Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

APPLICATION OF EXPOSED GAS PIPELINE MONITORING SYSTEM

Seong Kyeong Hong, Korea Gas Corporation, R&D Center


Jae Pil Koh , Korea Gas Corporation, R&D Center

1. INTRODUCTION

The monitoring system for the exposed gas pipeline was developed to guarantee the safety of
exposed gas pipeline. Recently, many kinds of underground constructions are in progress such as
the underground passage and subway station in surroundings of high pressure gas pipeline. The
range of exposed gas pipeline arising from the construction is about 50 to 300 meters. If the exposed
gas pipeline is destroyed by the failure of supporting structures, there is a possibility that large scale
gas leakages can be occurred, which result an enormous social damage. Presently, a round of
inspection for the exposed gas pipeline in construction site is made four times a day. However, if
large scale accidents like demolition of supporting structures take place, it will be very difficult to
manage the emergency. However, the system we introduced, an exposed gas pipeline monitoring
system, is a round the clock monitoring system that will be an effective tool to guarantee the safety of
exposed gas pipeline.1,2)
The exposed gas pipeline monitoring system consists of image, vibration (acceleration) and
strain (stress) processing. The system uses a Windows running host PC separated remotely, and is
controlled through an ethernet connection. This system consists of one CCD camera, 8 vibration and
16 strain channels, and the monitoring software for each position. Also, the software manages
vibration tendency and history of data for exposed gas pipeline of the construction region. Especially,
the vibration signals are monitored and stored simultaneously for the time and frequency domain using
a dynamic signal processing board. This system adopted ethernet communication when measuring
the strain signal to minimize noise arising from long lead wire connection. Mobile phone messaging
and alarm ordering functions will be added to guarantee the safety of exposed gas pipeline. Also,
using the stored vibration and strain signal, procedures of safety diagnosis including finite element
structural analysis are established for exposed gas pipeline of construction region.
This paper presents the influence of vehicle load on exposed gas pipeline and supporting
structures by measuring strain and vibration simultaneously. Also, using the experimental results of
the vibration and strain measurement, safety estimations of exposed gas pipeline are carried out.

2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

Most countries have regulations which specify legally acceptable levels of ground vibration
generated by blasting. These regulations are typically based upon research which relates peak

1
particle velocity to structural damage. In most operations, blast vibration levels are kept well below the
established criteria to avoid damage. Currently, vibration restriction of exposed gas pipeline refers to
blasting regulations most countries used. But technical backgrounds of this restriction are not clear
3,4,5)
.

2.1 Regulations of vibration restriction (U.S.A)


US vibration criteria are developed by the Bureau of Mine as shown in Table 1, 2.

Velocity (cm/sec) Damage


5.0 damage criterion
13.8 minor damage
19.4 major damage
Table 1 : Vibration criteria (Nicholls et al, 1971)

Frequency Vibration criteria (cm/sec)


> 40Hz 5.0
< 40Hz 1.2
Table 2 : Vibration criteria (Siskind, et al., 1980)

2.2 Regulations of vibration restriction (Germany)

Vibration velocity (cm/sec)


Plane of floor of
Type of structure Foundation
uppermost full story
Less than
10~50Hz 50~100Hz Frequency mixture
10Hz
Building used for commercial purposes,
2.0 2.0~4.0 4.0~5.0 40
Industrial buildings
Dwellings 0.5 0.5~1.5 1.5~2.0 15
Structures having particular sensitivity to vibration (buildings
0.3 0.3~0.8 0.8~1.0 8
that are under a preservation order)
With frequencies > 100 Hz higher levels may be accepted

Table 3 : Guideline values of vibration velocity for evaluating the effects of short-term vibration
(DIN 4150, 1986)

3. EXPERIMENT OF EXPOSED GAS PIPELINE

3.1 Experimental method


We removed PE coating from gas pipeline and bonded strain gages on it. A delta strain gage
rosette was bonded to the point where coating was removed. A strain gage rosette is an arrangement
of two or more closely positioned gage grids, separately oriented to measure the normal strains along

