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QUALITY MANAGEMENT 2. Compare present performance to pre

established performance norms.
Management activities and functions involved in 3. Determine the next action plan and
determination of quality policy and its modifications for meeting the desired
implementation through means such as quality performance parameters.
planning and quality assurance (including quality Controlling is an ongoing process.

FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT Quality of product signifies the degree of its

excellence and fitness for the purpose. The quality
The following are the four basic functions of
management that make up the management of product means all those activity which are
process: directed to maintain and to improve. Such as
1. Planning setting of quality targets, appraisal of conformance,
2. Organizing taking corrective action where any deviation is
3. Directing noticed and planning for improvements in quality.
4. Controlling.

Planning: Planning involves choosing tasks that Quality is a measure of the user satisfaction
must be performed to attain organizational goals, provided by a product. It includes functional
outlining how the tasks must be performed, and efficiency, appearance, ease of installation and
indicating when they should be performed. operation, safety reliability, maintainability,
running and maintenance cost.
Planning activity focuses on attaining goals.
Managers outline exactly what organizations
should do to be successful. Planning is concerned
with the success of the organization in the short
term as well as in the long term. 1. Quality is conformance to requirements
2. Quality is fitness for use
Organizing: Organizing can be assignment of the 3. Quality is the degree to which performance
tasks developed in the planning stages, to various meets expectations
individuals or groups within the organization. 4. Quality denotes an excellence in goods and
Organizing is to create a mechanism to put plans
into action.

People within the organization are given work QUALITY CONTROL

assignments that contribute to the companys goals.
Tasks are organized so that the output of each Quality Control (QC) may be defined as: The
individual contributes to the success of operational techniques and activities that are used
departments, which, in turn, contributes to the
to fulfil the requirements for quality. Following are
success of divisions, which ultimately contributes
to the success of the organization. the three steps for QC:
1. Evaluate actual operating performance
Directing: Directing is also referred as motivating, 2. Compare actual performance to goals
leading or influencing. It can be defined as guiding 3. Act on the difference
the activities of organization members in the
direction that helps the organization move towards
the fulfilment of the goals.

The purpose of influencing is to increase

productivity. Human-oriented work situations
usually generate higher levels of production over
the long term than do task oriented work situations
because people find the latter type distasteful.

Controlling: Controlling referred to the following

roles played by the manager:
1. Gather information that measures performance

(1) Vivek Bhardwaj, Asstt. Professor


EVOLUTION OF QUALITY CONTROL and productivity, and thus constantly decrease

The quality movement started from medieval 6. Institute training on the job.
7. Institute leadership. The aim of supervision
should be to help people and machines and
Craftsmen organized unions called guilds in gadgets to do a better job. Supervision of
the late thirteenth century. management is in need of overhaul as well as
The product inspection started in Great Britain supervision of production workers.
in the mid 1750s and brought Industrial 8. Drive out fear, so that everyone may work
Revolution in the early nineteenth century. effectively for the company
The concept of producing interchangeable 9. Break down barriers between departments.
parts to simplify assembly was introduced in People in research, design, sales, and
1798. production must work as a team, to foresee
World War II gave birth to quality in problems of production and in use that may be
manufacturing industries and military encountered with the product or service.
application. A quality revolution in Japan 10. Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets
followed World War II. The Japanese became for the work force asking for zero defects and
leader in quality by the 1970s. new levels of productivity. Such exhortations
Japanese manufacturers penetrated in only create adversarial relationships, as the
American markets which affected the United bulk of the causes of low quality and low
States. The emphasis became not only on productivity belong to the system and thus lie
statistics but approaches which involved the beyond the power of the work force.
entire organization. 11. Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the
This movement led to Total Quality factory floor.
Management (TQM). Several quality standards Eliminate management by objective.
followed and one of them is ISO 9000 quality Eliminate management by numbers, numerical
system standards published in 1987. goals.
12. Remove barriers that rob the hourly worker
CONCEPT CHANGE of his right to joy of workmanship. The
responsibility of supervisors must be changed
A change concept is a general notion or approach from sheer numbers to quality.
to change that has been found to be useful in Remove barriers that rob people in
developing specific ideas for changes that lead to management and in engineering of their
improvement. There are several individuals who right to joy of workmanship. This means
made significant contributions to quality control abolishment of the annual merit rating and of
and improvement. The philosophy of W. Edward management by objective
Deming, the best known quality expert, was 13. Institute a vigorous program of education
summarised in the following fourteen points: and self-improvement.
1. Create constancy of purpose toward 14. Put everybody in the company to work to
improvement of product and service, with accomplish the transformation. The
the aim to become competitive and to stay in transformation is everybody's job.
business, and to provide jobs.
2. Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new TQM MODERN CONCEPT
economic age. Western management must
awaken to the challenge, must learn their Total Quality Management (TQM) is the new
responsibilities, and take on leadership for concept on Quality Control. TQM deals with the
change. product in its totality. Quality is determined by the
3. Cease dependence on inspection to achieve combined effects of various departments such as
quality. Eliminate the need for inspection on a Design, Engineering, Purchase, Production and
mass basis by building quality into the product Inspection. This is basically an integrated system
in the first place. covering all quality control activities during various
4. End the practice of awarding business on phases of product development.
the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total
cost. Move toward a single supplier for any Dimensions of Quality
one item, on a long-term relationship of loyalty
and trust. 1. Performance
5. Improve constantly and forever the system 2. Features
of production and service, to improve quality 3. Durability
4. Reliability

