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Steel Innovations Workshop

Wigram, Christchurch
21-22 February 2013

LOW DAMAGE CONSTRUCTION


Gregory MacRae Charles Clifton
University of Canterbury University of Auckland
Christchurch Auckland
New Zealand New Zealand
OUTLINE

Why Low Damage Construction (LDC)?


What is LDC?
Implementing LDC in Steel
Cost Issues for LDC
Some LDC Applications
Adoption Issues
OUTLINE

Why Low Damage Construction (LDC)?


What is LDC?
Implementing LDC in Steel
Cost Issues for LDC
Some LDC Applications
Adoption Issues
www.freeimages.co.uk
WHY LDC?
- for demolition
Christchurch building status: - for partial demolition
- for making safe

http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/christchurch-earthquake-2011/5282824/Quake-damaged-buildings-map
WHY LDC?

Cant we do better?
OUTLINE

Why Low Damage Construction (LDC)?


What is LDC?
Implementing LDC in Steel
Cost Issues for LDC
Some LDC Applications
Adoption Issues
8

WHAT IS LDC?
Level of Shaking Building Performance Levels

MacRae G. A., 2010. University of Canterbury Research, in Proceedings of the Steel Structures Workshop 2010, University of Canterbury, 13-14 April.
9

WHAT IS LDC?

A. LOW DAMAGE FRAMES

B. LOW DAMAGE
STRUCTURAL
SYSTEMS

Bull

C. LOW DAMAGE SYSTEMS

BUILDINGS BRIDGES
No nonstructural No alignment
or contents damage damage
OUTLINE

Why Low Damage Construction (LDC)?


What is LDC?
Implementing LDC in Steel
Cost Issues for LDC
Some LDC Applications
Adoption Issues
IMPLEMENTING LDC

A) CURRENT DESIGN APPROACH (?)

Courtesy S. Gardiner (SPIIRE) J. Kirk (Kirk Roberts)


12

IMPLEMENTING LDC

B) STRONG (Elastically Responding) Systems

a) Already possible in low


seismic zones

b) Use high strength materials?


(E.g. fy = 750MPa steels)

http://www.clker.com/cliparts/5/P/u/j/3/G/strong-arm-md.png
IMPLEMENTING LDC

C) BASE ISOLATION

Negligible
Interstorey
Drift

Interstorey Drift
Significant

Isolation
Bearings

Conventional Construction Base Isolated Construction


From Mayes R. in Naeim F., The Seismic Design Handbook, 2001
IMPLEMENTING LDC

C) BASE ISOLATION
15

FORMS OF LDC

D) SUPPLEMENTAL DAMPING
Low base shears with viscous devices
Dissipator costs can be high

Charnley and Symons, 2004 http://www.taylordevices.eu/fr/pdfs/seismic%20applications.pdf


16

FORMS OF LDC

E) POST-TENSIONED
Post-tensioned BEAMS
beam systems


17

FORMS OF LDC

E) POST-TENSIONED BEAMS
System Issues:

Kim J., Stanton J., and MacRae G. A., Effect of Beam Growth on Reinforced Concrete Frames, Journal of
Structural Engineering, ASCE, 130(9), pp. 1333-1342, September 2004.
18

FORMS OF LDC

E) POST-TENSIONED BEAMS
Slab Issues:
Cracking
C

Slab damage
(Clifton G. C. 2005. Semi-Rigid
MacRae G. A., 2010. Some Steel
Seismic Research Issues, in
C Slight beam growth
Joints for Moment Resisting Steel
Framed Seismic Resisting
Proceedings of the Steel Systems. PhD Thesis,
Structures Workshop 2010, Increase in column demand Department of Civil and
Research Directions for Steel from RHS only Environmental Engineering,
Structures, compiled by MacRae University of Auckland)
G. A. and Clifton G. C., University
of Canterbury, 13-14 April.

It is possible to mitigate some of these slab issues for some structures.


SESOC does not recommend the use of post-tensioned beam systems
Design of Conventional Structural Systems Following the Canterbury Earthquakes: Structural Engineering Society of New Zealand,
ENG.SESOC.0016.1, Version No. 4 21 December 2011, http://canterbury.royalcommission.govt.nz/documents-by-key/20110930.14
19

