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Просмотров: 1312 стр.With the increasing of monitoring devices and advanced measurement infrastructures, smart grids (SGs) collect large amounts of data every moment, which gives rise to the SG big data. In order to fulfill diverse communication requirements of various energy-related data in SG, it is obviously impractical to rely on a single communication technology, and a hybrid communication architecture of low-latency fiber optic and cost-effective wireless technologies could be a promising solution. Note that, low-latency data acquisition under failures is of particular importance to SG reliability, considering that SGs are vulnerable to various failures. Toward this end, we provide in this paper a hybrid SG communication architecture integrating fiber optic and WiFi-based mesh networks, i.e., fiber-wireless (FiWi) enhanced SG, and study the problem of data acquisition under failures in FiWi enhanced SG. The problem is first formulated as a constrained optimization problem, and then three algorithms are proposed as our solutions, i.e., an optimal enumeration routing algorithm (OERA), a greedy approximation routing algorithm (GARA), and a heuristic greedy routing algorithm (HGRA). Numerical results reveal that both GARA and HGRA can achieve near-optimal solutions to the problem of data acquisition under failures, and have higher computational efficiency compared to our benchmark, i.e., OERA.

Mar 13, 2017

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With the increasing of monitoring devices and advanced measurement infrastructures, smart grids (SGs) collect large amounts of data every moment, which gives rise to the SG big data. In order to fulfill diverse communication requirements of various energy-related data in SG, it is obviously impractical to rely on a single communication technology, and a hybrid communication architecture of low-latency fiber optic and cost-effective wireless technologies could be a promising solution. Note that, low-latency data acquisition under failures is of particular importance to SG reliability, considering that SGs are vulnerable to various failures. Toward this end, we provide in this paper a hybrid SG communication architecture integrating fiber optic and WiFi-based mesh networks, i.e., fiber-wireless (FiWi) enhanced SG, and study the problem of data acquisition under failures in FiWi enhanced SG. The problem is first formulated as a constrained optimization problem, and then three algorithms are proposed as our solutions, i.e., an optimal enumeration routing algorithm (OERA), a greedy approximation routing algorithm (GARA), and a heuristic greedy routing algorithm (HGRA). Numerical results reveal that both GARA and HGRA can achieve near-optimal solutions to the problem of data acquisition under failures, and have higher computational efficiency compared to our benchmark, i.e., OERA.

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With the increasing of monitoring devices and advanced measurement infrastructures, smart grids (SGs) collect large amounts of data every moment, which gives rise to the SG big data. In order to fulfill diverse communication requirements of various energy-related data in SG, it is obviously impractical to rely on a single communication technology, and a hybrid communication architecture of low-latency fiber optic and cost-effective wireless technologies could be a promising solution. Note that, low-latency data acquisition under failures is of particular importance to SG reliability, considering that SGs are vulnerable to various failures. Toward this end, we provide in this paper a hybrid SG communication architecture integrating fiber optic and WiFi-based mesh networks, i.e., fiber-wireless (FiWi) enhanced SG, and study the problem of data acquisition under failures in FiWi enhanced SG. The problem is first formulated as a constrained optimization problem, and then three algorithms are proposed as our solutions, i.e., an optimal enumeration routing algorithm (OERA), a greedy approximation routing algorithm (GARA), and a heuristic greedy routing algorithm (HGRA). Numerical results reveal that both GARA and HGRA can achieve near-optimal solutions to the problem of data acquisition under failures, and have higher computational efficiency compared to our benchmark, i.e., OERA.

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fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TETC.2017.2675911, IEEE

Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing

1

Enhanced Smart Grid

Hongzhi Guo, Member, IEEE, Jiajia Liu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Lei Zhao

AbstractWith the increasing of monitoring devices and advanced measurement infrastructures, smart grids (SGs) collect large

amounts of data every moment, which gives rise to the SG big data. In order to fulfill diverse communication requirements of various

energy-related data in SG, it is obviously impractical to rely on a single communication technology, and a hybrid communication

architecture of low-latency fiber optic and cost-effective wireless technologies could be a promising solution. Note that, low-latency data

acquisition under failures is of particular importance to SG reliability, considering that SGs are vulnerable to various failures. Toward

this end, we provide in this paper a hybrid SG communication architecture integrating fiber optic and WiFi-based mesh networks, i.e.,

fiber-wireless (FiWi) enhanced SG, and study the problem of data acquisition under failures in FiWi enhanced SG. The problem is first

formulated as a constrained optimization problem, and then three algorithms are proposed as our solutions, i.e., an optimal

enumeration routing algorithm (OERA), a greedy approximation routing algorithm (GARA), and a heuristic greedy routing algorithm

(HGRA). Numerical results reveal that both GARA and HGRA can achieve near-optimal solutions to the problem of data acquisition

under failures, and have higher computational efficiency compared to our benchmark, i.e., OERA.

Index Termssmart grid, big data, fiber-wireless, FiWi, FiWi enhanced smart grid, low-latency, data acquisition, failure, sensor.

nications with high bandwidth, e.g., wired communications

Facing lots of challenges in terms of increasing electric

such as fiber optic networks, power line communications

power demands, environmental issues, frequent failures

(PLC), and digital subscriber lines (DSL), and wireless com-

and outages, security, integration with renewable energy

munications like WiMAX and cellular networks (3G/LTE).

sources, etc., existing power grids are undergoing an un-

To cope with diverse varieties of energy-related data from

precedented evolution and developing towards the modern

different kinds of devices, it is obviously not feasible to rely

smart grids (SGs) in these years [1], [2]. Compared to the

on one single communication technology. For example, the

traditional power grids, SGs can provide improved efficien-

data traffic in the home area networks (HANs) of a SG

cy, reliability, and security for the facilities and consumers,

prefers the communications with slow speed, low band-

via embedding two-way communication and information

width, and cost-efficiency, e.g., ZigBee, WiFi, HomePlug [7].

technologies with the power grid infrastructures.

