandthedepthofthecreamlayerisd.

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PartA
Assumethatbeforeseparation,theweightofthemilkbottle'scontents(mixedmilkandcream)iswmix .Howdoesthe
combinedweightofthemilkandcreamafterseparation,wsep ,comparetowmix ?

ANSWER:

wsep = wmix

## wsep < wmix

Correct

PartB
Assumethatbeforeseparation,thepressureatthebottomofthemilkbottleispmix .Howdoesthepressureatthebottom
ofthemilkbottleafterseparation,psep ,comparetopmix ?

Forsimplicity,youmayassumethattheweightanddensityofthecreamisnegligiblecomparedtothatofthemilk.

Hint1.Pressurewhenthebottlecontentsaremixed
Forsimplicity,assumethatthedensityofthecreamiszero,andthedensityoftherestofthemilkis(ingeneral,
creamislessdensethantherestofthemilk).Ifthecreamrepresents3percentofthetotalvolumeofthemilk
bottle,whatisthegaugepressurepmix atthebottomofthemilkbottlewhenthemilkandcreamare
homogeneouslymixed?
Expressyouranswerintermsof,h,andanyphysicalconstantsneeded.

Hint1.Formulaforgaugepressure(atdepthh)
Gaugepressureinafluidofuniformdensityisp = gh .Thispressureisindependentoftheshapeofthe
crosssectionofthecontainer.

Hint2.Densityofthemilkandcreammixture.
Ifthedensityofthecream(3%byvolume)iszero,andthedensityoftherestofthemilkis,whatisthe
densityofthemilkandcreammixture,mix ?

ANSWER:

mix
= 0.97

ANSWER:

p
mix
= 0.97gh

Typesettingmath:70%
Hint2.Whatisthepressureafterthebottlecontentshaveseparated

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Nowcomputepsep ,thegaugepressureonthebottomofthemilkbottleafterthemilkandcreamhaveseparated.
Assumethatthedepthofthelayerofcreamis20%ofthetotalheightofthemilkbottle(d = 0.20h ).
Expressyouranswerintermsofthedensityofthemilk(notincludingcream),h,andanyphysical
constantsneeded.

Hint1.Formulaforgaugepressure(atdepthh)
Gaugepressureinafluidofuniformdensityisp = gh .Thispressureisindependentoftheshapeofthe
container.

Hint2.Theroleofthecream
Becausewehaveassumedthatthecreamhaszerodensity(whichimplieszeroweight),itcontributes
nothingtothepressureatthebottomofthemilkbottle.

Hint3.Findthedepthofthemilk
Whatishmilk thedepthofmilk(notincludingthecream)inthebottleafterthemilkandcreamhave
separated?
Expressyouranswerintermsofh,theheightofthemilkbottle.
ANSWER:

hmilk = 0.8h

ANSWER:

p
sep
= 0.8gh

ANSWER:

p
sep
> p
mix

p
sep
= p
mix

p < p
sep mix

Correct
Ifyoureallyunderstoodthisandgotitrightthefirsttime,congratulations!Themainideaisthatifyouhaveanarrow
containerandawidecontainerwiththesameamountofmilkinthem,thenthenarrowcontainerhasagreater
pressureexertedonit'sbase,becausepressureistheforceperunitarea.Sothinkofthesituationinreverse,sayyou
hadthecontainerpartiallyfilledwithmilksincethecream'sweightisignored,thecreamfloatingontopcanbe
ignored.Nowifyoumixthecreamin,itforcesthemilktoriseintothenarrowportionofthecontainer,increasingthe
pressure.However,youneedtodoalittlecalculationtocheckthattheeffectoftheheightincreaseisgreaterthanthe
effectofthereductionindensityofthemilk.

Anotherimportantthingtorealizeisthatthereisanotherforceonthefluidthatbalancesanychangesinforcefrom
thebaseandthisisthereactionfromtheslopingwallsofthecontainer.
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VideoTutor:WaterLevelinPascal'sVases

First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofanexperiment.
Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionontheright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatanypoint.

PartA
Considerthesetoftubesshowninthefigure.Eachtubecontainsanunknownfluidthatislessdensethanthewaterit
floatsontopof.Rankthefourunknownfluidsfromleastdensetomostdense.

Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Recallthatthepressureatapointinafluidisdeterminedbytheweightperunitareaofthefluidabovethatpoint.
Inthisproblem,pressureisconstantalongthebottomofthemanifold.Whatdoesthatimplyabouttheweightper
unitareaofthefluidineachtube?

ANSWER:

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Reset Help

Leastdense Mostdense

A
B D
C

Thecorrectrankingcannotbedetermined.

Correct

Archimedes'Principle

LearningGoal:
TounderstandtheapplicationsofArchimedes'principle.
Archimedes'principleisapowerfultoolforsolvingmanyproblemsinvolvingequilibriuminfluids.Itstatesthefollowing:
Whenabodyispartiallyorcompletelysubmergedinafluid(eitheraliquidoragas),thefluidexertsanupwardforceonthe
bodyequaltotheweightofthefluiddisplacedbythebody.
AsaresultoftheupwardArchimedesforce(oftencalledthebuoyantforce),someobjectsmayfloatinafluid,andallofthem
appeartoweighless.Thisisthefamiliarphenomenonofbuoyancy.

Quantitatively,thebuoyantforcecanbefoundas

F buoyant = gV ,
f luid

## whereFbuoyantistheforce,f luid isthedensityofthefluid,g isthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity,andV isthe

volumeofthedisplacedfluid.

Inthisproblem,youwillbeaskedseveralqualitativequestionsthatshouldhelpyoudevelopafeelforArchimedes'principle.