FORMS OF LDC

F) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions

Column
Force

Displacement

1
20

FORMS OF LDC

F) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions

Column
Force

Displacement

2
21

FORMS OF LDC

F) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions

Column
Force

Displacement

3
22

FORMS OF LDC

F) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions

Column
Force

Displacement

4
23

FORMS OF LDC

E) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions

Column
Force

Displacement

5
24

FORMS OF LDC

E) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions

Column
Force

Displacement

6
25

FORMS OF LDC

F) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions

Mander T. J., Rodgers G. W., Chase J. G., Mander J. B. MacRae G. A. and Dhakal R. A Damage Avoidance Design Steel
Beam-Column Moment Connection Using High-Force-To-Volume Dissipators, American Society of Civil Engineering. Journal of
Structural Engineering, 135(11), November 1, 2009, pp13901397. ISSN 0733-9445.
Chanch J., Chase J.G. ,
Rodgers G.W., MacRae G.A.,
Clifton C.G. ,Velocity
dependence of HF2V devices
using different shaft
configurations, NZSEE
Conference,
Christchurch 2012.

Chanch J., Chase J.G. ,


Rodgers G.W., MacRae G.A.,
Clifton C.G., Application of
HF2V Devices on Steel
Structures, STESSA
Conference, Santiago, Chile
2012.
27

FORMS OF LDC

F) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions

Friction Connection
P
P

P
FORMS OF LDC

F) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions

Khoo H-H., Clifton G. C., Butterworth J., C.D. Mathieson C. D. and MacRae G. A.,
Development of the Self-Centering Sliding Hinge Joint, Proceedings of the Ninth
Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Building an Earthquake-Resilient
Society, 14-16 April, 2011, Auckland, New Zealand. Oral presentation. Paper 106.
FORMS OF LDC

G) Buckling Restrained Braces

A lot of overseas (particularly Taiwanese work), Tsai et al.


- Wijanto and Clifton (2011)
FORMS OF LDC

H) Friction Braces
33

FORMS OF LDC

I) Rocking Systems


34

FORMS OF LDC

I) Rocking Systems

Post- Post-
tensioning tensioning
cable cable

Springs Dissipator

Aurecon, 2008 Lehigh Proposal and Test Stanford-Illinois-Tokyo Tech Proposal


Structure, 2008 and Test Structure, 2009 + ARCL 2013
35

FORMS OF LDC

J) Rocking Systems

Issues:
Displacement Compatibility
- Slab damage
- Frame damage
Transfer of force
Increased Accelerations
Energy dissipation

See paper
OUTLINE

Why Low Damage Construction (LDC)?


What is LDC?
Implementing LDC in Steel
Cost Issues for LDC
Some LDC Applications
Adoption Issues
37

COST ISSUES

Cost Increment

E.g. Base Isolation

Japan Cheaper
New Zealand Consultant 1 Cost Neutral
- Consultant 2 Slightly More Expensive

E.g. Victoria University Low Damage Steel Building

Initial cost increment was 0.5%

If there is an additional extra cost, is it prohibitive?

- Child car seats


- Getting current earthquake resistant design
OUTLINE

Why Low Damage Construction (LDC)?


What is LDC?
Implementing LDC in Steel
Cost Issues for LDC
Some LDC Applications
Adoption Issues
CASE STUDIES

A) TE PUNI VILLAGE
VICTORIA UNIVERSITY, WELLINGTON
Friction Connections
Rocking Steel Frames

Sean Gledhill and Geoff Sidwell, Aurecon Engineers, 2008


CASE STUDIES

Friction Joints Post-tensioned Springs


for Rocking frame
Aurecon
41

CASE STUDIES

B) DAYSTAY HOSPITAL, KILMORE STREET,


CHRISTCHURCH

Alan Reay Consultants Limited


42

CASE STUDIES

Alan Reay Consultants Limited


43

CASE STUDIES

C) BHUJ HOSPITAL, GUJARAT, INDIA (2003)


Base Isolation
Courtesy of Gannon, Robinson Seismic

BECA, Dunning Thornton, Holmes, Robinson Seismic


44

CASE STUDIES

D) JAKARTA SIGNATURE TOWER (2020)

600m tall (#5 in the world in 2020)


Elastic design

Composite core and supercolumns


Steel outrigger and belt trusses

Wijanto (Gistama Consultants)


OUTLINE

Why Low Damage Construction (LDC)?


What is LDC?
Implementing LDC in Steel
Cost Issues for LDC
Some LDC Applications
Adoption Issues
46

ADOPTION ISSUES

LDC Adoption Impediments (Uma et al)


4.1 Policy issues (Building Code)
4.2 Demonstrable performance
4.3 Cost factor
4.4 Peer review and building consent process
4.5 Construction industry momentum

Because poor building performance affects not only the building owners and
occupier, it seems reasonable that the Damage Control Limit State (i.e. LDC)
should be the default for all design.