2
different directions in the underlying surface of the test part. A dynamic strain conditioning amplifier
2311 of measurements group is used. Three wire quarter Wheatstone bridge circuits are adopted.
Using the equations for calculating principal strain, we got principal stresses from three rosette strain
measurements.
Vibration measurements are carried out using vibration measurement system, Bobcat, and
three axis accelerometer also set up to measure vibration of gas pipeline (PCB, 356A08, 100mV/g,
frequency range 5~5000Hz). The unit used to express vibration is centimeter per second (cm/sec),
which is used widely worldwide. The mechanical properties of gas pipeline are shown in Table 4. The
subject of this experiment was subway construction site of Seoul metropolitan city.

Youngs Modulus Yield Stress Tensile Stress


Poissons Ratio
(GPa) (MPa) (MPa)
207 0.3 448 530
Table 4 : Mechanical properties of gas pipeline (API 5L Gr. X65)

3.2 Equations for calculating principal stress


The equations for calculating principal strains from three rosette strain measurements are
derived from what is known as a strain-transformation relationship. Referring to Fig.1, calculation of
principal strains are 6) ,
1 + 2 + 3 2
P ,Q = (1 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 3 1 ) 2 ----- (1)
3 3
Principal stress for delta strain gage rosette as follows,

E 1 + 2 + 3 2
P ,Q = (1 2 ) 2 + ( 2 3 ) 2 + ( 3 1 ) 2 ----- (2)
3 1 1 +

where E is Youngs modulus of gas pipeline, is Poissons ratio and 1, 2, 3 are strain values of

gage 1, 2, 3 respectively. Geometry of delta strain gage rosette and Mohrs circle for calculating
principal stress are shown in Fig. 1.

3
Fig. 1 Strain gage rosette and Mohrs circle

3.3 Characteristics of stress and vibration of exposed gas pipeline


The experiment and analysis carried out according to sedan, mini van 1, 2 and bus 1, 2
passing on the deck plate. Strain gage of 0 was bonded to the pipeline in longitudinal direction. Strain
variations of strain rosette of 0, 60 and 120 are shown in Fig. 2. The values of 0 strain, longitudinal
direction of pipeline, show the largest values.
Maximum and minimum principal stresses according to the vehicle passing on the deck plate
are shown in Fig. 3. Maximum principal stress, like strain values, appeared when the bus passed.
Measured vibration velocity of gas pipeline is shown in Fig. 4. Vibration signal shows overlapped
tendency unlike a strain signal. The largest value of strain and vibration appeared when the bus
passed as we predict. When the bus passed, maximum principal stress of gas pipeline is 1.5MPa.
This value equals 0.33 percent of yield stress of gas pipeline, 448MPa. With the limited experimental
results obtained this test, it is concluded that there is no problem on the safety of gas pipeline. But, in
the field of subway construction, partial strength degradation of supporting structures as well as gas
pipeline may cause large scale accident like a collapse of deck plate. Maximum vibration velocity was
0.99cm/sec when the bus passed. Maximum principal stresses and velocities are shown in Table 5.

Vehicle Sedan Mini Van 1 Bus 1 Bus 2 Mini Van 2

Maximum Principal Stress (MPa) 0.26 0.54 1.47 1.5 0.23

Maximum Vibration Velocity


0.23 0.55 0.99 0.92 0.38
(cm/sec)

Table 5 : Maximum principal stress and vibration velocity occurring on the gas pipeline

8
S
t
r
at
i
na
Rni
oRn
soR
e
t
t
et

o
0
S
rS
ir

s
es
t
et

o
6 60
t
a

o
e
t
e

o
120

4
Strain( )

SEDAN MINI VAN


-2
MINI VAN
-4

-6
BUS BUS
-8
0 5 10 15 20
Time(sec)

