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This article is about the year 1950.

1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sun-

day (dominical letter A) of the Gregorian calendar, the
1950th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini
(AD) designations, the 950th year of the 2nd millennium,
the 50th year of the 20th century, and the 1st year of the
1950s decade.

1 Events
January 14: Mount Lamington erupts in New Guinea.
1.1 January
January 17 Great Brinks Robbery: Eleven
Main article: January 1950 thieves steal more than $2 million from the Brinks
armored car company headquarters in Boston, Mas-
January 1 The International Police Association
(IPA) the largest police organization in the world January 21 Accused communist spy Alger Hiss is
is formed. convicted on 2 accounts

January 5 U.S. Senator Estes Kefauver introduces January 23 The Knesset passes a resolution that
a resolution calling for an investigation of organized states Jerusalem is the capital of Israel.
crime in the U.S.
January 24 Cold War: Klaus Fuchs, German mi-
January 6 The UK recognizes the Peoples Re- gr and physicist, confesses to an MI5 interrogator
public of China; the Republic of China severs that he is a Soviet spy: For seven years, he passed
diplomatic relations with Britain in response. top secret data on U.S. and British nuclear weapons
research to the Soviet Union. Fuchs is formally
January 7 A re consumes Mercy Hospital in charged on February 2.[1]
Davenport, Iowa, killing 41 patients.
January 25 Alger Hiss receives a ve-year sentence
January 9 The Israeli government recognizes the following his conviction on two counts of perjury
Peoples Republic of China.
January 26 India promulgates its constitution,
January 11 Huk guerrillas manhandle the town of forming a republic, and Rajendra Prasad is sworn
Hermosa, Bataan in the Philippines. in as its rst president. The Kingdom of Mysore is
merged into the new republic.

January 12 January 29 Lord Balfour criticizes the fact that

rationing is still in force in Britain.
The British submarine Truculent collides with
a Swedish oil tanker in the Thames Estuary January 31
and sinks; 64 die.
United States President Harry S. Truman or-
Cold War: U.S. Secretary of State Dean Ache- ders the development of the hydrogen bomb,
son delivers his 'Perimeter Speech', outlining in response to the detonation of the Soviet
the boundary of U.S. security guarantees. Union's rst atomic bomb in 1949.[2]
January 13 Finland forms diplomatic relations The last Kuomintang troops surrender in
with the Peoples Republic of China. mainland China.


December First ve-year plan is tabled in the Par- In an election speech at Edinburgh, Winston
liament by Jawaharlal Nehru. It emphasizes Agri- Churchill proposes a parley at the summit
cultural and Community development. with Soviet leaders, rst use of term "summit"
for such a meeting.[3]

1.2 February February 15

Juho Kusti Paasikivi is re-elected president of

Main article: February 1950
Walt Disney releases his 12th animated lm,
February 1 Chiang Kai-shek is re-elected as a pres- Cinderella in Hollywood.
ident of the Republic of China. February 19 Konrad Adenauer tries unsuccessfully
February 4 Ingrid Bergman's illegitimate child to negotiate with East Germany to begin unication.
arouses ire in the U.S. February 21 Cunard liner RMS Aquitania arrives
February 6 First Cabinet Secretary N.R. Pillai ap- at the scrapyard in Faslane at the end of a 36-year
pointed in India. career, the longest of any in the 20th Century.

February 23 United Kingdom general election,

February 8
1950 : The Labour Party, led by Clement Attlee
The Stasi is founded in East Germany and acts remains in oce but the Tories, led by Winston
as a secret police until 1990. Churchill increase their seats in the House of Com-
Payment rst made by Diners Club card, in
New York, rst use of a charge card.

February 9 Second Red Scare: In his speech to the

1.3 March
Republican Womens Club at the McClure Hotel in
Main article: March 1950
Wheeling, West Virginia, Senator Joseph McCarthy
accuses the United States Department of State of be-
ing lled with 205 Communists.
March 1
February 11
Klaus Fuchs is convicted in London of spying
Two Viet Minh battalions attack a French base against both Britain and the United States for
in French Indochina. the Soviet Union, by giving to the latter top
secret atomic bomb data.
Finland recognizes Indonesia.
Acting Chinese President Li Tsung-jen ends
February 12 his term in oce.

Pro-communist riots erupt in Paris. Chiang Kai-shek resumes his duties as Chi-
nese president after moving his government to
The European Broadcasting Union is founded. Taipei, Taiwan.
Albert Einstein warns that nuclear war could
lead to mutual destruction. March 3 Poland indicates its intention to exile all
February 13
March 8 The rst Volkswagen Type 2 (also known
The U.S. Army begins to deploy anti-aircraft as the Microbus) rolls o the assembly line in
cannons to protect nuclear stations and mili- Wolfsburg, Germany.
tary targets.
March 12 A plane carrying returning rugby fans
British Columbia B-36 crash The U.S. Air from Ireland to Wales crashes near Llandow, with
Force loses a Convair B-36 bomber that car- the loss of 80 lives.
ried a Mark 4 nuclear bomb o the west
coast of Canada, and produces the worlds rst March 13 Royal Question: Belgian monarchy ref-
Broken Arrow. erendum, 1950 In Belgium, the referendum over
the monarchy shows 57.7% support the return of
February 14 Cold War: King Lopold III, 42.3% against.

The Soviet Union and the Peoples Republic of March 14 The ship Cygnet hits a mine o the
China sign a mutual defense treaty. Dutch coast.
1.6 June 3

March 17 University of California, Berkeley re- Robert Schuman presents his proposal for
searchers announce the creation of element 98, the creation of a pan-European organisation,
which they name "Californium". which he believes to be indispensable to the
maintenance of permanently peaceful rela-
March 18 The Belgian government collapses af- tions between the dierent nations of the con-
ter the March 12 referendum favouring of the return tinent. This proposal, known as the "Schuman
from exile of King Lopold III.[4] Declaration", is considered to be the beginning
March 20 The Polish government enacts a law of the creation of what is now the European
to take possession of properties owned by Roman Union.
Catholic churches.[5] L. Ron Hubbard publishes Dianetics: The
Modern Science of Mental Health.
March 22 Egypt demands that Britain remove all
its troops in the Suez Canal. May 11 The Kefauver Committee hearings into
U.S. organized crime begin.
March 23 The 22nd Academy Awards ceremony
is held. May 13 The rst race in the inaugural FIA
Formula One World Championship is held at
Silverstone, England.
1.4 April
May 14 The Huntsville Times runs the headline
Main article: April 1950 "Dr. von Braun Says Rocket Flights Possible to

April 14 May 17 Israeli Air Force Spitres intercept a Royal

Air Force Short Sunderland when it inadvertently
Inuential British comic Eagle is launched crossed into Israeli airspace, forcing it to land at
NSC-68 is issued by the United States National Lod Airport. The Sunderlands crew had been is-
Security Council sued maps that did not depict Israel, as Britain had
not recognized the Jewish State at the time the maps
April 15 Belgian King Leopold III announces that were issued.
he is ready to abdicate in favor of his son Baudouin.
May 22
April 24 Jordan formally annexes the West Bank
Cell Bayar becomes the third president of
April 25 Trial of alleged communist spy Judith Turkey.
Coplon commences in New York City Adnan Menderes of DP forms the new govern-
April 27 ment of Turkey (19th government)

Apartheid: In South Africa, the Group Areas May 24 United States Maritime Administration
Act is passed, formally segregating the races. (under Department of Commerce).
Britain formally recognises Israel. May 25 The BrooklynBattery Tunnel is formally
opened to trac.