Anobjectisplacedinafluidandthenreleased.Assumethattheobjecteitherfloatstothesurface(settlingsothattheobjectis
partlyaboveandpartlybelowthefluidsurface)orsinkstothebottom.(NotethatforPartsAthroughD,youshouldassume
thattheobjecthassettledinequilibrium.)

PartA
Considerthefollowingstatement:
Themagnitudeofthebuoyantforceisequaltotheweightoffluiddisplacedbytheobject.
Underwhatcircumstancesisthisstatementtrue?

Hint1.Archimedes'principle
ThestatementofPartAisonewayofexpressingArchimedes'principle.
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ANSWER:

foreveryobjectsubmergedpartiallyorcompletelyinafluid

onlyforanobjectthatfloats

onlyforanobjectthatsinks

fornoobjectsubmergedinafluid

Correct
UseArchimedes'principletoanswertherestofthequestionsinthisproblem.

PartB
Considerthefollowingstatement:
Themagnitudeofthebuoyantforceisequaltotheweightoftheamountoffluidthathasthesametotalvolumeasthe
object.
Underwhatcircumstancesisthisstatementtrue?

Hint1.ConsiderArchimedes'principle
Archimedes'principledealswiththedisplacedvolume.Whenisthedisplacedvolumeequaltothetotalvolumeof
theobject?

ANSWER:

foranobjectthatispartiallysubmergedinafluid

onlyforanobjectthatfloats

foranobjectcompletelysubmergedinafluid

fornoobjectpartiallyorcompletelysubmergedinafluid

Correct

PartC
Considerthefollowingstatement:
Themagnitudeofthebuoyantforceequalstheweightoftheobject.
Underwhatcircumstancesisthisstatementtrue?

Hint1.Forcesandequilibrium
Ifthebuoyantforceandtheweightoftheobjectareequal,theobjectcanbeinequilibriumwithoutanyotherforces
actingonit.

Typesettingmath:70%
ANSWER:

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3/8/2017 Ch12HW

foreveryobjectsubmergedpartiallyorcompletelyinafluid

foranobjectthatfloats

onlyforanobjectthatsinks

fornoobjectsubmergedinafluid

Correct

PartD
Considerthefollowingstatement:
Themagnitudeofthebuoyantforceislessthantheweightoftheobject.
Underwhatcircumstancesisthisstatementtrue?
ANSWER:

foreveryobjectsubmergedpartiallyorcompletelyinafluid

foranobjectthatfloats

foranobjectthatsinks

fornoobjectsubmergedinafluid

Correct

Nowapplywhatyouknowtosomemorecomplicatedsituations.

PartE
Anobjectisfloatinginequilibriumonthesurfaceofaliquid.Theobjectisthenremovedandplacedinanothercontainer,
filledwithadenserliquid.Whatwouldyouobserve?

Hint1.Densityandequilibrium
Ifthesecondliquidisdenserthanthefirstone,thefluidwouldexertagreaterupwardforceontheobjectifitwere
heldsubmergedasdeeplyasinthefirstcase.

ANSWER:

Typesettingmath:70%

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Theobjectwouldsinkallthewaytothebottom.

Theobjectwouldfloatsubmergedmoredeeplythaninthefirstcontainer.

Theobjectwouldfloatsubmergedlessdeeplythaninthefirstcontainer.

Morethanoneoftheseoutcomesispossible.

Correct

PartF
Anobjectisfloatinginequilibriumonthesurfaceofaliquid.Theobjectisthenremovedandplacedinanothercontainer,
filledwithalessdenseliquid.Whatwouldyouobserve?

Hint1.Densityandequilibrium
Ifthesecondliquidislessdensethanthefirstone,theliquidwouldexertasmallerupwardforceontheobjectifit
wereheldsubmergedasdeeplyasinthefirstcase.

ANSWER:

Theobjectwouldsinkallthewaytothebottom.

Theobjectwouldfloatsubmergedmoredeeplythaninthefirstcontainer.

Theobjectwouldfloatsubmergedlessdeeplythaninthefirstcontainer.

Morethanoneoftheseoutcomesispossible.

Correct
Ifthefluidinthesecondcontainerislessdensethantheobject,thentheobjectwillsinkallthewaytothebottom.If
thefluidinthesecondcontainerisdenserthantheobject(thoughlessdensethanthefluidintheoriginalcontainer),
theobjectwillstillfloat,butitsdepthwillbegreaterthanitwasintheoriginalcontainer.

PartG
Twoobjects,TandB,haveidenticalsizeandshapeandhaveuniformdensity.Theyarecarefullyplacedinacontainer
filledwithaliquid.Bothobjectsfloatinequilibrium.LessofobjectTissubmergedthanofobjectB,whichfloats,fully
submerged,closertothebottomofthecontainer.Whichofthefollowingstatementsistrue?
ANSWER:

ObjectThasagreaterdensitythanobjectB.

ObjectBhasagreaterdensitythanobjectT.

Bothobjectshavethesamedensity.
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Correct
Sincebothobjectsfloat,thebuoyantforceineachcaseisequaltotheobject'sweight.BlockBdisplacesmorefluid,
soitmustbeheavierthanblockT.Giventhatthetwoobjectshavethesamevolume,blockBmustalsobedenser.In
fact,sincetheweightequalsthebuoyantforce,andBisfullysubmerged,B V g = liquid V g,whereallthesymbols
havetheirusualmeaning.Fromthisequation,onecanseethatthedensityofBmustequalthedensityofthefluid.

VideoTutor:WeighingWeightsinWater

First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofanexperiment.
Then,closethevideowindowandanswerthequestionontheright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatanypoint.