Fig. 2 Strain values of the gas pipeline

4
1.8
Maxim um Princip al Stress
1.5
Minim um Princip al Stress
1.2

Principal Stress(MPa)
0.9

0.6

0.3

0.0

-0.3 SEDAN MINI VAN


0.26 0.23
-0.6 MINI VAN
0.54
-0.9

-1.2 BUS BUS


1.47 1.5
-1.5
0 5 10 15 20
Time(sec)

Fig. 3 Principal stress of the gas pipeline

1.5
Lo ng itud inal
Transverse
1.0 Vertical 0.99 0.92
Velocity(cm/sec)

0.55
0.5
0.23 0.38

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5
0 3 6 9 12 15 18
Time(sec)

Fig. 4 Vibration velocity of the gas pipeline

3.4 Characteristics of load transmission according to speed of vehicle


Investigations of transmission characteristics of vehicle load and vibration are very important
thing in this task. To verify load transmission from deck plate to gas pipeline, the test vehicle was
used. Strain gages were bonded to the beam supporting deck plate to measure the stress of a beam.
Results of this level of load transmission from deck plate to gas pipeline may be used as the basis of
restriction against vehicle moving speed.
To verify load transmission in dynamic condition, we measured the load of test vehicle in static
loading condition. Loads of front and rear wheel are presented in Table 6. In the field of underground
exposed pipeline, strain gage was bonded at a point of beam supporting deck plate to measure the
load of the beam. Another gage was bonded at the other point of beam located 6 meters apart. The
changes of strain as the time elapse are recorded on memory scope. The speeds of test vehicle are
14.55, 25.4, 43.6, 60.8 and 66.5 kilometers per hour, respectively.

5
Vehicle Front Wheel (N) Rear Wheel (N)

Nubira 7534.1(61%) 4811.8(39%)

Table 6 : Load of test vehicle in static loading condition

The strain variations when the speed of test vehicle was 14.55 kilometers an hour are shown
in Fig. 5. Only the positive strains are object of this analysis. The results of strain variation are shown
in Figs.6 ~ 8 when the speeds of test vehicle were 25.4, 43.6 and 60.8 kilometers per hour,
respectively. In all cases, contact time of deck plate of vehicle decreases with increasing speed of
vehicle. Maximum strain values according to vehicle speed are shown in Fig. 9. It is interesting to note
that the strain decreases when the speed exceeds 60 kilometers an hour. For any vehicle passing the
point of strain gage bonding, measuring data shows there is no influence at constant moving speed.
But, in case of abrupt stop and start of vehicle, the deck plate and gas pipeline are influenced
seriously. In the field of subway construction, the managing directions for the safety of exposed gas
pipeline must be changed to restrict the vehicle of maximum speed of 60 kilometers an hour and
prohibit from abrupt stop and start.
F
r
o
n
t
W
h
e
e
l

20
PP
oo
s
i
t
oi
i
nn
12
s
i
t
o

15
Rear W heel
F
r
o
n
t
W
h
e
e
l
R
e
a
r
W
h
e
e
l
10
Strain( )

-5

-10

-15 14.55km/h

-20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time(sec)
Fig. 5 Strain variation of vehicle speed 14.55km/h
F
r
o
n
t
W
h
e
e
l
R
e
a
r
W
h
eF
e
lr

20
PP
oo
is
s
t
oi
i
nn
12
o
n
t
W
h
e
e
l

i
t
o

15
R
e
a
r
W
h
e
e
l

10

5
Strain( )

-5

-10

-15 25.4km/h

-20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Time(sec)

Fig. 6 Strain variation of vehicle speed 25.4km/h

6
PP
oo
s
i
t
oi
i
nn
12
40

s
i
t
o
F
r
o
n
t
W
h
e
e
l
R
e
a
r
W
h
e
e
l
30

F
r
o
n
t
W
h
e
e
l
20

R
e
a
r
W
h
e
e
l
Strain( )
10

-10
43.6km/h

-20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time(sec)