1.5 May May 29

Main article: May 1950 St. Roch, the rst ship to circumnavigate North
America, arrives in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
The pilot series of the worlds longest-running
May 1 UNRWA operations begin. radio soap opera The Archers, is rst broadcast
on BBC Light Programme
May 5 Coronation of Bhomibol Adulyadej (Rama
IX) of Thailand at The Grand Palace in Bangkok.

May 6 1.6 June

The town of Cazin (Bosnia) rises up against Main article: June 1950
Communist agrarian reforms.
Tollund Man is unearthed in Denmark.
June 1June 23 Mauna Loa in Hawaii starts erupt-
May 9 ing.

Korean War: Seoul National University Hos-

pital massacre: the North Korean Peoples
Army kills around 800 medical sta and pa-
Korean War: Bodo League massacre be-
gins: South Korean armed forces and police
summarily execute at least 100,000 suspected
North Korean sympathizers.

1.7 July

Main article: July 1950

July 16 Uruguay beat Brazil 21 to win the 1950

World Cup.

July 17 The Suppression of Communism Act

passed on June 26, comes into force in South Africa.

1.8 August

Main article: August 1950

June 25: Korean War begins.

August 5

June 3 Annapurna I, 10th highest mountain in the 2 Squadron SAAF departs to take part in the
world, is rst ascended. Korean War.[6]
A bomb-laden B-29 Superfortress crashes into
June 6 Turkey: The Adhan in Arabic is legalized. a residential area in California, killing 17 and
injuring 68.
June 8 Sir Thomas Blamey becomes the only Field
Marshal in Australian history. August 6 Monarchist demonstrations lead to a riot
in Brussels.
June 16 Maracana Stadium, as well known for
sports venues of Brazil, open in Rio de Janeiro, be- August 8
fore opening 1950 FIFA World Cup.
Florence Chadwick swims across the English
June 25 Korean War begins: North Korean troops Channel in 13 hours, 22 minutes.
cross the 38th parallel into South Korea.
Winston Churchill supports idea of a pan-
June 26 The Parliament of South Africa passes the European army allied with Canada and the
Suppression of Communism Act. U.S.

June 27 Korean War: U.S. President Harry S. Tru- August 12

man orders American military forces to aid in the
defense of South Korea. Korean War: Bloody Gulch massacre.
In his encyclical Humani generis, Pope
June 28 Pius XII declares evolution to be a serious
hypothesis that did not contradict essential
Korean War: North Korean forces capture
Catholic teachings.
Seoul but do not win the war.
Korean War: Hangang Bridge bombing: The August 15 The 8.6 Mw AssamTibet earthquake
South Korean army, in an attempt to defend shakes the region with a maximum Mercalli inten-
Seoul, blows up the Hangang Bridge while it sity of XI (Extreme), killing between 1,5003,300
is crowded with refugees. people.
1.10 October 5

August 17 Korean War: In the Hill 303 massacre, 1.10 October

39 U.S. soldiers are executed after being captured in
battle by North Korea. Main article: October 1950

August 22 The Immaculate Heart of Mary Semi-

nary is founded in Tagbilaran City, Philippines. Turing test published.[7]
August 23 Legendary singer-actor Paul Robeson, October 2 The comic strip Peanuts by Charles M.
whose passport had recently been revoked because Schulz is rst published in seven U.S. newspapers.
of his alleged Communist aliations, meets with
U.S. ocials in an eort to get it reinstated. He October 3 Getlio Dornelles Vargas is elected
is unsuccessful, and it is not reinstated until 1958. president of Brazil for a 5-year term.

October 5 The Indonesian government quells riots

1.9 September in the Moluccas.

Main article: September 1950 October 7

Battle of Chamdo: The incorporation of Ti-

bet into the Peoples Republic of China begins
September 4 with the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army in-
vading across the Jinsha River. By October
Darlington Raceway is the site of the inaugu-
19 they will have taken the border town of
ral Southern 500, the rst 500-mile NASCAR
Chamdo and the Tibetan army will have sur-
The comic strip Beetle Bailey is created by
The Agate Pass Bridge opens for trac in
Mort Walker.
Washington State.
September 7
October 9 Goyang Geumjeong Cave massacre
A coal mine collapse in New Cumnock, Scot- starts in South Korea.
land, kills 13 miners; 116 are rescued.
October 11 The Federal Communications Com-
The game show Truth or Consequences debuts mission in the United States issues the rst license
on television. to broadcast television in color, to CBS (RCA will
successfully dispute and block the license from tak-
September 8 The Defense Production Act is en-
ing eect, however).
acted into law in the U.S., shaping American mili-
tary contracting for the next 60 years. October 15
September 9 The U.S. state of California cele- The second Tacoma Narrows Bridge opens in
brates its centennial anniversary. Washington (state).
September 12 Communist riots erupt in Berlin. In East Germany, the Communists win 99.7%
of the vote.
September 15 Korean War Battle of Inchon: Al-
lied troops commanded by Douglas MacArthur land October 19 Korean War: The Peoples Republic
in Inchon, occupied by North Korea, to begin a U.N. of China enters the conict by sending thousands of
counteroensive. soldiers across the Yalu River.

September 18 Rede Tupi, the rst TV broadcaster October 20 Australia passes the Communist Party
from Brazil and South America, is founded. Dissolution Act, which is later struck down by the
High Court.
September 19 West Germany decides to purge
communist ocials. October 28 Torcida Split is founded in support of
the Association football club HNK Hajduk Split in
September 22 World Dance Council inaugurated. SFR Yugoslavia.

September 26 Indonesia is admitted to the United October 29 Upon the death of Gustaf V of Swe-
Nations. den, he is succeeded as king by his 68-year-old son
Gustaf VI Adolf.
September 30 NSC-68 is enacted by President
Truman, setting U.S. foreign policy for the next 20 October 30 The Jayuya Uprising is started by
years. Puerto Rican Nationalists against the United States.

1.11 November November 24 A phenomenal winter storm rav-

ages the northeastern United States, brings 30 to 50
Main article: November 1950 inches of snow, temperatures below zero, and kills
323 people.

November 1 November 26 Korean War: Troops from the Peo-

ples Republic of China launched a massive coun-
Pope Pius XII witnesses the "Miracle of the terattack against South Korean and United Nations
Sun" at the Vatican[8] and denes a new dogma forces at the Ch'ongch'on River and the Chosin
of Roman Catholicism, the Municentissimus Reservoir, dashing any hopes for a quick end to the
Deus, which says that God took Marys body conict.
into Heaven after her death (the "Assumption
of the Blessed Virgin Mary"). November 28
Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola Colombo Plan for Co-operative Economic De-
and Oscar Collazo attempt to assassinate U.S. velopment in South and South-East Asia
President Harry S. Truman, who is staying at
the Blair-Lee House in Washington, D.C. dur- Greece and Yugoslavia reform diplomatic re-
ing White House repairs. lations.

