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Automotive (2) Lab

Braking system

Name: Mohammad yahya Bani issa

Dr. Wael Adaileh


INTRODUCTION

The automobile braking system is used to control the speed of the vehicle. The braking system must be designed to
enable
the vehicle to stop or slow down at the driver's command. Including parts friction pads on each wheel. a master
cylinder. Wheel cylinders or calipers, and a hydraulic control system.

BRAKING SYSTEM PRINCIPLES

resistance to motion between two


objects. When two surfaces rub against
each other, there is
friction amount of friction the roughness
of the surfaces and the amount of
pressure between the two surfaces.

FRICTION AND BRAKING SYSTEMS


the amount of friction is controlled by the operator. By varying friction, the vehicle can be stopped, and its speed
can be modified on curves, grades, and in different driving conditions. Control of friction is obtained
by forcing a stationary brake shoe or pad against a rotating drum or disc. As the driver presses harder on the
brake pedal, friction increases.

As the wheel is slowed down by the brake friction, the tire is also slowed down. However, friction is also produced
between the tire and the road. The friction on the brakes must be matched by the friction of the tires and the road.
If
the tires on the road cannot produce the friction, the tires will lock up and skid. A car stops better if the wheels are
not
locked. Locked wheels can produce dangerous results, especially since there is no driver control of the friction
between
the tires and the road. Computer-controlled brakes are also being used to control the slowing down of each wheel
without skidding.
BASIC OPERATION OF DRUM BRAKES

consists of a cast drum that is

bolted to and rotates with the wheel. Inside the drum, there

is a backing plate that has a set of brake shoes attached to it?

Other components are also attached to the backing plate,

including a hydraulic cylinder and several springs and linkages.

The brake shoes are lined with a frictional material.

SHOE ENERGIZATION
When the brake shoe is engaged, the frictional
drag acting around the shoe tends to rotate the shoe about its pivot point

SERVO-TYPE BRAKES

device that converts a relatively small force into


a larger force. In most vehicles today, servo brakes are used
to cause the brake shoes to move outward from a hydraulic
pressure inside a cylinder. The pressure is produced by the
operator's foot. The motion is the outward push of the brake
shoes against the drum.

BASIC OPERATION OF DISC BRAKES


Many vehicles use disc brakes along with drum brakes.
On many vehicles, disc brakes are used on the front of the
vehicle, while drum brakes are used on the rear wheels.
Disc brakes resemble the brakes used on a ten-speed bicycle.
The friction is produced by pads,

These pads are squeezed or clamped against a rotating


disc. The disc, also called the rotor, is attached to the
rim and tire. The rotor is made of cast iron that is machined
on both sides. The pads are attached to metal plates that are
actuated by pistons from the hydraulic system.
HYDRAULIC PRINCIPLES
The automotive braking system uses hydraulic pressure to
transfer the force of the operator's foot to press the friction
surfaces together.

when the foot pedal is pressed, a pressure is built up in the master cylinder. This
pressure is then transferred throughout the hydraulic lines
to each wheel cylinder. Note that the pressure at each point
in the system is the same.

Braking system components and operation

TOTAL SYSTEM OPERATION

In this
system, drum and disc brakes are used. The system
starts at
the brake pedal, which is attached to the master
cylinder. The master cylinder is used to produce the
necessary pressure
in the hydraulic system. Hydraulic lines are connected
from the master cylinder, through the combination
(metering)
valve to the individual wheels. Here the hydraulic
pressure
is sent to each wheel cylinder, which finally moves the
drum or disc brake mechanism.

Base component of master cylinder


BRAKE LINES
Brake lines are used to carry brake fluid and pressure from the master cylinder to the individual cylinders. Brake
lines are made of double-walled, rust-resisting steel except where
they have to flex. Flexing usually occurs between the chassis and the front or rear wheels. Here flexible high-
pressure hoses are used. All brake lines are designed for high pressure
by using double-flared ends and connectors.

BRAKE LININGS
Brake linings provide the friction against the drum to stop
the car. There are many kinds of linings. The lining is attached
to the shoe either by riveting or by bonding The primary shoe has
the shorter length lining

The primary shoe has the shorter length lining.


The secondary shoe has a full-length lining because it carries
a bigger load. In addition, most brake linings used
today are ground so that they are slightly thicker at the center
{often called brake shoe arching). This design improves
the ease with which the lining comes in contact with the
drum. When the shoe pressure is increased, the lining and
shoe flex slightly to produce full contact

DRUM BRAKE WHEEL CYLINDER


The purpose of the wheel cylinder is lo convert
hydraulic
pressure to mechanical force.

The wheel cylinder kit


contains the parts that are replaced when the
wheel cylinder
is serviced. The assembly includes two pistons,
two
cups, two boots, a bleeder screw, and an
internal spring.
When two pistons are used. it is called a duo
servo system.
When the brakes are applied, hydraulic pressure
inside the
wheel cylinder forces both pistons outward, causing the
brakes to be applied.