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SI and other Units,

Chapter 4 Amount
Concentration
Density
Stoichiometry
Calculations in Analytical Chemistry

SI UNITS You must learn the units, the prefixes and unit conversions
In science generally use SI units are used but in Analytical using conversion factors!
Chemistry, due to the very wide range of quantities (from
very small to very large) we sue derived SI orr sometimes
non SI units.

For example visible radiation is given in terms of nm; eg


the wavelenght of the yellow light of sodium flame is 590
nm

Volumes can vary from micro liters to liters.

Mass can be anywhere from micrograms to kilograms.


The Mole (mol)
This is the amount of chemical matter. I mol contains
Avagadros number of particles.

Millimol and micromol are derived units of mol and are


10-3 and 10-6 mol respectively.

Relationship between mass (m), molar mass (MM) and


amount in mols (n) is given by the following eqn:

Amount in mols =
 


n=

Example
How many grams of C is present in a 72.8 g sample of
Iron(III) carbonate.

Solution Concentrations - MOLARITY


Molar concentration cX of a solution of a chemical species X At times it is necessary to distinguish between two types of
is the number of moles of that species contained in 1 liter of concentrations.
the solution (not one liter of the solvent).
Analytical Molarity is the total number of moles of a solute,
The unit of molar concentration is molarity, M. It has the irrespective of its chemical state, in 1 L of solution. It
dimensions of mol/L or molL-1 describes how a solution of a given molarity can be prepared.


     
 . 
 Equilibrium Molarity is the molar concentration of a particular
cX = 

     
   
 species in a solution. This can either be calculated if the
relevant equilibrium constants are known or measured
experimentally.
Example
Calculate the molar concentration of ethanol in an aqueous Example
solution that contains 5.80g ethanol in 2.50 L solution Calculate the analytical and equilibrium molar concentrations
of the solute species in an aqueous solution that contains 285
mg of trichloroacetic acid in 10.0 mL(the acid is 73% ionized
in water).
Other concentration units Other concentration units

Try and avoid the use of these units. Only w/w is temperature
independent

Eg Nitric acid is sold as a 70% w/w solution. What mass


should you take to prepare a 1 L 2 M HNO3(aq) solution

Other concentration units Other concentration units

p-functions
Frequently in chemistry the p-function or p-value is used to
express the concentration of certain species. This is the
negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the molar concentration
of that species. Thus for species X:

pX=-log10[X]

Useful for expressing concentrations that are small and vary


over ten or more orders of magnitude.

APPROXIMATION Example
For dilute aqueous solutions whose densities are approximately Calculate the molar concentration of Ag+ in a solution that has
1.00 g/mL. a pAg+ of 6.372.
1ppm= 1.00 mg/L
1ppb= 1.00 g/L
DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOLUTIONS

Example

STOICHIOMETRY Stoichiometric calculations


Quantitative relationship between reacting chemicals.

Empirical and Molecular Formula 1. Write a balanced chemical equation

1. A 25.00-g sample of an orange compound contains 6.64 g 2. Establish stoichiometric factors between the reactant and
of potassium, 8.84 g of chromium, and 9.52 g of oxygen. product species
Find the empirical formula.
2. From the elemental analysis of 5.00-g acetic acid, we get 3. Use these factors to calculate unknown quantities from
7.33 g CO2 and 3.00 g H2O. The compound is known to known quantities.
contain C, H and O only. Find the empirical formula.
3. Analysis by a mass spectrometer gives the molar mass of
acetic acid as 60 g/mol. Determine its molecular formula.
Example