PartA
Supposethatwerepeattheexperimentshowninthevideo,butwereplaceoneofthecylinderswithacylinderthathas
twicetheradius(anduselargercontainersofwater).Iftheheightoftheoriginalcylinderish,howdeeplymustwe
submergethenewcylindertogetthesameweightreductionasinthevideo?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Howdoesthereductioninthecylindersweightrelatetotheamountofwaterthecylinderdisplaces?
Howdoesthevolumeofacylinderdependonthecylindersradiusandheight?

ANSWER:

4h

1
h
2

1
h
4

2h

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Correct
Togetthesamereductioninweight,thesamevolumeofcylindermustbesubmerged.Thevolumeofacylinderis
V = r h ,soifwedoubletheradius,wemustreducethedepthofimmersionbyafactoroffour.
2

ASubmergedBall

## Aballofmassmb andvolumeV isloweredonastringintoafluidofdensityf .Assumethattheobjectwouldsinktothe

bottomifitwerenotsupportedbythestring.

PartA
WhatisthetensionT inthestringwhentheballisfullysubmergedbutnottouchingthebottom,asshowninthefigure?
Expressyouranswerintermsofanyorallofthegivenquantitiesandg ,themagnitudeoftheaccelerationdueto
gravity.

Hint1.Equilibriumcondition
Althoughthefactmaybeobscuredbythepresenceofaliquid,thebasicconditionforequilibriumstillholds:The
netforceontheballmustbezero.Drawafreebodydiagramandproceedfromthere.

Hint2.Findthemagnitudeofthebuoyantforce
FindFbuoyant,themagnitudeofthebuoyantforce.

## Expressyouranswerintermsofanyorallofthevariablesf ,V ,mb ,andg .

Hint1.Archimedes'principle
Quantitatively,thebuoyantforcecanbefoundas

F buoyant = gV ,
f luid

## whereFbuoyantistheforce,f luid isthedensityofthefluid,g isthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationdueto

gravity,andV isthevolumeofthedisplacedfluid.

Hint2.Findthemassofthedisplacedfluid
Typesettingmath:70%
Computethemassmf ofthefluiddisplacedbytheobjectwhenitisentirelysubmerged.
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## Expressyouranswerintermsofanyorallofthevariablesf ,V ,mb ,andg .

ANSWER:

mf = V
f

ANSWER:

F buoyant = Vg
f

ANSWER:

T = mb g gV
f

Correct

CrownofGold?

Accordingtolegend,thefollowingchallengeledArchimedestothediscoveryofhisfamousprinciple:Hieron,kingofSyracuse,
wassuspiciousthatanewcrownthathehadreceivedfromtheroyalgoldsmithwasnotpuregold,asclaimed.Archimedeswas
orderedtodeterminewhetherthecrownwasinfactmadeofpuregold,withtheconditionthatonlyanondestructivetestwould
beallowed.Ratherthananswertheprobleminthepoliticallymostexpedientway(orperhapsextractabribefromthe
goldsmith),Archimedesthoughtabouttheproblemscientifically.ThelegendrelatesthatwhenArchimedessteppedintohis
bathandcausedittooverflow,herealizedthathecouldanswerthechallengebycomparingthevolumeofwaterdisplacedby
thecrownwiththevolumeofwaterdisplacedbyanamountofpuregoldequalinweighttothecrown.Ifthecrownwasmadeof
puregold,thetwovolumeswouldbeequal.Ifsomeother(lessdense)metalhadbeensubstitutedforsomeofthegold,then
thecrownwoulddisplacemorewaterthanthepuregold.

Asimilarmethodofansweringthechallenge,basedonthesamephysicalprinciple,istocomputetheratiooftheactualweight
ofthecrown,W actual ,andtheapparentweightofthecrownwhenitissubmergedinwater,W apparent .Seewhetheryoucan
followinArchimedes'footsteps.Thefigureshowswhatismeantbyweighingthecrownwhileitissubmergedinwater.

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PartA
Takethedensityofthecrowntobec.Whatistheratioofthecrown'sapparentweight(inwater)W apparent toitsactual
weightW actual ?

Expressyouranswerintermsofthedensityofthecrowncandthedensityofwaterw .

Hint1.Findanexpressionfortheactualweightofthecrown
AssumethatthecrownhasvolumeV .FindtheactualweightW actual ofthecrown.
ExpressW actual intermsofV ,g (themagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity),andc.

ANSWER:

W actual = Vg
c

Hint2.Findanexpressionfortheapparentweightofthecrown
AssumethatthecrownhasvolumeV ,andtakethedensityofwatertobew .FindtheapparentweightW apparent
ofthecrownsubmergedinwater.

## ExpressyouranswerintermsofV ,g (themagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity),w ,andc.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Theapparentweightofthecrownwhenitissubmergedinwaterwillbelessthanitsactualweight(weightin
air)duetothebuoyantforce,whichopposesgravity.

Hint2.Findanalgebraicexpressionforthebuoyantforce.
FindthemagnitudeFbuoyantofthebuoyantforceonthecrownwhenitiscompletelysubmergedinwater.

Expressyouranswerintermsofw ,V ,andthegravitationalaccelerationg .

ANSWER:

F buoyant =
w
Vg

ANSWER:

W apparent = (
c

w
)gV

ANSWER:

Wapparent w
= 1
c
Wactual

Correct
Typesettingmath:70%

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PartB
ImaginethattheapparentweightofthecrowninwaterisW apparent = 4.50 N,andtheactualweightis
W actual = 5.00 N.Isthecrownmadeofpure(100%)gold?Thedensityofwateris = 1.00gramspercubic
w

centimeter.Thedensityofgoldisg = 19.32gramspercubiccentimeter.

Hint1.Findtheratioofweightsforacrownofpuregold
Wapparent
Giventheexpressionyouobtainedfor ,whatshouldtheratioofweightsbeifthecrownismadeofpure
Wactual

gold?