Vivek Bhardwaj, Asstt. Professor (2)


5. Serviceability QUALITY BY DESIGN

6. Appearance
7. Uniformity Product quality is created by design. There should
8. Consistency and conformance be consideration of quality in design of a product
9. Safety which meets customers need at a price acceptable
10. Time to him.
11. Customer service
TQM involves all the aspects of the firm in
satisfying a customer. TQM involves: 1. Appearance
2. Functional Efficiency
1. Customer-supplier relationship based on 3. Safety
mutual trust and respect. 4. Reliability
2. Firm in-house requirements by the customer. 5. Maintainability
3. Suppliers are partners in achieving zero-defect 6. Ease of Production
situation. 7. Standardization
4. Regular monitoring of supplier processes and 8. Review of Design
products by the customer.
Objectives of TQM
1. Manufacturing Drawing
a. Customer focus, customer delight/satisfaction. 2. Product Specification
b. Continuous improvement of culture of the 3. Design Changes during Production
c. Focused, continuous and relentless cost CONTROL ON PURCHASED PRODUCT
d. Focused, continuous and relentless quality An organization needs to purchase a variety of raw
improvement. materials and products for further processing or
e. To create an organization whereby everyone is consumption. The quality of product is important
working towards making their organization the and given due consideration at the time of purchase
best business, and to capitalize on the sense of because it can affect the quality of the end product.
achievement and working in a world-class While deciding the quantity that is to be purchased,
organization. consideration is also given to the economy. Many
times, it is more economical to get some of the
An Integrated TQM Model components as per their own design manufactured
by ancillary companies.


Procurement process is known as purchasing

through the purchasing department.
It starts with a requisition from an employee
and ends with the payment of supplier.


It is the process of evaluating and approving

potential suppliers by factual and measureable
It ensures a portfolio of best-in class suppliers
is available for use.
It is a process to measure and monitor the
performance of suppliers for reducing cost,
reducing risk and for continuous improvement.

(3) Vivek Bhardwaj, Asstt. Professor


Evaluation Process Management Responsibilities

It is the pre-qualification step within the purchasing 1. Management Commitment: Whether the top
process on the basis of which a supplier is management is committed to the development
approved or not approved. It is also known as of the quality management system.
Supplier Performance Management. This includes 2. Customer Focus: Whether the top
approval of various aspects of the supplier business management ensures that customer needs and
including: expectations are determined considering
Capacity obligations related to product including
Financials regulatory and legal requirements, converted
Organization Structure, and into requirements and fulfilled with the aim of
Performance achieving customer satisfaction.
3. Quality Policy: Has the top management
Benefits defined its Quality policy? Is it appropriate to
the purpose of the organisation, committed to
Suppliers provide high standard of products meeting requirements of customers and to
and services continual improvement, provides a framework
Suppliers offer sufficient capacity and business for establishing and reviewing quality
stability objectives, communicated and understood at
Identification and removal of hidden cost in appropriate levels in the organisation, reviewed
supply chain for continuing suitability and controlled?
4. Provision of Resources: Has the organisation
Drawbacks determined and provided in a timely manner
the resources needed to implement and
Include resources and cost commitments in improve the processes of the quality
establishing and maintaining an effective management system and to address customer
system satisfaction?
Without going through the root cause of 5. Assignment of Personnel: Whether the
suppliers problem or inconsistent scoring may Personnel assigned responsibilities defined in
result in inaccurate assessment. the quality management system are competent
on the basis of applicable education, training,
CAPACITY VERIFICATION skills and experience.
6. Training, Awareness and Competency:
For capacity verification, following points need to Whether the organisation has established a
be verified: system for identifying competency needs of
personnel and provides training, Evaluate the
General Requirement effectiveness of the training provided, and
maintains appropriate records of education,
1. Whether the organisation has established, experience, training and qualifications of its
documented, implemented, maintained and personnel?
continually improves a quality management 7. Facilities: Has the organisation identified,
system (QMS) in accordance with the provided and maintained facilities such as
requirements of ISO 9000-2000? Workspace, Equipment, hardware and software
2. Whether the organisation has identified the and supporting services it needed to achieve
processes needed for the quality management the conformity of product?
system, determined the sequence and 8. Work Environment: Whether the
interaction of these processes, criteria and organisation has a system for identification and
methods required to ensure the effective management of human and physical factors of
operation and control of these processes, the work environment needed to achieve
ensure the availability of information conformity of product.
necessary to support the operation and 9. Planning of Realization Processes: Whether
monitoring of these processes, measures, the organisation has determined Quality
monitors and analyses these processes and objectives for the product, project or contract,
implements action necessary to achieve processes and documentation, resources and
planned results and continual improvement. facilities specific to the product verification
and validation activities, the criteria for
acceptability, and records that are necessary to
provide confidence of conformity in the
process planning for product realization.