Uma S.R. et al., Implementation of Low Damage Construction: What are the Challenges?, 2013 NZSEE Conference Wellington.
FINAL THOUGHTS

The Choice
Building 1: Building 2:

Looks good Looks good


New New
Satisfies code Satisfies code
Avoids death/injury Avoids death/injury
Cost $X Cost same
as Building 1
Requires replacement after Usable after
severe shaking severe shaking
Which is better?
http://www.google.co.nz/imgres?q=free+scales+image&hl=en&biw=1008&bih=506&tbm=isch&tbnid=mZTQMjTN-yCHSM:&imgrefurl=http://www.freeclipartnow.com/society/law/scales-of-
justice.jpg.html&docid=9rJ3_xNolU4GaM&imgurl=http://www.freeclipartnow.com/d/42028-1/scales-of-
justice.jpg&w=204&h=208&ei=uH96T6nRDOnJmQXTpPzxAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=295&vpy=171&dur=8479&hovh=166&hovw=163&tx=82&ty=193&sig=110018657992568287435&page
=1&tbnh=154&tbnw=151&start=0&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0
FINAL THOUGHTS

Our Role
COLLABORATIONS
Development:
SCNZ and HERA
Consultants, Fabricators, Suppliers, Producers
GNS
MBIE Natural Hazards Platform
Earthquake Commission
Universities
Mechanical/Civil Engineering
Overseas Groups
Implementation:
Government
Owners
Public
Thank you
51

FORMS OF LDC

I) Other Systems
Self-Centring braces

Shape Memory Alloy braces


(E.g. post-tensioned nitonol).
Issues:
- temperature effects
- dependability
- initial prestress required
- cost
Others ..
WHY LDC?
Loss

X - 30-50% of population lost For relatively large


design events

Lives lost has gone


down to nearly zero
Cost as %GDP = 10-20%

Cost and economic


damage has
remained constant

X - 0.05% of population lost or less

Lisbon Chi-Chi 1999, Chile 2010 Chase, Steel


and Christchurch 2011 Time Structures
1755
Workshop, 2010
WHY LDC?

A broad consensus between the public,


politicians and the engineering and
scientific communities would agree that
severe socio-economical losses due to
earthquake events, as observed in
Christchurch, are unacceptable ...
Buchanan et al., Base Isolation and Damage-Resistant Technologies for Improved Seismic
Performance of Buildings, A report written for the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Building
Failure Caused by the Canterbury Earthquakes, Research Report 2011-02, August 2011.
http://canterbury.royalcommission.govt.nz/
SOME LDC STUDIES

Some NZ Research Related


to LDC Steel Structures
1. Slab Effects (simple considerations)
2. Friction Connections
3. HF2V Lead Dissipaters
4. Resetable Dampers
5. Location of Column Yield
6. Contents Sliding
7. Ceilings
8. Partitions
CONTENT SLIDING

Lin S. L, MacRae G. A., Yeow T. Z, Dhakal R. P. and English R., Contents


Sliding Response Spectra, NZSEE Conference, April 2012.
CONTENT SLIDING

= 0.25,
R = 1.0

Lin S. L, MacRae G. A., Yeow T. Z, Dhakal R. P. and English R., Contents


Sliding Response Spectra, WCEE Conference, August 2012.
SOME LDC STUDIES

Some NZ Research Related


to LDC Steel Structures
1. Slab Effects (simple considerations)
2. Friction Connections
3. HF2V Lead Dissipaters
4. Resetable Dampers
5. Location of Column Yield
6. Contents Sliding
7. Ceilings
8. Partitions
CommercialSuspendedCeilingType

Paganotti G., MacRae G.A., and Dhakal R. P., Development of Typical NZ ceiling System Seismic Fragilities, Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific
Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Building an Earthquake-Resilient Society, 14-16 April, 2011, Auckland, New Zealand. Poster presentation.
Paper 116. , 2009
Components Tests
Testing
Machines

N Components N Tension NCompression N Shear

1 MainBeamMembers 10 10
2 CrossTeeMembers 10 10
3 WallAngleMembers 10 10
4 HangerwideMembers 10
5 HangingConnections 10
6 MainBeamSplices 10 10
7 CrossTeeConnection 10 10 10
8 MainBeamtoWallAngle 40
9 WallAngletoWall 10
Fit of the results

1.00
CrossTeeTensiondata
fit
0.75

P[LS>ls |force]
0.50
i

0.25

0
8 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 9
Data[kN]
Splice Connection Tests

Tensile Tests Compression Tests

TensionSpliceConnection CompressionTestSplice
1 1
Type1SP Type1
Type2SP Type2
0.75 0.75
Tension
P[LS>ls i | force]