November 4 The United Nations ends the diplo- November 29 The National Council of the
matic isolation of Spain. Churches of Christ in the USA is founded.

November 8 Korean War: While in an F-80, November 30 Douglas MacArthur threatens to use
United States Air Force Lt. Russell J. Brown inter- nuclear weapons in Korea.
cepts 2 North Korean MiG-15s near the Yalu River
and shoots them down in the rst jet-to-jet dogght
in history. 1.12 December
November 10 A U.S. Air Force B-50 Super- Main article: December 1950
fortress bomber, experiencing an in-ight emer-
gency, jettisons and detonates a Mark 4 nuclear
bomb over Quebec, Canada (the device lacked its
December 4 Foley Square trial commences review
plutonium core).
in U.S. Supreme Court as Dennis v. United States
November 11 The Mattachine Society is founded
December 31 The inaugural 12 Hours of Sebring
in Los Angeles as the rst gay-liberation organiza-
endurance race is held.
November 13
1.13 Date unknown
The President of Venezuela, Colonel Carlos
Delgado Chalbaud is kidnapped and murdered Canadians Harry Wasylyk, Larry Hansen and Frank
in Caracas. Plomp introduce the plastic bin bag for garbage col-
A Curtiss Reid Flying Services plane crashes lection.
while en route to Paris from Rome, killing all
52 on board. Myxomatosis is introduced into Australia in an at-
tempt to control the escalating rabbit population.
November 17 15-year-old Tenzin Gyatso is for-
mally enthroned as 14th Dalai Lama, becoming IBM Israel begins operating in Tel Aviv.
temporal ruler of Tibet.[9]
President Harry Truman sends United States mili-
November 18 The United Nations accepts the for- tary advisers to Vietnam to aid French forces.
mation of the Libyan National Council.
France institutes a government-guaranteed
November 20 T. S. Eliot speaks against television minimum wage.
in the UK.
Knoxs Translation of the Vulgate Old Testament
November 22 (commissioned by the Catholic Church) is pub-
Anti-British riots erupt in Egypt.
Shirley Temple announces her retirement from Laos gets involved in the First Indochina War to
show business. overthrow the French Army.
2.1 January 7

1.14 World population

Total world population: 2,518,630,000

Africa: 221,214,000
Asia: 1,398,488,000
Europe: 547,403,000
Latin America: 167,097,000
North America: 171,616,000
Oceania: 12,812,000.

2 Births

2.1 January

Richard Dean Anderson

Victoria Principal

January 2

Dbora Duarte, Brazilian actress

David Shifrin, American classical clarinetist

January 3 Victoria Principal, American actress

January 5
Jrg Haider
John Manley, Canadian politician
Charlie Richmond, Canadian entrepreneur Juan Gabriel, Mexican singer, songwriter and
and inventor philanthropist (d. 2016)
January 6 Erin Gray, American actress
January 9 Alec Jereys, British geneticist, who
Louis Freeh, American Director of the FBI
developed techniques for DNA ngerprinting and
Thomas J. Pickard, American Acting Director DNA proling
of the FBI
January 10 Ernie Wasson, American gardener and
January 7 writer

January 12

Sheila Jackson Lee, American politician

Dorrit Moussaie, Israeli-born British busi-
nesswoman; First Lady of Iceland

January 14 Jagadguru Rmabhadrcrya, Hindu

religious leader

January 16 Debbie Allen, American actress,

dancer, and choreographer

January 17

Steve Cuozzo, American writer and columnist

Cristina Galb, Spanish actress
Honey Irani, Indian lm actress and screen-
Luis Lpez Nieves, Puerto Rican writer

January 18 Gilles Villeneuve, Canadian race car

driver (d. 1982)

January 20 Edward Hirsch, American poet

January 21 Billy Ocean, West Indian-born musi-


January 22 Pamela Salem, British actress

Morgan Fairchild
January 23 Richard Dean Anderson, American ac-
2.2 February
January 24
February 1 Kazimierz Nycz, Polish clergyman
Daniel Auteuil, French actor
February 3 Morgan Fairchild, American actress
Gennifer Flowers, American actress, con-
nected to Bill Clinton February 6
Benjamin Urrutia, Ecuadorian-born American
author and scholar Natalie Cole, American singer (d. 2015)
Timothy Michael Dolan, Roman Catholic
January 26 Cardinal and Archbishop of New York
Jrg Haider, Austrian politician (d. 2008) February 10 Mark Spitz, American Olympic
Janet Lupo, American model swimmer

January 27 February 12

Derek Acorah, British spiritualist and medium Steve Hackett, English songwriter and guitarist
Ulrich Deppendorf, German journalist and Michael Ironside, Canadian actor
television presenter
February 13 Peter Gabriel, English rock musician
January 29 and original lead singer of Genesis

Ann Jillian, American actress February 15 Tsui Hark, Hong Kong lm director
Jody Scheckter, South African race car driver February 16
Mikls Vmos, Hungarian writer and screen-
writer Peter Hain, British politician
Roman Tam, Cantopop singer (d. 2002)
January 30 Trinidad Silva, American actor (d.
1988) February 18
2.3 March 9

Nestor Kirchner

Miou-Miou, French actress

Julie Walters, English actress
February 25
Neil Jordan, Irish lm director, writer, and
Nstor Kirchner, 49th President of Argentina
(d. 2010)
Peter Gabriel
February 26
Helen Clark, Prime Minister of New Zealand
Bill Ritter, American news anchor

2.3 March
March 2 Karen Carpenter, American singer and
drummer (d. 1983)
March 4 Rick Perry, Governor of Texas
March 9 Danny Sullivan, American race car driver
March 10 Carlos Roberto Flores, President of
Julie Walters March 11
Bobby McFerrin, American singer
John Hughes, American lm director, pro-
ducer and writer (d. 2009) Jerry Zucker, American lm producer, direc-
tor, and writer
Cybill Shepherd, American actress
March 12 Javier Clemente, Spanish football player
February 20
and manager
Ken Shimura, Japanese television performer
March 13 William H. Macy, American actor
and actor
Tony Wilson, English impresario (d. 2007) March 18 Brad Dourif, American actor

February 22 March 20 William Hurt, American actor

Julius Erving, American basketball player March 22

Rick Perry

William Hurt

William H. Macy

Hugo Egon Balder, German actor and televi-

sion presenter
Jocky Wilson, Scottish darts player (d. 2012)

March 26
Martin Short
Teddy Pendergrass, American singer (d.
Martin Short, Canadian-born comedian
2.4 April 11

Alan Silvestri, American composer and con-

March 28
Claudio Lolli, Italian singer-songwriter
Jerey Miller, Kent State University shooting
victim (d. 1970)
March 29 Mory Kant, Guinean musician
March 30
Robbie Coltrane, Scottish actor and comedian
David Janson, British actor
March 31 Ed Marinaro, American football player
and actor