While for the data traffic in the neighbor area networks

In order to control and monitor energy-related behav-

(NANs) of a SG, the communication technologies with

iors of the consumers and power facilities, a number of

low latency, high reliability and resilience, e.g., fiber optic

sensor-based devices are deployed in SG interconnected

networks, cellular networks, WiMAX, and wireless mesh

equipment, such as generators, power transformers, dis-

networks, could be promising candidates [3], [8]. Moreover,

tribution towers, etc [3], [4]. With the increasing of moni-

for the high velocity feature of SG big data, low latency

toring devices and advanced measurement infrastructures,

communications are required, especially under failures and

SGs collect large volumes of data every day from energy

power outages.

generators all the way to the consumers, which gives rise to

Overall, in order to fulfill various communication re-

the SG big data. Similar to the concept of big data, SG big

quirements of SG big data, a hybrid communication archi-

data exhibits the three basic characteristics of large volume,

tecture of low-latency fiber optic and cost-effective wireless

diverse variety, and high velocity, i.e., the big data three Vs.

technologies, i.e., hybrid fiber-wireless (FiWi) network, is be-

To deal with the SG big data, a plenty of research activ-

lieved to be a promising solution [9], [10]. By adopting FiWi

ities have emerged recently, ranging from data acquisition,

network to enhance SG communications, it gives rise to the

data storage, data management, data correlation analysis,

so-called FiWi enhanced SG [11], where fiber optic networks

etc. [5], [6]. Whereas, we note that few of them paid attention

are mainly adopted in the wide area networks (WANs) and

to the communication requirements of SG big data on the SG

wireless technologies are used in the communications of

communication infrastructures. In particular, the large vol-

both NANs and HANs.

It is noted that, as an essential infrastructure, SG, which

Hongzhi Guo and Lei Zhao are with the School of Cyber Engi- depends heavily on the physical infrastructures, is vul-

neering, Xidian University, Xian, Shaanxi, 710071, China. E-mail:

hzguo@xidian.edu.cn. nerable to various failures, e.g., short circuits, equipment

Jiajia Liu is with the State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, failures, physical attacks like electromagnetic pulse (EMP)

School of Cyber Engineering, Xidian University, Xian, Shaanxi, 710071, attacks as well as natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, hur-

China. E-mail: liujiajia@xidian.edu.cn.

ricanes, floods, etc.) [12]. Once some failures happen and

2168-6750 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing

2

lead to ensuing power outages, especially when people are radius were separately introduced for real-time analysis and

sleeping or away from home, a large geographical area indicating data corrections.

might be out of touch. It is of significant importance to

collect and send up the status of the SG infrastructures With the growing volume, variety, and velocity of big

within the affected areas right after the failures. In this data in SG, different SG applications put forward diverse

case, we have to rely on remaining alive communication communication requirements on the SG communication

networks to automatically collect the status data of the w- infrastructures [4], [18], [19], [20], [21]. Gungor et al. [7]

hole SG, and report to the distribution management system reviewed related issues in SG architecture, including SG

(DMS) of an underlying power grid, which takes charge communication architecture, key SG applications and their

of monitoring and controlling of the whole distribution communication requirements, and SG services roadmap. Li

networks. Obviously, the status data of remaining alive SG et al. [22] presented an overview of the communication sys-

infrastructures under failures should be sent to the DMS as tem in cyber physical system (CPS) and SG, and introduced

soon as possible, so that disaster relief and power restoration a hybrid communication system framework to model CPS

can be conducted the first time. Therefore, low-latency data with both continuous and discrete valued states. After that

acquisition is especially important for the SG under failures. they applied the hybrid framework into SG and good per-

Toward this end, we provide in this paper a hybrid formance was obtained there. Moreover, Yan et al. [23] first

architecture of FiWi enhanced SG, and study the problem studied the background, motivations, and major communi-

of data acquisition under failures in FiWi enhanced SG. cation requirements of communication infrastructures in SG

Three low-latency routing algorithms are presented as our systems, and then they further explored potential challenges

solutions, i.e., an optimal enumeration routing algorithm, and issues for enabling SG communication infrastructures in

a greedy approximation routing algorithm, and a heuristic future.

greedy routing algorithm.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. We Moreover, it is noted that among kinds of research works

discuss some related work in Section 2. A hybrid archi- in SG big data, such as data management, data storage,

tecture of FiWi enhanced SG is presented in Section 3. In data mining, etc., resilient and low-latency data acquisition

Section 4, we fist give some definitions, and then formulate under failures is of great importance. The reason is that, SGs,

the problem of low-latency data acquisition under failures which rely heavily on physical electrical infrastructures, are

in FiWi enhanced SG. After that three low-latency routing vulnerable to various failures. However, existing research

algorithms are presented as our solutions. Moreover, Sec- works in this area mostly focused on assessing reliability of

tion 5 gives some analysis and discussions of our proposed the networks [24], [25], [26], and little work can be found on

algorithms, and Section 6 presents our numerical findings. low-latency data acquisition of the status data of remaining

Finally, Section 7 concludes the whole paper. alive equipment under failures. In particular, in order to

identify the most vulnerable locations in wavelength divi-

sion multiplex (WDM) optical networks, Agarwal et al. [27]

2 R ELATED W ORK proposed a probabilistic model for geographically correlat-

ed failures, where the failure probability of an optical fiber

As there are lots of monitoring devices and advanced mea- link is defined as a nonincreasing function of its distance

surement equipment integrated in the power grid infras- from the epicenter. Efficient approximation algorithms were

tructures, SG collects large amounts of power-related data presented there to find the most vulnerable locations in

every day from these infrastructures. To address these large the networks by adopting computational geometric tools.

amounts of data, big data computing for SG is particularly Bernstein et al. [28] studied the power grid vulnerabili-

important, and a number of research works have emerged ty to geographically correlated failures, and presented a

these years [5], [6], [13], [14]. Jiang et al. [15] reviewed recent direct-current (DC) power flow model to identify the most

studies and developments on integrated architecture and vulnerable locations in the transmission network of the

key enabling technologies of SG big data, including data power grid. Furthermore, to study network reliability under

acquisition and storing, data correlation analysis, crowd- randomly located geographical failures, Neumayer et al.

sourced data control and data visualization. After that, they [29] developed tools using geometric probability to analyze

further discussed security issues and presented a number network connectivity under geographically correlated line

of potential applications and challenges in SG big data. To and disk failures, and proposed an algorithm to compute

address the randomness in system planning and operation the failure probabilities, the average two terminal reliability

for integrating renewable energy sources, energy storage de- of the network, and other network performance metrics in

vices, demand side management tools, and electric vehicles polynomial time. Numerical results verified the promises of

in SG, Liang et al. [16] reviewed related works on stochastic their algorithm for modeling and designing more effective

information management schemes for SG, where SG sys- networks under geographically correlated failures.

tem architecture and technical challenges in information

management, component-level modeling techniques, and Compared to existing works, in order to fulfill diverse

system-level stochastic information management schemes communication requirements of different traffic in SG, we

for SG planning and operation, were discussed. Aiming to present a hybrid architecture of fiber optic and wireless

apply big data technologies into SG, He et al. [17] proposed mesh networks in this paper to enhance SG communication-

a big data architecture based on random matrix theory, s, and explore the problem of low-latency data acquisition

where moving split-window technology and mean spectral under failures in FiWi enhanced SG.