Element Median Dispersion


0.5 0.5
Type1SP 1.02kN 0.0485
Type2SP 1.10kN 0.0750

0.25 0.25

0 0
Compression 0.88 1 1.12 1.24 1.35 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6
Data[kN] Data[kN]

Element Median Dispersion


Type1SP 2.09kN 0.0542
Type2SP 2.41kN 0.0364
Analysis

Monte Carlo Analysis


Demand parameters include absolute acceleration and displacement.
The effect sprinklers investigated.
The acceleration resistance depends on the ceiling size.
Analysis

Weight analysis
The weight of the tiles is a critical parameter.
The weight of the panels is determinate for example by acoustical,
architectural and economical aspects.
If the weight is reduced the probability of failure for an horizontal
ceiling acceleration is less than for a heavier ceiling.

Type 1 Type 2
1 1
1 1

0.75 0.75

ProbabilityofFailure
ProbabilityofFailure

0.75 0.75

ProbabilityofFailure
ProbabilityofFailure

0.5 0.5
7.5kg/m2
0.5 5kg/m2 0.5
2 7.5kg/m22
5kg/m 10kg/m
7.5kg/m2
2 10kg/m2 2
7.5kg/m 12.5kg/m
0.25 10kg/m2 0.25 2
0.25 2 0.25 12.5kg/m
15kg/m2
10kg/m
12.5kg/m2 2
15kg/m
12.5kg/m 2
5kg/m2
15kg/m2
0 2 0 5kg/m2
15kg/m
00 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4 00 0.8 1.6 2.4 3.2 4
0 0.8 Acc
1.6 [g]
2.4 3.2 4 0 0.8 Acc
1.6 [g]
2.4 3.2 4
floor floor
Acc [g] Acc [g]
floor floor
SOME LDC STUDIES

Some NZ Research Related


to LDC Steel Structures
1. Slab Effects (simple considerations)
2. Friction Connections
3. HF2V Lead Dissipaters
4. Resetable Dampers
5. Location of Column Yield
6. Contents Sliding
7. Ceilings
8. Partitions
PARTITIONS

- Concrete

Winstones Wallboard (NZ) Ltd


PARTITIONS
Plan of Partition -Column connection
(by Tasligedik, based on Winstones Wallboard details)

Winstones Wallboard (NZ) Ltd


OUTLINE

Topics:
Why Low Damage Construction (LDC)?
What is LDC?
LDC Forms
Some Research Issues for LDC Steel Structures
Some New Zealand Applications
Communicating LDC
SOME LDC STUDIES

Non-Prying Steel Connections

Prying
Applied Forces
Force

Sliding Hinge Joint Non Prying Flexural


Friction Connection
(MacRae and Borzouie)
69

FORMS OF LDC

Rocking systems - slab issues


Large slab demands may
result.
Gravity columns nearby may
also participate and
- limit mechanism, or
- incur damage
(Restrepo, Chile Earthquake report, NZSEE
Conference Presentation, Wellington, 2010).

Connell-Wagner Actual Construction, 2006


70

FORMS OF LDC

Rocking systems - slab issues


Options:

Let the slab tear


(e.g. Deierlein, TIT, 2010)
Put the gravity columns far from
the frame and orientate the one-
way slab such that the slab
demands are small.
Separate the rocking frame from
the gravity system (e.g. Sause,
TIT, 2010)

Sliders or
dissipators

Sause suggestion, 2009


71

FORMS OF LDC
Rocking systems some dissipators
Possible additional energy
dissipation devices to main frame
72

FORMS OF LDC

Rocking systems acceleration issues

Vertical accelerations > 4g in rocking RC wall


(Restrepo, NZSEE Conference Presentation,
Wellington, 2010).

High accelerations cause damage to


- non-structural ceiling elements
- contents.

Note that the impact accelerations are out-of-


phase with accelerations associated with peak
lateral displacement.
FORMS OF LDC

STEEL
Non-linear ElasticPLATE SHEARmembers
/ flag shaped WALLS

Post-tensioned systems
F
Beam-Column Joints
Braces D

Walls
Etc.

MacRae 2010, Steel Research Conference, University of Canterbury, 2010


FORMS OF LDC

Rocking (post-tensioned
STEEL PLATE andSHEAR
slackness) systems
WALLS F

Seattle Federal Courthouse (John


Hooper, MKA Seattle)

MacRae 2010, Steel Research Conference, University of Canterbury, 2010


FORMS OF LDC

Rocking (post-tensioned and slackness) systems


What is the difference between the F
- motorbike situation, and
- the person on a post-tensioned building?

Is it simply that:
the person on the motorbike has protection?