2.4 April

Ron Perlman

Joyce Banda

April 1 Samuel Alito, Associate Justice of the

Supreme Court of the United States
April 3 Sally Thomsett, English actress
April 4 Christine Lahti, American actress
April 5
Agnetha Fltskog, Swedish pop singer and
songwriter (ABBA)
Harpo, Swedish pop musician
April 7 Marisa Letcia Lula da Silva, former First
Lady of Brazil (d. 2017)
April 8 Grzegorz Lato, Polish footballer
April 10 Ken Griey, Sr., American baseball Jay Leno
April 12

Joyce Banda, ne Mtila, 4th President of

David Cassidy, American actor and singer

April 13 Ron Perlman, American actor

April 14 Pter Esterhzy, Hungarian writer

April 15 Josiane Balasko, French ac-


April 17 Bruce McNall, American businessman

April 20 Steve Erickson, American novelist

April 22

Peter Frampton, English rock musician

Thierry Zno, Belgian lmmaker

April 25

Lenora Fulani, American presidential candi-

date Stevie Wonder

Apollo C. Quiboloy, Filipino televangelist and

religious leader

April 28 Jay Leno, American comedian and talk

show host

April 29 Paul Holmes, New Zealand radio and

television broadcaster (d. 2013)

2.5 May

Janez Drnovsek

May 11 Jeremy Paxman, English journalist

May 12

Gabriel Byrne, Irish actor

Ching Hai, Vietnamese born Taiwanese au-
thor, spiritual leader and jewelry designer
May 5 Googoosh, Iranian singer and actress Billy Squier, American musician

May 7 Tim Russert, American journalist (d. 2008) May 13

2.6 June 13

Nouri al-Maliki

Thomas Gottschalk Suzi Quatro, American singer-songwriter

June 5 Abraham Sarmiento, Jr., Filipino journalist

Bobby Valentine, American baseball manager
and political activist (d. 1977)
Stevie Wonder, American musician
June 7 Howard Finkel, American ring announcer
May 14 Jill Stein, American politician, activist
June 8 Kathy Baker, American actress
May 15 Renate Stecher, German athlete
June 11 Graham Russell, English singer and mu-
May 16 Georg Bednorz, German physicist, Nobel sician (Air Supply)
Prize laureate
June 13 Belinda Bauer, Australian actress
May 17 Janez Drnovsek, Slovenian politician, 2-
Time Prime Minister of Slovenia and 2nd President June 14 Rowan Williams, Archbishop of Canter-
of Slovenia bury
May 18 June 15 Lakshmi Mittal, Indian industrialist
Thomas Gottschalk, German radio and televi- June 20 Nouri al-Maliki, 74th Prime Minister of
sion host, entertainer and actor Iraq
Mark Mothersbaugh, American composer,
artist, and singer (Devo) June 21

May 29 Rebbie Jackson, American singer Joey Kramer, American musician

Vasilis Papakonstantinou, Greek singer and
May 31 Gregory Harrison, American actor and di-
June 22 Zenonas Petrauskas, Lithuanian lawyer
and politician (d. 2009)
2.6 June
June 24 Nancy Allen, American actress
June 3
June 25
Deniece Williams, American singer
Melissa Mathison, American screenwriter (d. Nitza Saul, Israeli actress
2015) Marcello Toninelli, Italian writer

June 29

Simone Gbagbo, ICC criminal, former Ivorian

politician and First Lady
Don Moen, American singer and musician

June 30 Leonard Whiting, British actor

2.7 July

Eric Carr

Viktor Yanukovych

July 4 Philip Craven, 2nd President of the

International Paralympic Committee

July 5 Huey Lewis, American rock singer

July 9 Viktor Yanukovych, President of Ukraine

July 11 Pervez Hoodbhoy, Pakistani Nuclear

physicist and social activist

July 12 Eric Carr, Former Kiss drummer and mu-

sician (d. 1991)

July 13 Ma Ying-jeou, current President of the

Republic of China (Taiwan)
Derek de Lint
July 17 Derek de Lint, Dutch actor

July 18
2.8 August 15

Philip Craven Ernesto Samper

Sir Richard Branson, British entrepreneur

Glenn Hughes, American vocalist (d. 2001)
Jack Layton, Canadian politician (d. 2011)
July 19
Simon Cadell, British actor (d. 1996)
Per-Kristian Foss, Norwegian Minister of Fi-
Freddy Moore, American musician
July 20 William Knox Schroeder, Kent State Uni-
versity shooting victim (d. 1970)
July 26 Susan George, British actress
July 27 Simon Jones, English actor
July 28
Soh Chin Aun, Malaysian footballer
Sir Tapley Seaton, Kittitian politician, 4th
Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis Anne, Princess Royal

July 29 Jenny Holzer, American conceptual artist

Roy Williams, American basketball coach

2.8 August August 3

August 1 John Landis, American lm director

Jo Marie Payton, American actress
Bunkhouse Buck, American professional
wrestler Ernesto Samper, 29th President of Colombia

August 5 Rosi Mittermaier, German ski racer

August 7 Alan Keyes, American conservative po-
litical activist
August 8
Lucjan Lis, Polish-German cyclist (d. 2015)
Ken Kutaragi, ex-C.E.O of Sony Computer
August 9 Nicole Tourneur, French novelist (d.
August 11
Erik Brann, American musician (Iron Butter-
y) (d. 2003)
Gennadiy Nikonov, Russian weapon designer
August 12 Iris Berben, German actress
August 15
Anne, Princess Royal, British Princess and
daughter of Elizabeth II and The Duke of Ed- Narendra Modi
Neil J. Gunther, Australian/American physi-
cist and computer scientist
Tom Kelly, American baseball manager
Andres Serrano, American photographer
August 16
Hasely Crawford, West Indian athlete
Marshall Manesh, Persian actor
August 19 Sudha Murthy, Indian social worker and
August 22 Scooter Libby, American political ad-
August 26
Carl Deuker, American author
Annette Badland, English actor
August 27 Charles Fleischer, American actor,
stand-up comedian and voice artist

2.9 September
September 1
Mikhail Fradkov, Russian politician and Bill Murray
Prime Minister of Russia (20042007)
Phil McGraw, American TV psychologist
Yuen Wah, Hong Kong actor
September 2
Rosanna DeSoto, American actress September 7
2.10 October 17

Randy Quaid

Johann Friedrich, German-Australian engi-

neer and conman
Jakaya Kikwete
Julie Kavner, American actress

September 8 Mark Gable, Australian singer and

songwriter (The Choirboys)

September 10 Joe Perry, American rock guitarist


September 14

Paul Kosso, British rock guitarist (Free) (d.