2168-6750 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing

3

TABLE 1

Pros and cons of diverse communication technologies.

Low cost due to existing infrastructures, cost-

Low-bandwidth, low quality of signal, wiring distance

PLC effective, ubiquitous, widely available

limitation, susceptible to disturbances

Wired infrastructure, large coverage

communication Fiber optic High bandwidth, high reliability, large coverage,

Wiring distance limitation, high installation cost

technology networks immunity to disturbances, stable and mature

Low reliability, potential down time, distance dependency,

DSL Widespread availability, low cost, high bandwidth

lack of standardization, wiring distance limitation

Low cost, unlicensed spectrum, low power

ZigBee Low data rate, short range, susceptible to disturbances

consumption, secure and reliable mesh network

Low cost, unlicensed spectrum, widespread use,

WiFi Poor stability, security issues, high energy consumption

reliable mesh network, mature standards

Wireless Cellular Shared services of cellular networks with customer

Low cost due to existing infrastructures, stable,

communication networks market, not sufficiently stable and secure for mission-

widespread, large coverage, low maintenance cost

technology (3G/LTE) critical applications, costly spectrum fees

High reliability, scalability, and security, high Not widespread, tradeoff between long distance over

WiMAX

bandwidth high bitrates, user shared bandwidth

Wireless mesh High reliability and scalability, cost-effective, Low network capacity, signal fading, susceptible to

networks self-organization, load-balancing, large coverage interference, network optimization needed

3 A RCHITECTURE OF F I W I E NHANCED S MART tions like Ethernet, PLC, and controller area network (CAN),

G RID and wireless sensor networks. Moreover, to cope with SG

communication bottlenecks from fast growing amount of

3.1 Comparisons of Available Communication Tech- data, Jiang et al. [31] presented a distributed communication

nologies for Smart Grids architecture for SG applications, where narrowband PLC

Up to now, various communication technologies have been (NB-PLC) and large-scale antenna arrays were adopted.

considered to be implemented in SG communications. In As summarized in Table 1, various communication tech-

particular, PLC has the advantages of cost-efficiency, u- nologies have their own pros and cons. In order to fulfill the

biquity, and large coverage, but its disadvantages are low ever-increasing SG communication requirements on high

bandwidth, low quality o signal, and wiring distance lim- bandwidth, large coverage, low-latency, high reliability, a

itation. Optical fiber networks are reliable and have the hybrid architecture integrating fiber optic and WiFi-based

advantages of high bandwidth, large coverage, and immu- mesh networks could be a very promising candidate for

nity to disturbances, but they have a high installation cost. SG communications, although there have been a few net-

Therefore fiber optic networks are more suitable for high work architecture proposed these years. Specifically, it is

bandwidth backbone communications. Regarding wireless noted the cost of deploying optical fiber networks has been

communication technologies, ZigBee has been recommend- considerably reduced with their widespread popularization,

ed as a promising communication standard for machine-to- and low-power WLAN technologies have being heavily

machine communications by the U.S. National Institute for promoted in recent years [32]. Therefore, we adopt a hybrid

Standards and Technology (NIST), due to its characteristics architecture of fiber optic and WiFi-based mesh networks

of low cost, unlicensed spectrum, low power consump- enhanced with fiber optic and wireless sensors for SG com-

tion, and mesh networking support. WiFi could be another munications in this paper, in consideration of SG commu-

candidate for implementing NAN/HAN communications nication requirements on low latency, high reliability, and

since it is widely used and has the advantages of cost- long-time use after deployment.

efficiency, unlicensed spectrum, reliable mesh networking

support. Cellular networks like 3G/LTE are also efficient 3.2 An Architecture for FiWi Enhanced Smart Grids

and cost-effective due to their existing infrastructures, large As depicted in Figure 1, our proposed FiWi enhanced SG

coverage, and low maintenance cost. But these wireless architecture is composed of two layers, i.e., the power grid

communication technologies also have their shortcomings, infrastructures and the SG communication infrastructures.

e.g., ZigBee is susceptible to disturbances and has a low data The layer of power grid infrastructures consists of power

rate and a very short range. WiFi has the disadvantages of plants, transmission substations, distribution substations,

poor stability and high power consumption, and cellular and residential buildings, which are separately connected

networks are not stable and secure for mission-critical SG via ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission lines, HV trans-

applications since they provide shared services with cus- mission lines, and transmission lines. In order to monitor the

tomer markets. status of the power infrastructures such as the transformers,

Obviously, it is impractical to rely on a single tech- power lines, distribution towers, breakers, switches, volt-

nology to fulfill diverse communication requirements in age regulators, etc., and control the power consumption

SG communication infrastructures. A hybrid architecture of at homes, fiber optic and wireless sensors are deployed

wired and wireless communication technologies could be throughout the transmission and distribution infrastruc-

a practical solution. To provide communication support for tures at the power grids and customer premises [33].

different SG applications, Salvadori et al. [30] proposed a The communication infrastructures of our proposed Fi-

hybrid network architecture combining wired communica- Wi enhanced SG can generally be partitioned into three part-

2168-6750 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TETC.2017.2675911, IEEE

Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing

4

Fig. 1. Generic architecture of FiWi enhanced SG, including power grid infrastructures and SG communication infrastructures.