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Motorbike_rider_mono.jpg

MacRae G. A., 2010. Some Steel Seismic Research Issues, in Proceedings of the Steel Structures Workshop
2010, Research Directions for Steel Structures, compiled by MacRae G. A. and Clifton G. C., University of
Canterbury, 13-14 April.
SOME LDC STUDIES

Some NZ Research Related


to LDC Steel Structures
1. Slab Effects (simple considerations)
2. Friction Connections
3. HF2V Lead Dissipaters
4. Resetable Dampers
5. Location of Column Yield
6. Contents Sliding
7. Ceilings
8. Partitions
77

SLABS IN MR FRAMES
THE CONCEPT Slab element

Slab

Umarani C. and MacRae G. A. A New Concept For Consideration Of Slab Effects On Building Seismic Performance,
Journal of Structural Engineering, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai, India, No. 34-3,
Vol. 34, No.1, April-May 2007, pp. 2532.
SOME LDC STUDIES

Some NZ Research Related


to LDC Steel Structures
1. Slab Effects (simple considerations)
2. Friction Connections
3. HF2V Lead Dissipaters
4. Resetable Dampers
5. Location of Column Yield
6. Contents Sliding
7. Ceilings
8. Partitions
79

FRICTION CONNECTIONS
SLIDING HINGE JOINT CONCEPT: Clifton 2000

MacRae G. A., Clifton G. C., Mackinven H., Mago N., Butterworth J. and Pampanin S., The Sliding Hinge Joint Moment Connection,
Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering, December 2010.
80

SLIDING HINGE JOINT (SHJ) CONCEPT

DETAILS:
81

SLIDING HINGE JOINT (SHJ) CONCEPT

DETAILS: 310UC158
1.5m

360UB44.7 2.0m
82

SLIDING HINGE JOINT (SHJ) CONCEPT

Steel Shims
83

SLIDING HINGE JOINT APPLICATION

BEHAVIOUR
MINIMAL DAMAGE (to connection and frame)

LOW COST (and not patented)

RECENTERING CHARACTERISTICS
ISSUES
CONSTRUCTION TOLERANCES
DURABILITY
SLIDING HINGE JOINT APPLICATION

Courtesy: Darrin Bell of Connell-Wagner


LOWAPPLICATION
AFC DAMAGE STRUCTURES
FRICTION DISSIPATOR

Chanch J., MacRae G.A., Chase J.G. , Rodgers G.W., Mora Muoz A., Clifton C.G., Design considerations for braced frames with asymmetrical
friction connections - AFC, STESSA Conference, Santiago, Chile 2012.
MacRae G. A., 2010. University of Canterbury Research, in Proceedings of the Steel Structures Workshop 2010, Research Directions for Steel
Structures, compiled by MacRae G. A. and Clifton G. C., University of Canterbury, 13-14 April.
(MacRae)
86

AFC SHIM TESTS


87

AFC SHIM TESTS


AFC SHIM TESTS
2. SEISMIC
AFC ISSUESSUSTAINABILITY
- SUMMARY

a) Top web bolt sliding with different holes

b) The plate bending effect in the SHJ joint

c) Connections at frame bases (Borzouie)

d) Better quantify slab effect (Hobbs)


AFC ISSUES - SUMMARY
e) Statistical variation in compressive load resulting from bolts tightened
differently with and without Belleville washers (Chanchi)

f) Obtaining reliable friction equations considering bolt plasticity

g) Reliability of bolts (SCNZ?)


AFC ISSUES - SUMMARY
h) Environmental and fire effects on the sliding components (Chanchi)

i) Frame effects on brace performance


SOME LDC STUDIES

Some NZ Research Related


to LDC Steel Structures
1. Slab Effects (simple considerations)
2. Friction Connections
3. HF2V Lead Dissipaters
4. Resetable Dampers
5. Location of Column Yield
6. Contents Sliding
7. Ceilings
8. Partitions
SOME LDC STUDIES

Some NZ Research Related


to LDC Steel Structures
1. Slab Effects (simple considerations)
2. Friction Connections
3. HF2V Lead Dissipaters
4. Resetable Dampers
5. Location of Column Yield
6. Contents Sliding
7. Ceilings
8. Partitions
FORMS OF LDC

E) Non-Tearing Slab Solutions


95

FORMS OF LDC

Precast post-tensioned beam


column joint (UCSD 1993)

Is this low damage construction?


Priestley M. J. N. and MacRae G. A.,
"Seismic Tests of Precast Beam-to-
Yes for the subassemblage
Column Joint Subassemblages with
Unbonded Tendons", PCI Journal, No for the structural system
January-February 1996, pp. 64-80.