Masami Kuwashima, Japanese race car driver

September 16

Henry Louis Gates, American literary critic

Loyd Grossman, American television presen-
ter and chef

September 17 Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of

India Abdullah Gl

September 19 Joan Lunden, American television

broadcaster and journalist
2.10 October
October 1
September 21
Boris Morukov, Russian astronaut (d. 2015)
Charles Clarke, British politician
Randy Quaid, American actor and comedian
Bill Murray, American actor and comedian
October 3 Pamela Hensley, American actress
September 22 Kirka Babitzin, Finnish singer (d.
2007) October 5 Je Conaway, American actor (d.
September 24 Kristina Wayborn, Swedish actress
October 7 Jakaya Kikwete, 4th President of Tan-
September 27 Cary-Hiroyuki Tagawa, Japanese
actor October 9 Jody Williams, American teacher and
aid worker, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
September 28 John Sayles, American director and
screenwriter October 10 Nora Roberts, American novelist

October 29 Abdullah Gl, 11th President of

October 30 Louise DuArt, American comedian
and impersonator
October 31
John Candy, Canadian comedian and actor (d.
Jane Pauley, American television broadcaster
and journalist

2.11 November

John Candy

October 12
Edward Bloor, American novelist
Kaga Takeshi, Japanese actor
Pilar Pilapil, Filipina actress
October 16 Cecil Bothwell. American atheist
writer and politician
October 17
Howard Rollins, American actor (d. 1996) Chuck Schumer

Dean Shek, Hong Kong actor

November 1 Robert B. Laughlin, American physi-
October 18 Wendy Wasserstein, American play-
cist, Nobel Prize laureate
wright (d. 2006)
November 3 Massimo Mongai, Italian author
October 19 Bishop Bill Ray, 10th Bishop of North
Queensland November 4 Charles Frazier, American novelist
October 20 Tom Petty, American rock singer November 6 Kenny Marks, American Christian
October 22 Bill Owens, Governor of Colorado
November 9 Maravillas Rojo, Catalan politician
October 25 Chris Norman, English singer
(Smokie) November 10
October 28 Debra Hill, American producer (d. 2005)
Annette Humpe, German singer, bands Ideal Bob Orton, Jr., American professional
and Ich + Ich wrestler
Sihem Bensedrine, Tunisian human rights ac- November 12 Barbara Fairchild, American coun-
tivist try and gospel singer
2.13 Date unknown 19

Paul Watson, founder of the Sea Shepherd

Conservation Society
Mara Antonieta de las Nieves, Mexican ac-

December 5 Camarn de la Isla, Spanish singer (d.


December 9 Joan Armatrading, St. Kitts-born En-

glish singer-songwriter

December 10 Tom Towles, American actor (d.


December 12

Heiner Flassbeck, German economist, pro-

fessor, publicist, political counselor and State
Rajinikanth, Indian actor
Ed Harris
December 13 Wendie Malick, American actress

November 13 Mary Lou Metzger, American December 15 Sylvester James Gates, American
singer and dancer theoretical physicist

November 16 David Leisure, American actor December 16 Roy Schuiten, Dutch cyclist (d.
November 17 Roland Matthes, German swimmer

November 21 Alberto Juantorena, Cuban athlete December 17 Laurence F. Johnson, American fu-
turist and educator
November 22 Lyman Bostock, American baseball
player (d. 1978) December 18 Leonard Maltin, American lm
November 23 Chuck Schumer, American politi-
cian, U.S. Senator (D-Ny.) since 1999; cousin of December 19 Manny Trillo, Venezuelan-born
comedian Amy Schumer American baseball player
November 24 Stanley Livingston, American actor
December 23
November 28
Vicente del Bosque, Spanish footballer and
Ed Harris, American actor and lm director manager
Russell Alan Hulse, American physicist, Michael C. Burgess, American politician
Nobel Prize laureate
December 25 Ed Hochuli, American football of-
2.12 December
December 28 Alex Chilton, American rock musi-
December 1
cian (The Box Tops) (d. 2010)
Manju Bansal, Indian molecular biologist
December 29 Jon Polito, American actor (d.
Richard Keith [birth name Keith Thibodeaux],
American child actor

December 2
2.13 Date unknown
Amin Saikal, Australian academic professor
Benjamin Stora, French historian Larry Cuba, American computer-animation artist

Emil Jannings, Swiss-born German actor (b.

Anthony Prusinski, American politician (b.
January 7
Monty Banks, Italian comedian and director
(b. 1897)
Alfonso Daniel Rodrguez Castelao, Galician
politician, writer, painter and doctor (b. 1886)
January 8 Joseph Schumpeter, Czech economist
and political scientist (b. 1883)
January 11 James A. Colescott, former Imperial
Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan (b. 1897)
January 15 Henry H. Arnold, American ve-star
general (b. 1886)
January 17 Seiichi Hatano, Japanese philosopher
(b. 1877)
January 18 Horace Rice, Australian tennis player
(b. 1872)
George Orwell January 20 Ray Duggan, Australian-English
speedway rider (b. 1913)
January 21 George Orwell, English author (b.
January 22 Alan Hale Sr., American actor (b.
January 23 Vasil Kolarov, Bulgarian Communist
politician, former provisional head of State and 33rd
Prime Minister of Bulgaria (b. 1877)

3.2 February
February 3
Sir Lionel Cripps, Rhodesian politician (b.
Karl Seitz, 1st President of Austria (b. 1869)
February 6 Georges Imbert, Alsatian chemist (b.
February 7 D. K. Broster, British historical novel-
ist (b. 1877)
Alan Hale, Sr.
February 10 Marcel Mauss, French sociologist (b.
3 Deaths February 11 Kiki Cuyler, American baseball
player (Chicago Cubs) and a member of the MLB
Hall of Fame (b. 1898)
3.1 January
February 13 Rafael Sabatini, Italian writer (b.
January 2 1875)
3.3 March 21

Albert Lebrun
Karl Seitz

February 14 Karl Guthe Jansky, American physi-

cist and radio engineer, father of the radio astron-
omy (b. 1905)
February 16 Mile-a-Minute Murphy, American
cyclist (b. 1870)
February 25 George Minot, American physi-
cian, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine (b. 1885)
February 26 Harry Lauder, Scottish entertainer (b.

3.3 March
March 2 Rosli Dhobi, famous Malay Sarawakian
(b. 1932)
March 5
Sid Grauman, American restaurateur (b.
Heinrich Mann
Edgar Lee Masters, American poet (b. 1868)
March 6
March 11
Albert Lebrun, President of France (b. 1871)
Harry Redfern, English architect (b. 1861) Heinrich Mann, German novelist (b. 1871)
March 10 Marguerite De La Motte, American ac- Brock Pemberton, American theatrical pro-
tress (b. 1902) ducer (b. 1885)