Vivek Bhardwaj, Asstt. Professor (4)


DEVELOPMENT OF SOURCES a. Selection of supplier

b. Develop pilot-run plan
The main thing is to ensure that the potential c. Develop manufacturing strategy
suppliers who show interest in the product, has 2. Pilot run
the minimum essential plant equipment and a. Validate manufacturing process against:
skilled manpower. i. Objectives in product specification
Quality engineers can set up necessary controls ii. Cost
to ensure the quality of product to be iii. Quality
maintained at acceptable level. iv. Documentation
Condition of supply should be put down in v. Tooling
writing that clearly explains the vendor the vi. Training
submission of preproduction sample or a vii. Process control
particular type of packaging etc. viii. Supplier plan and contract
The following details should be considered: ix. Internal failure analysis
o Any national or international standard 3. Production run
specification should be clearly mentioned a. Produce high quality product on time
o Materials to be approved by the purchaser b. Continue to tune the process
before taken into use c. First order manufacture
o Size of the sample, made of dispatch and d. Verification of product cost
test to be conducted on the sample should 4. Delivery to customer
be known to the vendor a. Deliver first production unit to the
o Deviations from drawing and customer
specifications or concessions on certain b. Refine manufacturing process based on:
quality requirements should be clearly i. First built
defined ii. Monitor field unit performance
o Method of acceptance should be clarified
to the vendors
o Product nomenclature, part number and METHODS OF MANUFACTURING
other details should be specified
o Warranty clauses and procedure for claims There is a variation in the production system as per
should be clarified in details the need of the product. Generally, production
volume is the most important issue. There are three
MANUFACTURING methods of the manufacturing:
1. Job Shop Production,
Manufacturing involves making products from raw 2. Batch Production, and
material by various processes or operations. It is a 3. Mass Production.
complex activity, involving people having broad
range of disciplines and skills and a wide variety of Characteristics of Job Shop Production
machinery, equipments etc. i. To meet a particular customers needs
ii. Lot size is small
Considerations in Manufacturing iii. Variety is high
iv. Equipments used are general purpose and
i. Design must fully meet requirements and flexible to meet specific customer needs
specifications of the product v. Labour should be highly skilled
ii. Manufacturing must be by the most vi. Eg., grinding, gear manufacturing, fabrication
economical methods in order to minimize cost etc.
iii. Quality must be built into the product at each
stage from design to assembly
iv. Production methods must be flexible to
changing demands, types of product,
production rates, production quantities and on-
time delivery to customer
v. Strive for higher productivity by optimum use
of the resources (material, machine, energy,
capital, labour and technology) Characteristics of Batch Production
i. For repeated customer orders
MANUFACTURING STEPS ii. Lot size is medium and in batches
iii. For moderate variety
1. Pre-production Activity iv. Machines and equipments are general purpose

(5) Vivek Bhardwaj, Asstt. Professor


v. Labour should be high skilled 7. Single-minute Exchange of Die (SMED)

vi. Eg., bakery items, sports shoes, t-shirts etc. a. Reduce waste time when there is some
change in the process from old product to
new product
8. DMADV Methodology
a. Design, Measure, Analyze, Design and
Verify methodology based on the analysis
of customer demand
b. Manufacturers plan ahead and try to
design ways to avoid defects in the first
Characteristics of Mass Production place
i. For high demand items 9. SIPOC Methodology
ii. Lot size is very large a. Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs,
iii. Variety may be one of its kind Customers methodology to allow
iv. Special machines, tools and equipments are manufacturers to trace the life cycle of the
used products from supplier to customer and
v. Labour skill level is moderate identify problem areas
vi. Entire plant is designed to cater a few special 10. Accelerate production
varieties of products a. Computer-aided-Design (CAD)
vii. Eg., oil refinery, chemical processing unit etc. b. Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAM)
c. Computer-controlled Machines (CCM)
d. Computer-integrated Manufacturing