Expressyouranswernumerically,totwodecimalplaces.

ANSWER:

Wapparent
= 0.95
Wactual

ANSWER:

Yes

No

Correct
Wapparent Wapparent w
Forthevaluesgiven, = 4.50/5.00 = 0.90 ,whereasforpuregold, = 1
g
= 0.95 .
Wactual Wactual

Thus,youcanconcludethatthethecrownisnotpuregoldbutcontainssomelessdensemetal.Thegoldsmithmade
surethatthecrown's(true)weightwasthesameasthatoftheamountofgoldhewasallocated,butinsodoingwas
forcedtomakethevolumeofthecrownslightlylargerthanitwouldotherwisehavebeen.

Exercise12.33

Arockissuspendedbyalightstring.Whentherockisinair,thetensioninthestringis43.3N.Whentherockistotally
immersedinwater,thetensionis27.6N.Whentherockistotallyimmersedinanunknownliquid,thetensionis20.1N.

PartA
Whatisthedensityoftheunknownliquid?

ANSWER:

= 1480 kg/m3

Correct

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PlayingwithaWaterHose

Twochildren,FerdinandandIsabella,areplayingwithawaterhoseonasunnysummerday.Isabellaisholdingthehoseinher
hand1.0metersabovethegroundandistryingtosprayFerdinand,whoisstanding10.0metersaway.

PartA
WillIsabellabeabletosprayFerdinandifthewaterisflowingoutofthehoseataconstantspeedv 0 of3.5metersper
second?Assumethatthehoseispointedparalleltothegroundandtakethemagnitudeoftheaccelerationg duetogravity
tobe9.81meterspersecond,persecond.

Hint1.Generalapproach:considerationsonparticlemotion
Considerthewaterflowingoutofthehosetobecomposedofindependentparticlesinprojectilemotion.Recallthat
projectilemotionisdescribedasacombinationofhorizontalmotionwithconstantvelocityandverticalmotionwith
constantacceleration.Notethatthehoseispointedparalleltotheground,sotheinitialvelocityofthewateris
purelyhorizontal.

Hint2.Projectilemotion
Aprojectileisabodywithaninitialvelocitythatfollowsapathdeterminedentirelybytheeffectsofgravitational
accelerationandairresistance.Iftheeffectsduetoairresistanceareignored,themotionofaprojectilecanbe
analyzedasacombinationofhorizontalmotionwithconstantvelocityandverticalmotionwithconstant
acceleration.

Consideraparticleundergoingprojectilemotioninthexycoordinateplane,withthexaxishorizontalandtheyaxis
pointingverticallyupward.Letv x andv y representthecomponentsoftheinitialvelocityoftheparticle.Letx0 and
y representtheinitialhorizontalandverticalpositionsoftheparticle.Theequationsdescribingthepositionofthe
0

particleasafunctionoftimetarethen

x = x0 + v x t

1 2
y= y + vy t gt ,
0 2

whereg isthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity.

ANSWER:

Yes

No

Correct

PartB
Toincreasetherangeofthewater,Isabellaplacesherthumbonthehoseholeandpartiallycoversit.Assumingthatthe
flowremainssteady,whatfractionf ofthecrosssectionalareaofthehoseholedoesshehavetocovertobeableto
sprayherfriend?

Assumethatthecrosssectionofthehoseopeningiscircularwitharadiusof1.5centimeters.

Expressyouranswerasapercentagetothenearestinteger.
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Hint1.Generalapproach:considerationsonfluidmechanics
Byrestrictingtheareaacrosswhichthewaterisflowing,Isabellaforcesthewatertoflowoutatahigherspeed.
Afterestimatingtheinitialvelocitythatthewatermusthaveinordertoreachadistanceof10meters,youcan
determinethecrosssectionalareaofthehoseholethatcorrespondstosuchaninitialvelocityofthewaterby
applyingthecontinuityequation.

Hint2.Findtheoutflowspeedneeded
Findtheinitialspeedv thatthewatershouldhaveinordertoreachadistanceof10meters.Considerthewater
flowingoutofthehoseascomposedofindependentparticlesinprojectilemotion.Recallthatprojectilemotionis
describedasacombinationofhorizontalmotionwithconstantvelocityandverticalmotionwithconstant
acceleration.Notethatthehoseispointedparalleltotheground,sotheinitialvelocityofwaterispurelyhorizontal.
Thusv = v x.

Expressyouranswernumericallyinmeterspersecondtothreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Projectilemotion
Iftheeffectsduetoairresistanceareignored,astheyshouldbeinthisproblem,themotionofaprojectile
canbeanalyzedasacombinationofhorizontalmotionwithconstantvelocityandverticalmotionwith
constantacceleration.

Consideraparticleundergoingprojectilemotioninthexycoordinateplane,withthexaxishorizontalandthe
yaxispointingverticallyupward.Letv x andv y representthecomponentsoftheinitialvelocityofthe
particle.Letx0 andy0 representtheinitialhorizontalandverticalpositionsoftheparticle.Theequations
describingthepositionoftheparticleasafunctionoftimetarethen

x = x0 + v x t

1 2
y = y0 + vy t gt ,
2

whereg isthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity.Inthispart,youareaskedtofindtheoutflow
speed,whichishorizontal,andthuscorrespondstov x istheaboveequation.Considercarefullywhatthe
valuesoftheotherconstantsx0 ,y0 ,andv y are.

ANSWER:

vx = 22.1 m/s

Hint3.Findthecrosssectionalareaneeded
Onceyouknowthehorizontalvelocityofthewaterthatwouldbeneededfortheemergingstreamtoreacha
distanceof10meters,findthecrosssectionalareaAthatcorrespondstothatoutflowspeed.