Leon Blum

March 15 Carl Storck, 3rd president of the Recep Peker

National Football League (b. 1892)
March 19 April 2 Recep Peker, Prime Minister of Turkey
(b. 1889)
Edgar Rice Burroughs, American author (b.
1875) April 3 Kurt Weill, German-born composer (b.
Walter Haworth, British chemist, Nobel Prize 1900)
laureate (b. 1883)
April 7 Walter Huston, Canadian-born American
March 22 Emmanuel Mounier, French philoso-
actor (b. 1883)
pher (b. 1905)
March 24 April 8 Vaslav Nijinsky, Russian ballet dancer and
choreographer (b. 1889)
James Rudolph Gareld, American politician
(b. 1865) April 10 Fevzi akmak, Turkish military ocer
Harold Laski, British political theorist and and statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1876)
economist (b. 1893)
April 11 Bainbridge Colby, United States Secre-
March 25 Frank Buck, American animal collector
tary of State (b. 1869)
(b. 1884)
March 30 April 16 Henry J. Knauf, American politician (b.
Lon Blum, French statesman and 128th
Prime Minister of France (b. 1872) April 26 G. Murray Hulbert, American politician
Joe Yule, Scottish-born entertainer; father of (b. 1881)
Mickey Rooney (b. 1894)
April 27
3.4 April Hobart Cavanaugh, American character actor
(b. 1886)
April 1 F. O. Matthiessen, American historian and
literary critic (b. 1902) Karel Koeluh, Czech tennis player (b. 1895)
3.7 July 23

3.5 May June 9 Denis Auguste Duchne, French general (b.

May 1 Lothrop Stoddard, American eugenicist (b.
1883) June 22 Jane Cowl, American actress (b. 1883)

May 9 Esteban Terradas i Illa, Catalan mathemati- June 24 Darwan Singh Negi, Indian VC recipient
cian, scientist, and engineer (b. 1883) (b. 1881)

May 10 Belle da Costa Greene, American librar- June 29 Melitta Bentz, German entrepreneur, who
ian, bibliographer, and archivist (b. 1883) invented the coee lter in 1908 (b. 1873)

May 11 Cedric Holland, British admiral (b. 1889)

3.7 July
May 20 John Gould Fletcher, American poet (b.
May 24 Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, British
eld marshal (b. 1883)

3.6 June

William Lyon Mackenzie King

July 1 Eliel Saarinen, Finnish architect (b. 1873)

July 7 Fats Navarro, American jazz trumpet player
(b. 1923)
July 8 Helen Holmes, American actress (b. 1893)
July 10 Richard Maury, American naturalized Ar-
gentine engineer (b. 1882)
Melitta Bentz
July 11 Buddy DeSylva, American songwriter (b.
June 3 Ahmad Tajuddin, Sultan of Brunei (b.
1913) July 12 Elsie de Wolfe, American socialite and in-
terior decorator (b. 1865)
June 4
July 17 Evangeline Booth, General of The Salva-
George Cecil Ives, German-English poet, tion Army (b. 1865)
writer, penal reformer and early gay-rights
campaigner. (b.1867) July 21 Rex Ingram, American director (b. 1892)
Kazys Grinius, 3rd President of Lithuania (b. July 22 William Lyon Mackenzie King, 10th
1866). Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1874)

July 28 Kevin Budden, amateur Australian her- 3.9 September

petologist (b. 1930)

3.8 August

Jan Smuts

September 4 Max Davidson, German actor (b.

September 6 Olaf Stapledon, British author and
philosopher (b. 1886)
Arturo Alessandri Palma
September 10 Raymond Sommer, American race
car driver (b. 1906)
August 8 Nikolai Myaskovsky, Russian composer September 11
(b. 1881)
Rudolph Palm, Curaao born composer (b.
August 19 Black Elk, Wiha Wak (Medicine 1880)
Man or Holy Man) of the Ogala Teton Lakota
Jan Smuts, 2nd Prime Minister of South
(Western Sioux) (b. 1863)
Africa (b. 1870)
August 22 Kirk Bryan, American geologist (b.
September 13 Sara Allgood, Irish actress (b.
August 23 Frank Phillips, American oil executive September 16 Pedro de Cordoba, American actor
(b. 1873) (b. 1881)
August 24 Arturo Alessandri Palma, Chilean September 21 Edward Arthur Milne, British as-
statesman, 3-Time President of Chile (b. 1868) trophysicist and mathematician (b. 1896)
August 26 Ransom E. Olds, American automotive September 23 Kenneth Muir, English soldier and
pioneer (b. 1864) posthumous winner of the Victoria Cross (b.1912)
August 27 Cesare Pavese, Italian poet and novelist September 29 Alfrd Meissner, Czechoslovak
(b. 1908) politician and Holocaust survivor (b. 1871)
3.10 October 25

3.10 October

George Bernard Shaw

Gustaf V of Sweden

October 2 John F. Fitzgerald, Mayor of Boston (b.


October 9 Nicolai Hartmann, German philosopher

(b. 1882)

October 11 Pauline Lord, American actress (b.


October 13 Ernest Haycox, American writer (b.


October 19

Charles Ballantyne, Canadian politician (b.

Edna St. Vincent Millay, American poet (b.

October 20 Henry L. Stimson, United States Sec-

retary of State (b. 1867)

October 23 Al Jolson, American musician and ac-

tor (b. 1886)

October 28 Maurice Costello, American actor (b. Kuniaki Koiso


October 29 King Gustaf V of Sweden (b. 1858)


3.11 November
November 2 George Bernard Shaw, Irish writer,
Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1856)
November 3 Kuniaki Koiso, Japanese general,
41st Prime Minister of Japan (b. 1880)
November 4 Grover Cleveland Alexander, Amer-
ican baseball player (Philadelphia Phillies) and a
member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1887)
November 12 Julia Marlowe, American stage ac-
tress, (b. 1865)
November 25
Johannes V. Jensen, Danish writer, Nobel
Prize laureate (b. 1873)
Gustaf John Ramstedt, Finland-Swedish lin-
guist and diplomat (b. 1873)
November 28 James Corbitt, English murderer
(hanged) (b. 1913)
Karl Renner
November 29 Ma Zhanshan, Chinese general (b.
1885) December 12 Peter Fraser, 24th Prime Minister
of New Zealand (b. 1884)
November 30 Werner Haase, Hitlers personal
physician (b. 1900) December 15 Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Indian po-
litical leader (b. 1875)

3.12 December December 20 Enrico Mizzi, 6th Prime Minister of

Malta (b. 1885)
December 23 Walton Walker, American general
(b. 1889)
December 27 Max Beckmann, German painter (b.
December 31 Karl Renner, Austrian Social Demo-
crat politician and 4th President of Austria (b. 1870)

3.13 Unknown
Laura Anning Bell, British artist (b. 1867)
T. Sathasiva Iyer, Ceylon Tamil scholar and a writer
in Tamil language (b. 1882)
Enrico Mizzi

December 2 Dinu Lipatti, Romanian pianist (b.

4 Nobel Prizes
Physics Cecil Frank Powell
December 4 Jesse L. Brown, rst African-
American aviator in the United States Navy (killed Chemistry Otto Paul Hermann Diels, Kurt Alder
in action) (b. 1926) Medicine Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeusz Reich-
stein, Philip Showalter Hench
December 5 Sri Aurobindo, Indian guru (b. 1872)
Literature Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell
December 11 Leslie Comrie, New Zealand as-
tronomer and computing pioneer (b. 1893) Peace Ralph Bunche

5 References
[1] Christopher Andrew, Defend the Realm: The Authorized
History of MI5 (Random House Digital, 2009), pp. 387-

[2] Year by Year 1950 History Channel International

[3] Kynaston, David (2007). Austerity Britain 1945-51. Lon-

don: Bloomsbury. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-7475-7985-4.