s, i.e., WAN, where optical fiber networks are implemented connect to the MAPs or constitute the WMNs in the wireless

for its communications, NAN, and HAN, both of which front end of FiWi enhanced SG. They can be conventional

adopt WiFi-based mesh networks as their communication ZigBee or advanced IEEE 802.15.4-compliant devices, which

technologies. In particular, these three parts are responsible offer the data rates of up to 250 kbps or between 31.25 kbps

for the communications of the power transmission grid, and 2 Mbps, respectively. Nevertheless, to reuse the existing

the power distribution grid, and the customer premises in WiFi infrastructures and thus to reduce the capital and oper-

the power grid infrastructures of a SG, respectively. We ating expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX), we adopt emerging

adopt a time division multiplexing passive optical network low-power sensors based on IEEE 802.11n for periodic and

(TDM PON), i.e., IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet PON (EPON), as the urgent data transmission [32]. To monitor the temperature,

optical backhaul of FiWi enhanced SG communication in- voltage and current of transmission/distribution equipmen-

frastructures, due to its widespread popularization and cost- t, fiber optic sensors (FOSs), such as low-cost fiber Bragg

effectiveness. In EPON, which adopts a tree-based topology, grating (FBG) based sensors, are placed at the substations

the optical line terminal (OLT) located at the central office of the power transmission grid or integrated into the fiber

(CO) serves as the root and connects to the DMS via fiber lines of WANs by adopting multiplexing techniques like

lines. A number of hybrid interfaces, i.e., optical network TDM, and they can offer monitoring with high accuracy and

unit mesh portal points (ONU-MPPs), located at the premis- sensitivity, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and a

es of residential/business subscribers, form the leaf nodes. wide transmission range up to 100 km [34].

ONU-MPPs connect to the OLT via a 1 : N (1 : 32 or 1 : In a FiWi enhanced SG, WSs in the wireless front end

64) splitter and serve as the gateways between WANs and collect the status data of the power grid infrastructures in

NANs. Besides EPON, Gigabit PON (GPON), 10G-EPON, the power distribution grid and customer premises, while

and XG-PON, which have higher data rates, can also be FOSs in the optical backhaul collect those in the power

used for implementing the WANs of FiWi enhanced SG transmission grid. These running state data of the whole SG

communication infrastructures. For the wireless front end of infrastructures can be transmitted to the DMS in real time

FiWi enhanced SG, WMNs enhanced with WSs are adopted by adopting the FiWi communication network. Except for

due to their high reliability and low latency, where ONU- monitoring the status of the power infrastructures, the FiWi

MPPs connect the WMNs to the optical backhaul, and mesh network can also be used for the DMS to control the power

access points (MAPs) provide access services to the wireless consumption at customer premises.

clients, e.g., wireless sensors (WSs). Besides, mesh points

(MPs) are placed to relay the data transmission between 4 DATA ACQUISITION UNDER FAILURES IN F I W I

MPPs and MAPs. E NHANCED S MART G RID

WSs, which are used to provide remote monitoring of 4.1 Problem Definition

electrical devices and equipment fault detection, are placed In SG, the electricity power grids provide electricity supplies

at the distribution substations / residential buildings or for the communication infrastructures while the commu-

deployed throughout the distribution lines. They directly nication infrastructures control the electricity power grids.

2168-6750 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing

5

electricity power grids and the SG communication infras-

tructures [24]. When failures happen, both the electricity

power grids and the communication infrastructure in the

failure areas tend to fail simultaneously. Therefore, im-

proving the reliability of the communication infrastructures

under failures will impose a direct effect on the reliability of

the whole SG.

Generally, the failures in communication networks can

be categorized into two groups, i.e., isolated failures (al-

so called independent failures), including random failures

like fiber cut, equipment break, etc., and correlated fail-

ures, where correlated failures can further be grouped into

several types [35], [36], such as time-correlated failures,

geographically correlated failures, cascading failures, etc.

To improve the reliability of the SG communication infras-

tructures, there have been lots of research works emerged

these years. Different from them, we focus on the problem

of data acquisition under failures in FiWi enhanced SG

in this paper. By solving this problem, the status data of Fig. 2. A routing example with TDMA mechanism adopted. In this

remaining alive sensor nodes could be uploaded to the DMS example, there are two routing choices, i.e., 1). v21 v11 DMS,

as soon as possible, so that the DMS could identify the v22 v11 DMS, v23 v11 DMS, v24 v12 DMS;

failure areas the first time, and following disaster relief and 2). v21 v11 DMS, v22 v11 DMS, v23 v12 DMS,

v24 v12 DMS. Since the information acquisition time of a father

power restoration could be performed so as to avoid more node depends on the uploading time of its child which takes the longest

cascading failures. transmission time, the routing in case 2 is obviously better than that in

To address the problem of data acquisition under failures case 1 (the maximum payload length on floor 1 in case 1 is 1000 while

that in case 2 is 800).

in FiWi enhanced SG, it is to minimize the overall uploading

time of remaining alive sensor nodes via choosing optimal

routing paths for each alive sensor node. Therefore, the consumption and latency. Therefore, we adopt TDMA as the

problem of data acquisition under failures can be converted channel access mechanism under failures in FiWi enhanced

to an optimal problem of low-latency routing of remaining SG.

alive sensor nodes under failures, which can be defined as As illustrated in Figure 2, if one node has multiple child

follows. nodes routing to it when adopting the TDMA mechanism,

Definition 1. Low-Latency Routing under Failures (LLRF): it should first wait until all the child nodes in the lower

For each alive sensor node under failures in FiWi en- layer have collected the status data of the nodes routing

hanced SG, given its height, its current conjoint sensor to them. The waiting time mainly depends on the child

nodes, and obtained status data of the network mon- node which has the longest uploading time. Note that the

itored by the sensor, the problem of LLRF is to find uploading time from a child node to its parent node is

the overall optimal routing paths from remaining alive proportional to its data size to be uploaded, i.e., the payload

sensor nodes to the DMS which have the overall shortest length, which can be calculated by adding its own payload

data uploading time under failures. length and the payload length of the nodes routed to it.