Assumethattheflowrateremainssteadyafterthepartialblockageofthehosehole,sothatthecontinuityequation
applies.

Expressyouranswernumericallyincentimeterssquaredtothreesignificantfigures.

Hint1.Applythecontinuityequation
Inanincompressiblefluidmovingsteadily,themassoffluidflowingalongaflowtubeisconstant.In
particular,consideraflowtubebetweentwostationarycrosssectionswithareasA1 andA2 .Letthefluid
speedsatthesesectionsbev 1 andv 2 ,respectively.Thenconservationofmasstakestheform
Typesettingmath:70%
A1 v 1 = A2 v 2 ,

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whichisknownasthecontinuityequation.

## IfinitiallythewaterisflowingthroughthehoseofcrosssectionalareaA0 ataspeedv 0 ,andyouwantitto

flowthroughasmallerareaatahigherspeedv ,whatshouldthenewcrosssectionalareaAofthehosebe?

ExpressyouranswerintermsofA0 ,v 0 ,andv .

ANSWER:

A 0v 0
A =
v

ANSWER:

A = 1.12 cm2

ANSWER:

f = 84 %

Correct

Exercise12.37

Waterisflowinginacircularpipevaryingcrosssectionalarea,andatallpointsthewatercompletelyfillsthepipe.

PartA
Atonepointinthepipetheradiusis0.245m.Whatisthespeedofthewateratthispointifwaterisflowingintothispipe
atasteadyrateof1.85m3 /s?

ANSWER:

v1 = 9.81 m/s

Correct

PartB
Atasecondpointinthepipethewaterspeedis2.30m/s.Whatistheradiusofthepipeatthispoint?

ANSWER:

r2 = 0.506 m

Correct
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StreamlinesandFluidFlow

LearningGoal:
Tounderstandthecontinuityequation.

Streamlinesrepresentthepathoftheflowofafluid.Youcanimaginethattheyrepresentatimeexposurephotographthat
showsthepathsofsmallparticlescarriedbytheflowingfluid.Thefigureshowsstreamlinesfortheflowofanincompressible
fluidinataperedpipeofcircularcrosssection.Thespeedofthefluid
asitentersthepipeontheleftisv 1 .Assumethatthecross
sectionalareasofthepipeareA1 atitsentranceontheleftandA2
atitsexitontheright.

PartA
FindQ1 ,thevolumeoffluidflowingintothepipeperunitoftime.Thisquantityisalsoknownasthevolumetricflowrate.

Expressthevolumetricflowrateintermsofanyofthequantitiesgivenintheproblemintroduction.

Hint1.Findthevolumeoffluidenteringthepipe
Thevolumetricflowratehasunitsofvolumeperunittime(cubicmeterspersecond).WhatisthevolumeV of
fluidenteringthepipeintimet?
Expressyouranswerintermsofanyorallofthefollowingquantities:v 1 ,A1 ,andt.

Hint1.Howfardoesthefluidmoveintimet?
Thefigureshowsasnapshotofthepipeattwo
instantsintime:t0 andt0 + t .Inthetime
intervalt,someadditionalfluid(showninblue)
hasenteredthepipefromtheleft.Thespeedof
thelefthandboundaryofthebluecoloredfluidis
v 1 .Whatisthelength L 1 oftheregionof
additionalfluidthathasenteredthepipeinthetime
intervalt?
Expressyouranswerintermsofv 1 andt.

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https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=5168450 17/33
3/8/2017 Ch12HW

ANSWER:

L1 = v 1 t

ANSWER:

V = A 1 v 1 t

ANSWER:

Q
1
= v 1 A1

Correct

PartB
Becausethefluidisassumedtobeincompressibleandmassisconserved,ataparticularmomentintime,theamountof
fluidthatflowsintothepipemustequaltheamountoffluidthatflowsout.Thisfactisembodiedinthecontinuityequation.
Usingthecontinuityequation,findthevelocityv 2 ofthefluidflowingoutoftherightendofthepipe.

Expressyouranswerintermsofanyofthequantitiesgivenintheproblemintroduction.

Hint1.Findthevolumetricflowrateoutofthepipe
FindQ2 ,thevolumeoffluidflowingoutofthepipeperunitoftime.

Expressyouranswerintermsofv 2 andA2 .

ANSWER:

Q2 = v 2 A2

Hint2.Applythecontinuityequation
Thecontinuityequationstatesthatthevolumetricflowsintoandoutofthepipemustbethesame.Fillintheright
handsideofthecontinuityequationforthisproblem.

Expressyouranswerintermsofv 2 andanyofthequantitiesgivenintheproblemintroduction.
ANSWER:

v 1 A1 = v 2 A2

ANSWER:

A1
v2 = v1
A2
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https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=5168450 18/33
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Correct

PartC
Ifyouareshownapictureofstreamlinesinaflowingfluid,youcanconcludethatthe__________ofthefluidisgreater
wherethestreamlinesareclosertogether.
Enteraonewordanswer.

ANSWER:

speed

Correct
Thusthevelocityoftheflowincreaseswithincreasingdensity(numberperunitarea)ofstreamlines.

Exercise12.46

Asoftdrink(mostlywater)flowsinapipeatabeverageplantwithamassflowratethatwouldfill2200.355 Lcansper
minute.Atpoint2inthepipe,thegaugepressureis152 kPaandthecrosssectionalareais8.00 cm2 .Atpoint1,1.35 m
abovepoint2,thecrosssectionalareais2.00 cm2 .

PartA
Findthemassflowrate.
ANSWER:

M = 1.30 kg/s

Correct

PartB
Findthevolumeflowrate.
ANSWER:

Q = 1.30 L/s

Correct

PartC
Findtheflowspeedatpoint1.