[4] 1950: Government falls as Belgians vote for king. BBC

News. March 18, 1950.

[5] Marian S. Mazgaj, Church and State in Communist Poland:

A History, 1944-1989 (McFarland, 2010) pp. 55-56

[6] McGregor, P. M. J. (June 3, 1978). The History of No

2 Squadron, SAAF, in the Korean War. Military History
Journal. The South African Military History Society. 4
(3). ISSN 0026-4016. Archived from the original on July
22, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2009.

[7] Brief History (timeline)", AI Topics, Association for the

Advancement of Articial Intelligence, retrieved 24 Au-
gust 2016

[8] Pelletier, Joseph (1983). The Sun Danced at Fatima. New

York: Doubleday. pp. 150, 151.

[9] Rahul, Ram (2000). March of Central Asia. Indus Pub-


6 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

6.1 Text
1950 Source: Contributors: 0, Derek Ross, Mav, Jeronimo, Clasqm, Malcolm
Farmer, Eclecticology, Scipius, Danny, Tsja, Deb, SimonP, Ellmist, Zoe, Camembert, Branko, KF, Ericd, Ram-Man, Mrwojo, Rbrwr,
Ubiquity, Jazz77, Lir, Infrogmation, Llywrch, Oliver Pereira, Dante Alighieri, MartinHarper, Sannse, Seav, Skysmith, Minesweeper,
Looxix~enwiki, Docu, Samuelsen, Jdforrester, Rlandmann, Rossami, Jiang, Evercat, Hectorthebat, GCarty, Efghij, CarlKenner, Jacques
Delson, Gh, Rob Hooft, BRG, Schneelocke, Popsracer, RickK, Snoopy81, Greenrd, Wik, Gustavobernhardt, Topbanana, Lord Emsworth,
Warofdreams, Dpbsmith, Michael Rawdon, Camerong, Francs2000, RadicalBender, Dimadick, MK~enwiki, Robbot, NightCrawler, Dale
Arnett, Jredmond, RedWolf, Naddy, Arkuat, Mike Van Hulle, Rholton, Hemanshu, Sekicho, Meelar, Auric, JackofOz, Anthony, Seth Ilys,
Cyrius, JackandJill, Dbenbenn, Smjg, Ike~enwiki, ScudLee, Sj, Lee J Haywood, Orangemike, Zigger, Obli, HectorRodriguez, Mbover-
load, JillandJack, Bobblewik, Sesel, MusiCitizen, ChicXulub, Utcursch, R. end, Yath, Bgbot, Davout, Roisterer, Kuralyov, SimonLyall,
Dana~enwiki, Trevor MacInnis, TheCustomOfLife, Mike Rosoft, Oskar Sigvardsson, Ta bu shi da yu, EugeneZelenko, Farkas2029, Rich
Farmbrough, Guanabot, Florian Blaschke, Heenan73, Guanabot2, El Coronado, Bo Lindbergh, Lachatdelarue, ESkog, Nabla, RJHall, Can-
isRufus, FrankTownend, IsarSteve, Zenohockey, Art LaPella, EurekaLott, Krin, Markussep, Jpgordon, Adambro, BrokenSegue, Zarate-
man, Chirag, Slambo, Methegreat, Friviere, Jumbuck, Storm Rider, Finduilas, Alansohn, Eixo, Shadikka, Hektor, Vslashg, AzaToth,
Lectonar, Lightdarkness, TommyBoy, Cdc, Phyllis1753, Ksnow, Guthrie, Redvers, Ceyockey, Adrian.benko, Ekedolphin, Woohookitty,
Asav, Jason Palpatine, PatGallacher, Mark K. Jensen, Niloc, Je3000, Ardfern, Kelisi, KHM03, Emerson7, Mandarax, Gettingtoit, Gra-
ham87, Descendall, BD2412, Galwhaa, Chun-hian, JIP, Tim!, Schlggell, Stepanovas, Jeman52001, Killiedaft, SchuminWeb, TheMid-
nighters, AI, Pathoschild, Gurch, Karrmann, Scimitar, Chobot, Deyyaz, Bgwhite, Sus scrofa, YurikBot, RussBot, Ivirivi00, DBD, GusF,
Stephenb, CambridgeBayWeather, Pseudomonas, Gillean666, NawlinWiki, Arichnad, Welsh, Howcheng, Irishguy, Anetode, Cholmes75,
BOT-Superzerocool, David Underdown, Wknight94, AnnaKucsma, Mike Selinker, Arthur Rubin,, David Justin,
De Administrando Imperio, JonRoma, Curpsbot-unicodify, Chris1219, Kungfuadam, Tim1965, NeilN, GrinBot~enwiki, Fernandoboure-
gard, Attilios, Burnwelk, SmackBot, Lucas M, Mickyfruit, GWP, Jacek Kendysz, Hatto, KocjoBot~enwiki, D C McJonathan, Davewild,
Commander Keane bot, Yamaguchi , Hmains, Carl.bunderson, Cs-wolves, Charlierichmond, Cowman109, Persian Poet Gal, vitrigaila,
PrimeHunter, MalafayaBot, Akanemoto, PureRED, Kevin Ryde, Colonies Chris, GoodDay, Trekphiler, Proofreader, Cripipper, Eztore-
member, RFD, Khukri, Aboudaqn, AndroidCat, -Stamps95, Pat8722, Dreadstar, Ryan Roos, Das Baz, Louis Do Nothing, LeoNomis, Deiz,
Ugur Basak Bot~enwiki, SashatoBot, Jcurtis, Axem Titanium, Kuru, ThomasHoughton, The alliance, J 1982, Roman Spinner, Yashkochar,
Irn, Peteboro, Windandcb, Iridescent, Jetman, Shoeofdeath, The71, Courcelles, Tawkerbot2, Signinstranger, ZacheryWanzer, CmdrObot,
Zarex, AlbertSM, Jim101, JohnCD, Suls, Captain Caveman, ShelfSkewed, Neelix, Eposty, AndrewHowse, Cydebot, Kanags, Gogo Dodo,
Khatru2, Pgg7, Dark-hooded smoker, Pete Davis, EqualRights, Omicronpersei8, Garej, PKT, Thijs!bot, Anyo Niminus, Epbr123, Wikid77,
Islescape, 2Pac, Paragon12321, Einbierbitte, West Brom 4ever, Missvain, Ronald W Wise, AgentPeppermint, Ludde23, Michael A.
White, MinnesotanConfederacy, Dawnseeker2000, Escarbot, Marco Thomas, Mentisto, Hmrox, Histrydude, AntiVandalBot, Milton Stan-
ley, Majorly, Chrischord, Bigtimepeace, Doc Tropics, MJHankel, Gerard Mulholland, Modernist, Bluetooth954, CainDamien, Eddie17,
JAnDbot, Barek, Chungalin, Byakugan360, Tohru Honda13, Parsifal13, Croatiica, Bencherlite, Markhamman, Krevilo76, Bongwarrior,
VoABot II, AuburnPilot, Nyttend, Burrower, BrianGV, Loonymonkey, Schumi555, DerHexer, Wdake, Pax:Vobiscum, Kayau, SportsAd-
dicted, MartinBot, Arjun01, Juansidious, Rodan44, CalendarWatcher, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, VirtualDelight, Lilac Soul, Koplimek,
J.delanoy, Bogey97, Numbo3, Ruddogg, TheHugmonsters, Davidprior, FruitMonkey, LordAnubisBOT, 97198, WarBaCoN, Belovedf-
reak, Clive the Cup, Juliancolton, STBotD, DH85868993, Atama, Hutcho, Wikipeterproject, CardinalDan, Hammersoft, VolkovBot,
Je G., AlnoktaBOT, MusiCS, Aesopos, ChicogoN, Starbucks95905, Philip Trueman, TXiKiBoT, Cosmic Latte, LeeMulod333, Rei-
bot, Gerrish, Favi4et, Drex15, SingleStar, Mt1993, E-romance, Gibson Flying V, Mwilso24, NoNameIst, Df206, Notedenter~enwiki,
Fribbitous, GlassFET, Monty845, Glst2, Eximius.vkm, Tugbug, Macdonald-ross, SieBot, Coee, Ttonyb1, Graham Beards, Moonrid-
dengirl, BotMultichill, Saralabhai, Starsh1014, SE7, Purbo T, Tiptoety, Mandsford, Prestonmag, Oxymoron83, Kumioko (renamed),
Bot-iww, StaticGull, WikiLaurent, Shormi, Moonside, Jons63, Msm3, Mx. Granger, Dogman the Wise, Elassint, ClueBot, Whit33, Pipep-
Bot, The Thing That Should Not Be, Drmies, Dictionaryman111, JTBX, Skeeball93, Mdlawmba, Ralphierce, P. S. Burton, Energizer07,
KenDenier, Uksharma3, Thingg, Horselover Frost, Footballfan190, DerBorg, MatthewAnderson707, Versus22, PCHS-NJROTC, Ship-
Fan, DumZiBoT, Life of Riley, Camboxer, Nghtownclerk, PseudoBot, Richard-of-Earth, TravelinSista, Addbot, RandySavageFTW, Some
jerk on the Internet, Halosean, Friginator, Jncraton, Wikimichael22, Ian.leefmans, CanadianLinuxUser, CarsracBot, Mountleek, Favonian,
Mdnavman, GC8124~enwiki, Tassedethe, Numbo3-bot, Tide rolls, JacobDyer08, Romanskolduns, Urpunkt, Zorrobot, AussieLegend2,
Glisigma, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, Naudefjbot~enwiki, SimpleJYouTube, Reenem, KamikazeBot, Daniel 1992, Kirkpeters,
Tonyrex, AnomieBOT, DemocraticLuntz, Jhalman, MargoKey, Piano non troppo, Pinof, Ulric1313, M.D Master, ArthurBot, LilHelpa,
MauritsBot, Xqbot, TomB123, Timir2, JimVC3, Vjingo, Maestroso simplo, YBG, Jmundo, Pizzamaniac09, Sir Stanley, Nedim Ardoa,
Doulos Christos, GhalyBot, Swolpert, FrescoBot, LucienBOT, Andre Kritzinger, Twinsdude, Soangry, Gene-va, M2545, Best name, A
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General Rommel, Gabrielpokemon, Syngmung,, Donner60, ChuispastonBot, HandsomeFella, Smogdog63, ClueBot NG, S-d
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Molindater, Marintosalla, Hopoifre, Ferdul,, Liborralosa, TJJJJMAXXX3333, VRtrooper, InternetArchiveBot, Werwe5332,
Bertuio, Elephantpink, Flagrob11, Bryan Calvin, Zul helmi, Maximum7060 and Anonymous: 635