In order to minimize the overall data uploading time, we

It is noted that carrier sense multiple access with colli- should minimize the maximum waiting time of the nodes

sion avoidance (CSMA/CA) mechanism is usually adopted on floor one which directly connect to the DMS. To achieve

in wireless networks, such as HANs, since it has the advan- this, the payload length of the nodes in each floor should

tages of self-organization, high spectrum efficiency, and no be as balanced as possible. Therefore, the problem of LLRF

centralized control. But in SG failure scenarios, every alive defined in Definition 1 can be converted to the problem

sensor is eager to report its collected status data of small of minimizing the overall payload length under failures in

traffic volume. With the increasing number of accessing FiWi enhanced SG, which can be defined as follows.

devices, many sensors access the channel incessantly, and

Definition 2. Minimizing overall Payload Length under

CSMA/CA collapses. Most remaining sensors would not be

Failures (MPLF): For each alive sensor node under

able to upload their collected status data, and this would

failures in FiWi enhanced SG, given its height, payload

inevitably lead to very high latency. As a result, the DMS

length, and current conjoint sensor nodes, the problem

cannot acquire the status of the whole SG in first time,

of MPLF is to find the overall optimal routing paths

and thus CSMA/CA is not suitable for solving the prob-

from remaining alive sensor nodes to the DMS that

lem of low-latency data acquisition under failures in FiWi

minimize the maximum payload length of the nodes

enhanced SG. Note that EPON, i.e., the optical backhaul

directly routed to the DMS.

of our proposed FiWi enhanced SG network, adopts TDM

access (TDMA) as its channel access mechanism. Compared After we obtain the overall optimal routing paths under

to CSMA/CA, TDMA has higher channel utilization, espe- SG failures by solving the MPLF problem, the end-to-end

cially for a large number of accessing devices, lower energy delay can be easily calculated by adding up the maximum

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6

uploading time of each layer from the bottom layer to the the classical Set Cover Problem (SCP), and the following

DMS. To facilitate description and simplify our analysis, theorem can be easily obtained.

some notations and formulations are presented in the fol- Theorem 1. The problem of MPLF in FiWi enhanced SG is

lowing section. NP-hard.

Proof: As discussed above, the problem of MPLF is to

4.2 Problem Formulation find the overall minimum covering set for the nodes that

Let V = {v1 , v2 , ..., vNV } denote the set of remaining alive directly connects to the DMS. It can be easily transformed to

sensor nodes under failures in FiWi enhanced SG communi- the classical SCP, which is NP-hard. Therefore, the problem

cation infrastructures, where NV is the number of remaining of MPLF in FiWi enhanced SG is NP-hard.

alive sensor nodes. The DMS is represented as vD , and

vD / V . vi V , fvi is the floor height of node vi , i.e., 4.3 Solutions

the hop counts from vi to vD , e.g., fvD = 0, and fvi = 1 if vi

In order to address the MPLF problem in FiWi enhanced SG,

directly connects to vD . f is the height of the network, i.e.,

we present three solutions in this section, i.e., an optimal

the hop counts from the DMS to the leaf nodes. Moreover,

enumeration routing algorithm (OERA), a greedy approxi-

let Avi , Fvi , Bvi , and Hvi denote the sets of conjoint, parent,

mation routing algorithm (GARA), and a heuristic greedy

brother, and child nodes of vi , respectively, vi V . For

routing algorithm (HGRA).

any vi and vj in V , vj vi denotes that vj is directly routed

to vi after the overall routing paths have been determined. 4.3.1 An optimal enumeration routing algorithm

The communication network of FiWi enhanced SG can

To solve the MPLF problem, the most intuitive method is

be represented by an undirected graph, G = (V, P, E),

to enumerate all optional routing paths from every alive

where P denotes the set of payload length of remaining

sensor node to the DMS, and then to choose an optimal

alive sensor nodes, and E is the set of network links among

combination of routing paths that minimizes the maximum

remaining alive sensor nodes. For any pi in P , pi is the

payload length of the nodes directly connected to the DMS.

payload length of node vi , vi V , and pi is initialized

The details of this enumeration method, i.e., OERA, are

to be 100 bytes according to the event-driven data rates in

described in Algorithm 1.

IEC61850 standard [37]. By adopting our following low-

latency routing algorithms, for any pi in P , pi can be Algorithm 1 an optimal enumeration routing algorithm for

calculated as follows. MPLF.

pi = pj , vi , vj V, (1) Input: f ; Avi , Fvi , fvi , pi , vi V, 0 < i NV .

vj vi Output: pmin , S - the set of overall routing paths of re-

maining alive sensor nodes, the end-to-end delay.

For any eij in E , eij = (vi , vj ) denotes that the nodes

1: Initialize pmin = +, S = ; S denotes the set

vi and vj are conjoint nodes. Furthermore, for any vi that of combinations of routing paths from remaining alive

directly connects to the DMS, i.e., vD , it can be represented

sensor nodes to vD , S = , CAj S ;

as e = (vi , vD ), vi vD .

2: rebuild the network topology of remaining alive sensor

Based on the above notations, the problem of MPLF

nodes via adopting the breadth first algorithm and

defined in Definition 2, which is to minimize the maximum

update f , Avi , Fvi , fvi , vi V ;

payload length of the sensor node directly connected to the

3: enumerate all combinations of routing paths from re-

DMS, can be formulated as an optimization problem with

maining alive sensor nodes to vD , and record into the

constraints as follows.

set S ;

min(max pi ) (2) 4: for all CAj S do

s.t. e = (vi , vD ), vi vD , (3) 5: compute the minimum overall payload length of CAj

and record as pCAj ;

pD = pi , (4) 6: if pCAj < pmin then

7: pmin = pCAj ;

pi = pj , vi , vj V, 0 < i, j NV , (5)

vj vi

8: S = CAj ;

9: else

where pD is the overall payload length of remaining 10: continue;

alive sensor nodes except for those that cannot be routed 11: end if

to the DMS, pi is the calculated payload length of vi that 12: end for

directly connects to the DMS, and pj is the node that is 13: calculate the end-to-end delay;

directly routed to vi by adopting our following low-latency 14: return pmin , S , and the end-to-end delay.

routing algorithms. For convenience, we use pmin to denote

min(max pi ), e = (vi , vD ), 0 < i NV . For OERA in Algorithm 1, the following conclusion can

To solve the problem of MPLF in FiWi enhanced SG, it be easily proved.

is to find the overall minimum covering set for the nodes

Theorem 2. OERA in Algorithm 1 can find an optimal

on floor one while all remaining alive sensor nodes that can

solution to the MPLF problem in FiWi enhanced SG.