ANSWER:
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https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=5168450 19/33
3/8/2017 Ch12HW

v1 = 6.50 m/s

Correct

PartD
Findtheflowspeedatpoint2.
ANSWER:

v2 = 1.63 m/s

Correct

PartE
Findthegaugepressureatpoint1.
ANSWER:

P = 119 kPa

Correct

VenturiMeterwithTwoTubes

Apairofvertical,openendedglasstubesinsertedintoahorizontalpipeareoftenusedtogethertomeasureflowvelocityinthe
pipe,aconfigurationcalledaVenturimeter.Considersuchanarrangementwithahorizontalpipecarryingfluidofdensity.
Thefluidrisestoheightsh1 andh2 inthetwoopenendedtubes(seefigure).ThecrosssectionalareaofthepipeisA1 atthe
positionoftube1,andA2 atthepositionoftube2.

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PartA
Findp1 ,thegaugepressureatthebottomoftube1.(Gaugepressureisthepressureinexcessofoutsideatmospheric
pressure.)

Expressyouranswerintermsofquantitiesgivenintheproblemintroductionand\texttip{g}{g},themagnitudeof
theaccelerationduetogravity.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
UseBernoulli'slawtocomputethedifferenceinpressurebetweenthetopandbottomoftube1.Thepressureatthe
topofthetubeisdefinedtobeatmosphericpressure.Note:Insidethetube,sincethefluidisnotflowing,theterms
involvingvelocityinBernoulli'sequationcanbeignored.Thus,Bernoulli'sequationreducestotheformulafor
pressureasafunctionofdepthinafluidofuniformdensity.

Hint2.SimplifiedBernoulli'sequation
Forafluidofuniformdensity\texttip{\rho}{rho}thatisnotflowing,thepressure\texttip{p}{p}atadepth\texttip{h}{h}
belowthesurfaceisgivenbyp=p_0+\rhogh,where\texttip{p_{\rm0}}{p_0}isthepressureatthesurfaceand
\texttip{g}{g}isthemagnitudeoftheaccelerationduetogravity.

ANSWER:

\texttip{p_{\rm1}}{p_1}= {\rho}gh_{1}

Correct
Thefluidispusheduptube1bythepressureofthefluidatthebaseofthetube,andnotbyitskineticenergy,since
thereisnostreamlinearoundthesharpedgeofthetube.Thusenergyisnotconserved(thereisturbulenceatthe
edgeofthetube)attheentranceofthetube.SinceBernoulli'slawisessentiallyastatementofenergyconservation,
itmustbeappliedseparatelytothefluidinthetubeandthefluidflowinginthemainpipe.However,thepressurein
thefluidisthesamejustinsideandjustoutsidethetube.

PartB
Find\texttip{v_{\rm1}}{v_1},thespeedofthefluidintheleftendofthemainpipe.
Expressyouranswerintermsof\texttip{h_{\rm1}}{h_1},\texttip{h_{\rm2}}{h_2},\texttip{g}{g},andeither
\texttip{A_{\rm1}}{A_1}and\texttip{A_{\rm2}}{A_2}or\texttip{\gamma}{gamma},whichisequalto
\large{\frac{A_1}{A_2}}.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Energyisconservedalongthestreamlinesinthemainflow.ThismeansthatBernoulli'slawcanbeappliedtoobtain
arelationshipbetweenthefluidpressureandvelocityatthebottomoftube1,andthefluidpressureandvelocityat
thebottomoftube2.

Hint2.Find\texttip{p_{\rm2}}{p_2}intermsof\texttip{h_{\rm2}}{h_2}
Whatis\texttip{p_{\rm2}}{p_2},thepressureatthebottomoftube2?

Expressyouranswerintermsof\texttip{h_{\rm2}}{h_2},\texttip{g}{g},andanyothergivenquantities.

Hint1.RecallPartA
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Obtainthesolutionforthispartinthesamewaythatyoufoundanexpressionfor\texttip{p_{\rm1}}{p_1}in
termsof\texttip{h_{\rm1}}{h_1}inPartAofthisproblem.

ANSWER:

\texttip{p_{\rm2}}{p_2}= {\rho}gh_{2}

Hint3.Find\texttip{p_{\rm2}}{p_2}intermsofgivenquantities
Find\texttip{p_{\rm2}}{p_2},thefluidpressureatthebottomoftube2.

Expressyouranswerintermsof\texttip{p_{\rm1}}{p_1},\texttip{v_{\rm1}}{v_1},\texttip{\rho}{rho},
\texttip{A_{\rm1}}{A_1},and\texttip{A_{\rm2}}{A_2}.

Hint1.Findthepressureatthebottomoftube2
Find\texttip{p_{\rm2}}{p_2},thefluidpressureatthebottomoftube2.

Expressyouranswerintermsof\texttip{p_{\rm1}}{p_1},\texttip{v_{\rm1}}{v_1},and\texttip{v_{\rm
2}}{v_2}.

ANSWER:

\texttip{p_{\rm2}}{p_2}= \large{p_{1}+\frac{1}{2}{\rho}\left({v_{1}}^{2}{v_{2}}^{2}\right)}

Hint2.Find\texttip{v_{\rm2}}{v_2}intermsof\texttip{v_{\rm1}}{v_1}
Thefluidisincompressible,soyoucanusethecontinuityequationtorelatethefluidvelocities
\texttip{v_{\rm1}}{v_1}and\texttip{v_{\rm2}}{v_2}intermsofthegeometryofthepipe.Find\texttip{v_{\rm
2}}{v_2},thefluidvelocityatthebottomoftube2,intermsof\texttip{v_{\rm1}}{v_1}.