1. Actual Process
a. Name of the process
b. Starting and ending points
c. Inputs and outputs
TECHNIQUES OF MANUFACTURING d. Customers and suppliers
2. Areas of Improvements
1. Just-in-Time (JIT) Manufacturers a. Durability
a. To keep the process moving and schedule b. Material
supplies to arrive at the factory just-in- c. Toxicity
time for them to be used in production d. Disintegration of parts
2. Kanban 3. Solution for the problems
a. An automatic request for new supplies to a. Brainstorming
the suppliers when supplies are running b. Consultation through specialists
short c. Feedback from those who work on the
3. Just-in-Sequence (JIS) process regularly
a. Supplies arrive at the factory at the exact 4. Detailed Solution
moment they are needed within the a. The personnel necessary for making
manufacturing sequence improvements
4. Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM) b. Project cost analysis
a. To repair minor issues with the machines c. Time frame for completing the overall
to avoid stopping production improvements
5. Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM) d. How the improvement will affect rest of
a. To short the time period elapsed between the plant
customers request for a product and its 5. Put Plan into Action
delivery a. Involve everyone who utilize the process
6. Cellular Manufacturing in implementing the action plan
a. Factory floor is divided into different 6. Evaluate
sections or cells a. The process should have desired
b. Machines are placed in the order that effect
facilitate the material flow to the b. The problem is fixed
completion of the product c. Waste eliminated
d. Improvement within budget and time

Vivek Bhardwaj, Asstt. Professor (6)


Re-check any defects discovered during

INSPECTION AND CONTROL OF PRODUCT Pre-Production Inspection and confirm
that they have been rectified.
Product Quality Inspections will help to protect the
brand and the companys reputation by minimizing Final Random Inspections
It can begin only after production has been
defective merchandise, customer complaints, non- completed and all merchandise is ready
compliant products, and late shipments. Quality and packed for shipment.
Inspections can help manufacturers: Through a statistical method set by
Ensure product safety prior to shipping industry standards, sample products to
Minimize the amount of defective verify product safety, quantity,
workmanship, function, colour, size,
merchandise packing, and more.
Reduce customer complaints due to This ensures that the product is consistent
inferior products and compliant with all country, industry,
Detect merchandise containing non- or otherwise-specified requirements and
standard or non-compliant components that no critical major or minor defects
Eliminate late shipments
Based on your specific needs throughout the Loading Supervision
manufacturing process, there are a wide variety of Closely monitor the loading process
quality inspection services. Verify product quantity, and
Ensure proper handling of the cargo.
Pre-Production Inspections Seal the container(s) tape as proof of
Inspection of raw materials and This significantly reduces the risk
components before production begins. associated with importing cargo.
After product samples are provided, verify
that the factory has ordered the correct QUALITY IN SALES AND SERVICES
materials, components, and accessories.
Also randomly select and inspect a sample Customers relationship with the company
of partially produced products for may have begun with the sale, but its the
potential defects, then report findings. service experience that really cements the
The technical advice necessary to improve deal.
product quality and to minimize the Customers begin to see value in the
chance of defects during production. product only after they have tasted the
entire pie of service.
During Production Inspections An efficiently managed and utilized team
They are ideal for: of after sales field technicians can
o Shipments of substantial positively impact the.
quantities; They have the potential to systematically
o Product lines with continuous
production; nurture customer loyalty, since service
o Strict requirements for on-time quality has a direct relationship with
shipments; and customer intent to repurchase.
o As a follow-up if poor results Successful cross sell and up sell of related
were found during Pre- products is also easier if existing
Production Inspection.
o Normally, it is carried out when customers are satisfied with the support
10-15% of the merchandise is they have received.
completed. Team of after sales field technicians have
At this point deviations are identified. the potential to directly contribute to
If any, take advice on corrective measures organizations revenue stream.
that will ensure uniformity of product and
quality. Methods for establishing a quality

(7) Vivek Bhardwaj, Asstt. Professor


o Only those product should be

sold which fully meet the
customers requirement
o Adjustments of warranty claims
o Effective after sales service


A promise or assurance, especially in

writing, that something is of specified
quality, content, benefit, etc., or that it will
perform satisfactorily for a given length of
An undertaking by the selling company
that it will replace the product free of cost
or refund the money if the defect is due to
improper material or faulty manufacture.
It convinces the customer about the
quality of the product.
It is a powerful sales tool.
Following information included in
guarantee card:
o Validity period
o Manufacturers liability
o Claim procedure
o Invalidation conditions


Claims analysis is a technique for

examining the positive and negative
consequences of design features that are
described in current or future scenarios of
A claim is a statement of the
consequences of a specific design feature
or artifact on users and other stakeholders.
Investigation of claims involves thorough
technical knowledge of the product.
Guarantee claims may be investigated by
quality control department.
The minor claims can be settled by
regional service centres and the major
ones may be referred to the company.
Procedure for claim should be simple.

Vivek Bhardwaj, Asstt. Professor (8)