be routed to the DMS must be covered, where the covering

set of one node is the set of alive sensor nodes routed to Proof: Since OERA traverses the whole solution space

it. Therefore, the problem of MPLF can be converted to and enumerates all combinations of routing paths from

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remaining alive sensor nodes to the DMS, it is obvious that 4.3.2 A greedy approximation routing algorithm

OERA in Algorithm 1 can find an optimal solution to the

As discussed above, the MPLF problem can be transformed

MPLF problem.

to the SCP, and the greedy algorithm can be adopted to

Algorithm 2 a greedy approximation routing algorithm for achieve an approximation solution to the SCP [38]. There-

MPLF. fore, we present a greedy approximation solution to the

Input: f ; Avi , Fvi , fvi , pi , vi V, 0 < i NV . MPLF problem, i.e., GARA. In particular, the idea of GARA

Output: pmin , S - the set of overall routing paths of re- is to find the minimum covering set for each alive sensor

maining alive sensor nodes, the end-to-end delay. node from the top floor to the bottom floor iteratively. Let

1: Initialize pmin = +, S = ; pi = 100 bytes, 0 < i D and E separately denote the set of processed nodes at

NV ; Cvi denotes the covering set of vi , Cvi = ; D = present and the set of child nodes of the nodes on current

floor, where the processed node means that its routing path

E = AvD ; E = ;

3: for (j =1; i |E|; j + +) do GARA are presented in Algorithm 2.

4: E = (Aij D); For GARA in Algorithm 2, we have the following con-

5: end for clusion.

6: delete duplicates in E ; Theorem 3. GARA in Algorithm 2 can give a near-optimal

7: E=E ; solution to the MPLF problem in FiWi enhanced SG.

8: for vk E do

9: if (vl F vk &&|Fvk | == 1) then Proof: It is noted that we randomly choose some nodes

10: Cvl = {vk }; from Am in steps 24 and 27 of Algorithm 2, and selecting

11: D = {vk }; different nodes covered by vm will inevitably lead to differ-

12: else ent changes to the set Am of remaining nodes on current

13: continue; floor. For the node vm , we make locally optimal choices, but

14: end if we cannot guarantee that the combination of all selected

15: end for covered nodes by GARA is a globally optimal solution to

16: while |Cvij | < |E| do MPLF. Therefore, GARA in Algorithm 2 can only give a

17: sort vij on floor i according to |Cvij | and record as near-optimal solution to the MPLF problem.

G, nmax = max{|Cvij |};

18: for (m = 1; m |G|; m + +) do

19: Am = Am D; 4.3.3 A heuristic greedy routing algorithm

20: if |Am | == 0 then We note that it is a dynamic process to choose the covering

21: continue; nodes for vm , since selecting the nodes covered by vm will

22: else inevitably affect the selection of remaining nodes. In order

23: if |Am | < nmax then to address the dynamic changes in selecting covering nodes,

24: choose min(|Am |, (nmax |Cvm |)) nodes we further propose a heuristic greedy routing scheme, i.e.,

from Am and put them into Cvm and D; HGRA. Different from GARA, HGRA adopts a bottom to

25: else up process to select the routes of every alive node. That is,

26: if Am = then beginning from the bottom floor, each alive node iteratively

27: choose one node from Am and put it into makes greedy choices to select the ones with the lowest pay-

Cvm and D; load length from its conjoint nodes as its routes. This process

28: else proceeds until it reaches vD . Let D denote a temporary set.

29: continue; The details of HGRA are described in Algorithm 3.

30: end if For HGRA in Algorithm 3, the following conclusion can

31: end if be easily proved.

32: end if

33: end for Theorem 4. HGRA in Algorithm 3 can give a near-optimal

34: end while solution to the MPLF problem in FiWi enhanced SG.

35: end for

36: calculate pmin and build S according to obtained cover- Proof: Regarding steps 16 - 20 of in Algorithm 3, if

ing sets of remaining alive sensor nodes; several nodes in current floor have the same payload length,

37: calculate the end-to-end delay; we randomly choose any of them to calculate its route.

38: return pmin , S , and the end-to-end delay. The choice will inevitably affects the routing selection of

the nodes to be processed. Locally optimal choices cannot

OERA in Algorithm 1 is very simple and effective, but guarantee a globally optimal solution to the MPLF problem.

it has a very high computational complexity since OERA Therefore, HGRA in Algorithm 3 can only give a near-

has to enumerate all combinations of routing paths from optimal solution to the MPLF problem.

remaining alive sensor nodes to the DMS so as to find the Compared to OERA, although GARA and HGRA are a

overall minimum payload length, i.e., pmin . More details on little more complex and cannot give an optimal solution

the computational complexity of OERA will be discussed in to the MPLF problem, both of them have much higher

Section 5. computational efficiency than OERA.

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Algorithm 3 a heuristic greedy routing algorithm for MPLF. in Algorithm 1 can be calculated by adding them up, i.e.,

Input: f ; Avi , Fvi , fvi , pi , vi V, 0 < i NV . O(nn ).

Output: pmin , S - the set of overall routing paths of re- Due to its high computational complexity, OERA can

maining alive sensor nodes, the end-to-end delay. only run with a very small number of sensor nodes and is

1: Initialize pmin = +, S = ; pi = 100 bytes, 0 < i impractical in practice with a large number of sensor nodes

NV ; D = ; in FiWi enhanced SG. Thus, we propose OERA in this paper

2: for (i = f ; i > 0; i + +) do just to present a benchmark for the performance evaluation

3: for any node vij on floor i do of our GARA and HGRA.

4: if |Fvij | == 0 then

5: execute the backtracking procedure in Proce- Procedure 1 a backtracking procedure.

dure 1. 1: if Avij == then

6: else 2: continue;

7: if (vk Fvij &&|Fvij | == 1) then 3: else

8: vij vk ; 4: if Bvij = then

9: pvk + = pvij ; 5: choose any node vn from Bvij ;

10: else 6: vij vn ;

11: continue; 7: pvn + = pvij ;

12: end if 8: else

13: end if 9: for vp Hvij do

14: end for 10: if (Fvp {vij }) = then

15: sort vij on floor i according to their payload length 11: vij vp ;

and record into D; 12: pvp + = pvij ;

16: for (l = |D|; l > 0; l ) do 13: else

17: choose vm with the lowest payload length from Fvl ; 14: record vp as an impracticable route;

18: vl vm ; 15: call Procedure 1 on vp iteratively;

19: pvm + = pvl ; 16: end if

20: end for 17: end for

21: end for 18: end if

22: select the maximum payload length of the nodes on 19: end if

floor one and record as pmin ;

23: construct S based on previously calculated routing path- Compared to OERA, both GARA and HGRA have a

s; bigger advantage on computational efficiency. In particular,

24: calculate the end-to-end delay; the following conclusion can be easily proved for GARA.