Youranswermayinclude\texttip{A_{\rm1}}{A_1}and\texttip{A_{\rm2}}{A_2},thecrosssectional
areasofthepipe.
ANSWER:

\texttip{v_{\rm2}}{v_2}= \large{\frac{A_{1}}{A_{2}}v_{1}}

ANSWER:

\texttip{p_{\rm2}}{p_2} \large{p_{1}+\frac{1}{2}{\rho}\left({v_{1}}^{2}\right)\left(1\left(\frac{A_{1}}
= {A_{2}}\right)^{2}\right)}

ANSWER:

\texttip{v_{\rm1}}{v_1}= \large{\sqrt{2g{\frac{h_{1}h_{2}}{{\gamma}^{2}1}}}}

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3/8/2017 Ch12HW

Correct
Notethatthisresultdependsonthedifferencebetweentheheightsofthefluidinthetubes,aquantitythatismore
easilymeasuredthantheheightsthemselves.

Problem12.92

In1993theradiusofHurricaneEmilywasabout350{\rmkm}.Thewindspeednearthecenter("eye")ofthehurricane,whose
radiuswasabout30{\rmkm},reachedabout200{\rmkm}/{\rmh}.Asairswirledinfromtherimofthehurricanetowardthe
eye,itsangularmomentumremainedroughlyconstant.

PartA
Estimatethewindspeedattherimofthehurricane.

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

v= 17 {\rmkm/h}

Correct

PartB
Estimatethepressuredifferenceattheearth'ssurfacebetweentheeyeandtherim.(Hint:Thedensityofair(1{\rmatm},
20^\circ{\rmC})is1.20{\rmkg}/{\rmm}^{3}.)
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

## \DeltaP= 1800 {\rmPa}

Correct

PartC
Whereisthepressuregreater?

ANSWER:

attheeye

attherim

Correct
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https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=5168450 23/33
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PartD
Ifthekineticenergyoftheswirlingairintheeyecouldbeconvertedcompletelytogravitationalpotentialenergy,howhigh
wouldtheairgo?

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

h= 160 {\rmm}

Correct

Problem12.95

Aliquidflowingfromaverticalpipehasaverydefiniteshapeasitflowsfromthepipe.Togettheequationforthisshape,
assumethattheliquidisinfreefallonceitleavesthepipe.Justasitleavesthepipe,theliquidhasspeedv_0andtheradius
ofthestreamofliquidisr_0.

PartA
Findanequationforthespeedoftheliquidasafunctionofthedistanceyithasfallen.
Expressyouranswerintermsofthegivenquantitiesandappropriateconstants.
ANSWER:

v= \sqrt{v_{0}{^2}+2gy}

Correct

PartB
Combiningthiswiththeequationofcontinuity,findanexpressionfortheradiusofthestreamasafunctionofy.
Expressyouranswerintermsofthegivenquantitiesandappropriateconstants.

ANSWER:

r= \large{\sqrt{r_{0}{^2}{\frac{v_{0}}{\sqrt{v_{0}{^2}+2gy}}}}}

Correct

PartC
Ifwaterflowsoutofaverticalpipeataspeedof1.20\rmm/s,howfarbelowtheoutletwilltheradiusbeonehalfthe
originalradiusofthestream?
Expressyouranswerusingthreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
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y= 1.10 {\rmm}

Correct

Problem12.57

A0.170{\rmkg}cubeofice(frozenwater)isfloatinginglycerine.Thegylcerineisinatallcylinderthathasinsideradius3.80
{\rmcm}.Theleveloftheglycerineiswellbelowthetopofthecylinder.

PartA
Iftheicecompletelymelts,bywhatdistancedoestheheightofliquidinthecylinderchange?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:

d= 0.773{\rmcm}

Correct

PartB
Doesthelevelofliquidriseorfall?Thatis,isthesurfaceofthewateraboveorbelowtheoriginallevelofthegylcerine
beforetheicemelted?
ANSWER:

Thelevelofliquidinthecylinderrises.

Thelevelofliquidinthecylinderfalls.

Correct

Exercise12.3

Youpurchasearectangularpieceofmetalthathasdimensions5.2{\rm{\rmmm}}\times15.2{\rm{\rmmm}}\times33.7{\rm
{\rmmm}}andmass1.86102{\rm{\rmkg}}.

PartA
Thesellertellsyouthatthemetalisgold.Tocheckthis,youcomputetheaveragedensityofthepiece.Whatvaluedoyou
get?

ANSWER:

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## \rho= 6980 {\rmkg/m^3}

Correct

PartB
Wereyoucheated?
ANSWER:

yes

no

Correct

Exercise12.6

PartA
Whatistheaveragedensityofthesun?
ANSWER:

## \rho_{\rmav}= 1410 {\rmkg}/{\rmm}^{3}

Correct

PartB
Whatistheaveragedensityofaneutronstarthathasthesamemassasthesunbutaradiusofonly20.0km?

ANSWER:

## \rho_{\rmav}= 5.941016 {\rmkg}/{\rmm}^{3}

Correct

Exercise12.12

Abarrelcontainsa0.125mlayerofoilfloatingonwaterthatis0.280{\rm{\rmm}}deep.Thedensityoftheoilis650{\rm{\rm
kg/m^3}}
Typesettingmath:70%

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PartA
Whatisthegaugepressureattheoilwaterinterface?

ANSWER:

P= 796 {\rmPa}

Correct

PartB
Whatisthegaugepressureatthebottomofthebarrel?
ANSWER:

P= 3540 {\rmPa}

Correct

Exercise12.18

Thelowerendofalongplasticstrawisimmersedbelowthesurfaceofthewaterinaplasticcup.Anaveragepersonsucking
ontheupperendofthestrawcanpullwaterintothestrawtoaverticalheightof1.1\rmmabovethesurfaceofthewaterinthe
cup.