Fig. 7 Strain variation of vehicle speed 43.6km/h


F
r
o
n
t
W
h
e
e
l

PP
oo
s
i
t
oi
i
nn
12
40

s
i
t
o
R
e
a
r
W
h
e
e
l

30
F
r
o
n
t
W
h
e
e
l

20
R
e
a
r
W
h
e
e
l
Strain( )

10

-10
60.8km/h
-20
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time(sec)

Fig. 8 Strain variation of vehicle speed 60.8km/h

50
PPPP
oooo
is
s
t
oi
i
nnnn
1122
is
t
oi

45
is
t
oi
i
t
o

40
F
r
o
n
t

35

30
Load ( )

R
e
a
r

25
F
r
o
n
t

20

15
R
e
a
r

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Vehicle speed (km/h)

Fig. 9 Maximum strain according to vehicle speed

7
4. EXPOSED GAS PIPELINE MONITORING SYSTEM

4.1 Overview
The exposed gas pipeline monitoring system consists of image, vibration (acceleration) and
strain (stress) processing. The system uses a Windows running host PC separated remotely, and is
controlled through an ethernet connection. This system consists of one CCD camera, 8 vibration and
16 strain channels and the monitoring software at each position. Also, the software manages vibration
tendency and history of data for the exposed gas pipeline of the construction region. Especially, the
vibration signals are monitored and stored for the time and frequency domain simultaneously using a
dynamic signal processing board. This system adopted ethernet communication when measuring the
strain signal to minimize noise arising from a long lead wire connection.
Mobile phone messaging and alarm ordering functions will be added to guarantee the safety of
exposed gas pipeline. Also, using the stored vibration and strain signal, procedures of safety
diagnosis including finite element structural analysis are established for exposed gas pipeline.

4.2 Exposed gas pipeline monitoring system

Fig. 10 Main screen of pipeline monitoring system

8
Fig. 11 Set up screen of pipeline monitoring system

Fig. 12 Time domain of pipeline monitoring system

Fig. 13 Frequency domain of pipeline monitoring system

9
5. CONCLUDING REMARKS

To guarantee the safety of exposed gas pipeline, the exposed gas pipeline monitoring system
was developed. This system is developed and applied successfully in the field where gas pipeline is
exposed. The system is a round the clock monitoring system that will be an effective tool to guarantee
the safety of exposed gas pipeline. This paper presents the influence of vehicle load on exposed gas
pipeline and supporting structures by measuring strain and vibration simultaneously. Also, using the
experimental results, safety estimations of exposed gas pipeline are carried out. Principal stress of
gas pipeline is 1.5MPa at the maximum vibration velocity of 0.99 kine. This value equals 0.33 percent
of yield stress of gas pipeline, therefore it can be concluded that there will not have any problem on
the safety of gas pipeline. When the stress exceeds the 60 percent of yield strength of pipe, we must
consider the influence of fatigue seriously. Results of load transmission from deck plate to gas pipeline
may be used as a basis of restriction against the moving speed of vehicle. If a vehicle makes an
abrupt start and stop during the drive, the influence on the deck plate and gas pipeline is serious.
Therefore, the managing directions for the safety of exposed gas pipeline must be changed to limit the
maximum speed of 60 kilometers an hour and prohibit a sudden start and stop during the drive.

REFERENCES

1. S. K. Hong, J. H. Kim, S. Y. Jeong (December, 1999). A Study of Vibration Characteristics of


Exposed Gas Pipeline under Vehicle Loading. Journal of the Korean Institute for Industrial Safety, Vol.
14, No. 4 : 71-77.
2. An Index to the Evaluation of Impact on Gas Safety (1996). Korea Gas Safety Corporation.
3. Anthony J. Petro and Douglas A. Anderson (November 1986). Blast Vibration Problems : where do
we go from here? Journal of Mines, Metals and Fuels : 502-505
4. Charles H. Dowding (1984). Blast Vibration Monitoring and Control. Northwestern University.
5. Structural Vibration in Buildings, Effect on Structures (May 1988). DIN 4150 part 3.
6. Measurements Group TECH NOTE TN-515 (1990). Strain Gage Rosette - Selection, Application
and Data Reduction : 1-10.

10