6.2 Images
File:Abdullah_Gl_Senate_of_Poland.JPG Source:
Senate_of_Poland.JPG License: CC BY-SA 3.0 pl Contributors: Senat Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej Original artist: Micha Koziczyski
File:Alan_Hale_1921.jpg Source: License: Public domain
6.2 Images 29

Contributors: <a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external text' href=''>Photoplay Magazine, January

1921</a> at the Internet Archive Original artist: Stauss - Payton (photograph)
File:Albert_Lebrun_1932_(2).jpg Source:
jpg License: Public domain Contributors: <a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external text' href='
btv1b9030230z/'>Bibliothque nationale de France</a> Original artist: Agence de presse Meurisse
File:Alessandri_Ulk_(1932).jpg Source:
License: Public domain Contributors: Chilehistoria N12 Original artist: Unknown<a href=''
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='
Wikidata-logo.svg/20px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png' width='20' height='11' srcset='
thumb/f/ff/Wikidata-logo.svg/30px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 1.5x,
Wikidata-logo.svg/40px-Wikidata-logo.svg.png 2x' data-le-width='1050' data-le-height='590' /></a>
File:Bill_Murray_by_Gage_Skidmore.jpg Source:
Skidmore.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Gage Skidmore
File:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-R98911,_Heinrich_Mann.jpg Source:
Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-R98911%2C_Heinrich_Mann.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 de Contributors: This image was provided to
Wikimedia Commons by the German Federal Archive (Deutsches Bundesarchiv) as part of a cooperation project. The German Federal
Archive guarantees an authentic representation only using the originals (negative and/or positive), resp. the digitalization of the originals
as provided by the Digital Image Archive. Original artist: o.Ang.
File:Carr-promo.jpg Source: License: ? Contributors: ? Original artist:
File:Charles_Schumer_official_portrait.jpg Source:
official_portrait.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Original artist: U.S. Senate
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: License: PD Contributors: ? Origi-
nal artist: ?
File:Derek-de-lint-1340646708.jpg Source:
License: CC BY 3.0 Contributors: Original artist: Jerome de lint
File:Drnovsek.png Source: License: GFDL 1.2 Contributors:
Transferred from pl.wikipedia to Commons. Original artist: The original uploader was Adam1993 at Polish Wikipedia
File:EdHarris10TIFF.jpg Source: License: CC BY-SA
2.0 Contributors: Original artist: gdcgraphics at
File:Enrico_Mizzi.JPG Source: License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Con-
tributors: Own work Original artist: Philip Serracino Inglott (Inkwina (talk contribs))
File:Ernesto_Samper_(cropped).jpg Source:
29.jpg License: CC BY-SA 2.0 Contributors: Original artist: Micaela Ay-
ala V./Andes
File:Ferdinand_Schmutzer_-_Karl_Seitz,_1925.jpg Source:
Schmutzer_-_Karl_Seitz%2C_1925.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: sterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Bildarchiv Austria,
Inventarnr. LSCH 0275-C Original artist: Ferdinand Schmutzer
File:George_Bernard_Shaw_notebook.jpg Source:
notebook.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: This image comes from the Google-hosted LIFE Photo Archive where it
is available under the lename bec2ceefc94608b1. Original artist: Unknown<a href=''
title='wikidata:Q4233718'><img alt='wikidata:Q4233718' src='
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