PartA
Whatisthelowestgaugepressurethattheaveragepersoncanachieveinsidehislungs?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

p_{\rmg}= 1.1104{\rmPa}

Correct

PartB
Whyisyouranswerinthepreviouspartnegative?
ANSWER:

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Inorderforwatertogoupthestraw,thepressureatthetopofthestrawmustbegreaterthantheatmospheric
pressure.

Inorderforwatertogoupthestraw,thegaugepressureofthepersonmustbegreaterthanthepressuredueto
thecolumnofwaterinthestraw.

Inorderforwatertogoupthestraw,thepressureatthetopofthestrawmustbelessthantheatmospheric
pressure.

Inorderforwatertogoupthestraw,thegaugepressureofthepersonmustbelessthanthepressuredueto
thecolumnofwaterinthestraw.

Correct

Exercise12.32

Ahollow,plasticsphereisheldbelowthesurfaceofafreshwaterlakebyacordanchoredtothebottomofthelake.Thesphere
hasavolumeof0.660{\rm\m^3}andthetensioninthecordis2120{\rm\N}.

PartA
Calculatethebuoyantforceexertedbythewateronthesphere.
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:

F= 6470{\rmN}

Correct

PartB
Whatisthemassofthesphere?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.

ANSWER:

m= 444{\rmkg}

Correct

PartC
Thecordbreaksandthesphererisestothesurface.Whenthespherecomestorest,whatfractionofitsvolumewillbe
submerged?

ANSWER:
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\large{\frac{V_{\rmsub}}{V_{\rmobj}}}= 67.2 \%

Correct

Exercise12.37

Ashowerheadhas20circularopenings,eachwithradius0.90{\rmmm}.Theshowerheadisconnectedtoapipewithradius
0.98{\rmcm}.

PartA
Ifthespeedofwaterinthepipeis3.4{\rmm/s},whatisitsspeedasitexitstheshowerheadopenings?

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

v= 20 \rmm/s

Correct

Exercise12.43

PartA
Whatgaugepressureisrequiredinthecitywatermainsforastreamfromafirehoseconnectedtothemainstoreacha
verticalheightof12.0{\rmm}?(Assumethatthemainshaveamuchlargerdiameterthanthefirehose.)

ANSWER:

P= 1.18105 \rmPa

Correct

Exercise12.48

Asoftdrink(mostlywater)flowsinapipeatabeverageplantwithamassflowratethatwouldfill2200.355Lcansper
minute.Atpoint2inthepipe,thegaugepressureis152\{\rmkPa}andthecrosssectionalareais8.00\{\rmcm}^{2}.Atpoint
1,1.35\{\rmm}abovepoint2,thecrosssectionalareais2.00\{\rmcm}^{2}.

PartA
Findthemassflowrate.

ANSWER:
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M= 1.30 {\rmkg/s}

Correct

PartB
Findthevolumeflowrate.
ANSWER:

Q= 1.30 {\rmL/s}

Correct

PartC
Findtheflowspeedatpoint1.
ANSWER:

## v_1= 6.50 {\rmm/s}

Correct

PartD
Findtheflowspeedatpoint2.
ANSWER:

## v_2= 1.63 {\rmm/s}

Correct

PartE
Findthegaugepressureatpoint1.
ANSWER:

P= 119 {\rmkPa}

Correct

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Problem12.82

In1993theradiusofHurricaneEmilywasabout350{\rmkm}.Thewindspeednearthecenter("eye")ofthehurricane,whose
radiuswasabout30{\rmkm},reachedabout200{\rmkm}/{\rmh}.Asairswirledinfromtherimofthehurricanetowardthe
eye,itsangularmomentumremainedroughlyconstant.

PartA
Estimatethewindspeedattherimofthehurricane.

Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

v= 17 {\rmkm/h}

Correct

PartB
Estimatethepressuredifferenceattheearth'ssurfacebetweentheeyeandtherim.(Hint:Thedensityofair(1{\rmatm},
20^\circ{\rmC})is1.20{\rmkg}/{\rmm}^{3}.)
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.

ANSWER:

## \DeltaP= 1800 {\rmPa}

Correct

PartC
Whereisthepressuregreater?
ANSWER:

attheeye

attherim

Correct

PartD
Ifthekineticenergyoftheswirlingairintheeyecouldbeconvertedcompletelytogravitationalpotentialenergy,howhigh
wouldtheairgo?
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
Typesettingmath:70%
ANSWER:

https://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=5168450 31/33
3/8/2017 Ch12HW

h= 160 {\rmm}

Correct

Problem12.88

Asiphon,asshowninthefigure,isaconvenientdeviceforremoving
liquidsfromcontainers.Toestablishtheflow,thetubemustbe
initiallyfilledwithfluid.Letthefluidhavedensity\rho,andletthe
atmosphericpressurebep_{\rm{a}}{\kern1pt}.Assumethatthe
crosssectionalareaofthetubeisthesameatallpointsalongit.

PartA
Ifthelowerendofthesiphonisatadistancehbelowthesurfaceoftheliquidinthecontainer,whatisthespeedofthe
fluidasitflowsoutthelowerendofthesiphon?(Assumethatthecontainerhasaverylargediameter,andignoreany
effectsofviscosity.)
Expressyouranswerintermsofthegivenquantitiesandappropriateconstants.

ANSWER:

v= \sqrt{2gh}

Correct

PartB
Acuriousfeatureofasiphonisthatthefluidinitiallyflows"uphill."WhatisthegreatestheightHthatthehighpointofthe
tubecanhaveifflowisstilltooccur?
Expressyouranswerintermsofthegivenquantitiesandappropriateconstants.
ANSWER:

H= \large{\frac{p_{a}}{{\rho}g}}

Correct
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3/8/2017 Ch12HW

ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis99.9%.
Youreceived21.97outofapossibletotalof22points.

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