25: return pmin , S , and the end-to-end delay.

Theorem 6. The computational complexity of GARA in

Algorithm 2 is O(n2 log n) (log n denotes log2 n unless

otherwise specified).

5 A NALYSIS AND D ISCUSSIONS

Proof: GARA in Algorithm 2 mainly contains two parts,

As discussed above, OERA is simple and can give an

i.e., the for loop from step 2 to step 35 using for finding the

optimal solution to the MPLF problem, but it has a very

covering set of each alive sensor node, and step 36 using

high computational complexity. The upper bound of its

for calculating pmin and S based on the calculated covering

computational complexity is presented as follows.

sets. Specifically, for steps 2 - 35, the outer for loop runs for

Theorem 5. The computational complexity of OERA in f times. The inner for loop of steps 3 - 5 runs for an |E|

Algorithm 1 is O(nn ), where n denotes the number time, where E denotes the set of nodes on next lower floor.

of remaining alive sensor nodes in FiWi enhanced SG By adding them up, it is to traverse all alive nodes in the

communication infrastructures. network for steps 3 - 5, and its running time is O(n). Step 6,

Proof: The OERA in Algorithm 1 mainly contains three which is adopted to delete duplicates in the set E , runs at

parts, i.e., rebuilding network topology under failures in most n log n times via sorting the elements in E first. For

step 2, enumerating all combinations of routing paths for steps 8 - 15, the for loop runs at most |E| times, the inner

remaining alive sensor nodes in step 3, and computing steps 9 - 14 runs for an O(1) time, and thus the running

pmin and S based on the combinations of routing paths time of steps 8 - 15 is O(n). Regarding the while loop of

in steps 4 - 12. In particular, the running time of step 2 steps 16 - 34, the running time of the outer while loop is

is O(NV + |E|) = O(n), where n denotes the number O(|E|). Step 17 runs for an O(|G| log |G|) time, where G is

of remaining alive sensor nodes under failures in FiWi the set of nodes on current floor. The running time of the

enhanced SG. For step 3, there are at most n i choices for loop of steps 18 - 33 is O(|G|), and the steps from 19 to

for any alive node vi ( vi V, 0 < i n) to select its 32 runs for an O(1) time. Thus, the running time of steps

routing path to vD , and thus the time complexity of step 16 - 34 can be calculated by adding up these two parts, i.e.,

3 is O(nn ). Regarding the forall loop of steps 4 - 12, the O(f |E|(|G| log |G| + |G|)) = O(n2 log n). After that the

outer loop of step 4 runs at most nn times and steps 5 - 11 running time of steps 2 - 35 can be obtained, i.e., O(n +

runs for an O(1) time, and thus the running time of steps n log n + n + n2 log n)) = O(n2 log n). The running time

4 - 12 is O(nn ). Finally, the whole running time of OERA of step 36 is O(n). Finally, the running time of GARA can

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TABLE 2

Parameter settings in the experiments. 600 OERA

GARA

HGRA

500

notation description value and unit

pi initial payload length of any vi 100 bytes

n number of sensor nodes 5 170 400

pmin (bytes)

f height of FiWi communication network 2 13

NF number of failure nodes 18 300

NON U number of ONUs 8

200

100

O(n2 log n).

Compared to the classical GARA, HGRA in Algorithm 3 0

takes the dynamic changes in selecting the routes of vi (vi 2 3 4 5 6

a better solution beyond GARA. In order to calculate the (a) Comparisons of the overall minimum payload

computational complexity of HGRA, we should figure out length (i.e., pmin ) among OERA, GARA, and HGRA.

the running time of Procedure 1 first.

Lemma 1. The computational complexity of the backtracking OERA

GARA

procedure in Procedure 1 is O(n). 0.03 HGRA

Procedure 1 is adopted to find the routes of the node vi

(vi V, 0 < i NV ) whose parent nodes fail. This

Delay (ms)

0.02

a route node which has an alive parent node at the next

higher floor. For Procedure 1, it only leads to two cases, i.e., 0.01

the route node existed in its brother/child nodes or not. In

the first case, the time complexity of Procedure 1 can be

calculated by adding up the running time of steps 4 - 12,

0.00

i.e., O(n). Otherwise, Procedure 1 perform steps 1 - 2 or 2 3 4 5 6

recursively call itself in steps 14 - 15, and it runs at most n Number of ONUs

times. Overall, the running time of Procedure 1 is O(n). (b) Comparisons of the end-to-end delay among

Base on Lemma 1, the computational complexity of OERA, GARA, and HGRA.

HGRA in Algorithm 3 can be easily obtained.

Theorem 7. The computational complexity of HGRA in Fig. 3. Illustration of numerical results of pmin and the end-to-end delay

with different number of ONUs, where the number of failure nodes (i.e.,

Algorithm 3 is O(n2 ). NF ) is set as 1.

Proof: The running time of HGRA in Algorithm 3 is

comprised of two parts, i.e., the for loop from step 2 to

step 21, and the steps 22 and 23. In particular, the outer

for loop of steps 2 - 21 runs at most f times. For the for

loop of steps 3 - 14, its computational complexity mainly

depends on step 5. Note that step 5 at most traverses all of ONU-MPPs in the optical backhaul, and a WMN in

remaining alive nodes to find the route of vij , and thus the wireless front end. During our experiments, we found

its running time is O(n). By adding up the running time that when the height of the communication network is

of all nodes, the time complexity of steps 3 - 14 can be fixed, the number of sensor nodes is nearly proportional

easily obtained, i.e., O(n n) = O(n2 ). Moreover, the time to the number of ONU-MPPs. As illustrated in Figure 3, the

complexity of step 15 is O(n log n). For steps 16 - 20, which calculated overall minimum payload length (i.e., pmin ) and

are adopted to find the parent node of vl with the lowest the end-to-end delay changed very little with the increasing

payload length, the outer for loop runs at most n times, number of ONU-MPPs, where the data rate in IEEE 802.11n-

and the inner step 17 runs for an O(n) time. Therefore, the based mesh network is fixed to 144 Mb/s. Thus, without

running time of steps 16 - 20 is O(n2 ). Furthermore, steps loss of generality, the number of ONU-MPPs, i.e., NON U , is

22 and 23 separately run for an O(1) and O(n) time. Finally, set to 8 in our following experiments. The total number of

the time complexity of HGRA can be calculated by adding sensor nodes, i.e., n, ranges from 5 to 170, and the height of

them up, i.e., O(n2 + n log n + n2 + n) = O(n2 ). the communication network, i.e., f , is set between 2 and 13.

