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Statistics 117 16 February 2017

Assignment 1.

I. PROVING. Suppose n is a positive integer. Prove the following equation:


2n
2n 2n = n
( )
( n ) ( n1) n+1
LHS:

LHS RHS

(2nn )( n1
2n
) (2nn)
n+ 1

(2nn)( n+1
2n
) ( 2n )n
( )( )n!
1
n+1

( 2 n )n ( 2 n )n+1 (2 n)(2 n1)


n!

( n+1 ) ! ( ( n) ( n1) ! )( n+11 )
n1

(2 n)( 2n1)n1 2 n(2 n1)n (2 n1)n1


n ( n1 ) !

( n+ 1 )( n ) ! ( ( n1 ) ! )( )
2
n+1

(2 n1)n1 2 n ( 2n1)n n1 2
(2) ( ( n1 ) ! ) ( )(

n+1 n! ) (2n1 )( n+1 )
2 n 2 n1
( 2 ) 2 n1
(n1 n+1) ( )(
n )
2 n ( 2 n1 )n1 (n)
( 2 ) 2 n1
(n1 n+1) ( )(
n ( n1 ) ! )
2 n ( 2 n1 )n1
( 2 ) 2 n1
(n1 n+1) ( )(
( n1 ) ! )
2 n 2 n1
( 2 ) 2 n1
(n1 ) ( )(
n+1 n1 )
2 n1 2 2 n
( n1 )(
n+ 1 )
n1 2
(2n1 )( n+1 )
Both the LHS and the RHS eventually arrived at the same expression, therefore,

2n
2n 2n = n
( )
( n ) ( n1) n+1

II. Answer the following problems:

1. A 6-sided die is tossed 100 times and the number of dots is recorded at each toss. Suppose an
outcome of this process is represented by an ordered 100-tuple, where the ith coordinate is the
number of dots on the ith toss.

a) How many possible outcomes are there?


100
ANSWER: 6
b) How many outcomes are there where the number of dots on each one of the first 10
tosses is less than 5 while the number of dots on each of the last 10 tosses is greater than
4?

ANSWER: ( 4 10 ) ( 680 ) ( 610 )


2. Suppose a 4-digit numbers will be formed from the digits 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8, where each digit can
be used only once. Determine the number of 4-digit numbers that can be formed under each of
the following conditions:

a) no restriction

ANSWER: ( 8 )4
b) the 4-digit number is greater than 3000
ANSWER: (6)(7)(6)(5)
3. A six-person committee composed of Alice, Ben, Connie, Dolph, Egbert, and Francisco is to
select a chairperson, secretary, and treasurer among themselves. Naturally, a person cannot be
assigned more than one position.

a) How many selections exclude Connie?

ANSWER: ( 5 )3
b) How many selections are there in which neither Ben nor Francisco is an officer?

ANSWER: ( 4 )3
c) How many selections are there in which Alice is chairperson and Ben is not an officer?
ANSWER: (1)(4)(3)

d) How many selections are there in which Alice is chairperson and Ben is secretary?

ANSWER: ( 4 )1 or 4!

4. Suppose a club consists of 10 freshmen, 35 sophomores, 20 juniors and 15 seniors.


a) How many ways can they form a special committee consisting of 5 freshmen, 10
sophomores, 10 juniors and 5 seniors?

ANSWER: (10 )(35 )(20)(15 )


5 10 10 5
b) How many ways can they distribute the members of this club into 4 committees in such a
way that each committee has the same number of members?
`
80
ANSWER: 20 ! 20 ! 20 ! 20 !
c) How many ways can they distribute the members of this club into 4 committees in such a
way that the two committees both have 15 members consisting of freshmen and juniors only,
while the other two committees both have 25 members consisting of sophomores and
seniors only?

ANSWER: ( 15!3015 ! )( 25!5025 ! )