During our experiments, we randomly choose some of the

sensor nodes from floor 2 to floor 13 as the failure nodes,

6 P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION

and the number of failure nodes, i.e., NF , is set between 1

6.1 Parameter Settings and 8. Furthermore, A Ubuntu 14 64 bit operating system in

Without loss of generality, we adopt a FiWi communication an Intel i5 core computer with 4 GB RAM is adopted as our

network for implementing FiWi enhanced SG communica- experiment platform. Table 2 lists the parameter settings in

tion infrastructures, which consists of 1 OLT and a number our experiments.

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1500 OERA

In order to validate that both GARA and HGRA can give GARA

a near-optimal solution to the MPLF problem, we make HGRA

comparisons of the overall minimum payload length, i.e.,

pmin , among OERA, GARA, and HGRA with different 1000

pmin (bytes)

number of sensor nodes. In this simulation, OERA, which

is able to give an optimal solution to MPLF, is adopted as

our benchmark, and the number of failure nodes, i.e., NF , is 500

set as 1. Figure 4(a) depicts the comparison results of pmin

among OERA, GARA, and HGRA, where the X-axis denotes

the total number of sensor nodes, i.e., n, and the Y-axis is

0

the calculated overall minimum payload length pmin . Since 5 10 15 20 25

OERA can only run with a very small number of sensor Number of nodes

nodes due to its exponential computational complexity, the (a) Comparisons of pmin among OERA, GARA, and

number of ONUs in this experiment is fixed to 2. From Fig- HGRA.

ure 4(a), it can be observed that both GARA and HGRA can

0.25

give near-optimal solutions to MPLF compared to OERA,

where Theorems 3 and 4 are validated. In particular, HGRA OERA

GARA

can obtain better solutions to MPLF than GARA, since 0.20

HGRA

HGRA introduces a dynamic process to select the route of

each alive sensor node. Comparison results of the end-to- 0.15

Delay (ms)

end delay among OERA, GARA, and HGRA in Figure 4(b)

present the similar conclusions with those of the overall

0.10

minimum payload length.

Figure 5 illustrates the comparison results of the running

time among OERA, GARA, and HGRA with different n 0.05

settings, where a failure node was randomly selected from

the sensor nodes on floors 2 - 6, i.e., NF = 1. As depicted in 0.00

Figure 5, the running time of OERA grows sharply while 5 10 15 20 25

those of GARA and HGRA increase smoothly, and this Number of nodes

verifies our analysis in Section 5 that OERA can only run (b) Comparisons of the end-to-end delay among

with a very small number of sensor nodes and is impractical OERA, GARA, and HGRA.

in practice with a large number of sensor nodes in FiWi

enhanced SG. Fig. 4. Illustration of numerical results of pmin and the end-to-end delay

with different number of sensor nodes, where NF is set as 1.

From above experiments, we can see that although OER-

A can give an optimal solution to MPLF, it is unacceptable 5000

in practice due to its exponential computational complexity. OERA

Rather, although GARA and HGRA can only give near- GARA

4000

optimal solutions to MPLF, both of them have very higher HGRA

computational efficiency than OERA, and thus they provide

Running time (ms)

SG.

Running time (ms)

80

In the following, we make some further comparisons 2000 60

1000

GARA and HGRA with different n settings, where the cases 0

5 10 15 20

with NF = 1 and NF = 8 were separately tested. Number of nodes

0

From Figure 6(a), one can easily observe that with the 5 10 15 20 25

same NF setting, the overall minimum payload length of Number of nodes

HGRA is lower than that of GARA. Similar conclusion can

be obtained from Figure 6(b), that is, HGRA can achieve Fig. 5. Comparisons of the running time among OERA, GARA, and

a better performance rather than GARA in addressing the HGRA, where NF is set as 1.

problem of data acquisition under failures in FiWi enhanced

SG. Besides, it can be observed from Figure 6 that both the

6.3 Discussions

overall minimum payload length and the end-to-end delay

of GARA and HGRA increase with more failure nodes. To During our experiments, we note that the running time of

validate this, we carried out more simulation and found that both GARA and HGRA increases at a near-linear trend,

this rule keeps until too many sensor nodes fail. However, which doesnt closely approximate the theoretical analysis

the inflection point cannot be easily determined due to concluded in Section 5. By further analysis, we find this is

randomly failed sensors. because that the sorting steps in both GARA and HGRA

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GARA, NF=1 in FiWi enhanced SG.

7500

HGRA, NF=1

GARA, NF=8

6000 HGRA, NF=8

7 C ONCLUSION

In order to fulfill diverse communication requirements in

pmin (bytes)

architecture integrating fiber optic and WiFi-based mesh

3000

networks. Based on the FiWi enhanced SG communication

architecture, we investigated the problem of data acquisi-

1500

tion under failure in SG, and proposed two solutions, i.e.,

GARA, and HGRA. Numerical results corroborated that

0

35 55 75 95 115 135 155 both GARA and HGRA can obtain near-optimal solutions

Number of nodes and have much higher computational efficiency, compared

(a) Comparisons of pmin between GARA and H- to our benchmark, i.e., OERA. Furthermore, HGRA can give

GRA. a better solution rather than GARA. For future works, it

should be meaning to take more channel access mechanisms

2.5

into account and design corresponding solutions.

GARA, NF=1

2.0 HGRA, NF=1

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2168-6750 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

This article has been accepted for publication in a future issue of this journal, but has not been fully edited. Content may change prior to final publication. Citation information: DOI 10.1109/TETC.2017.2675911, IEEE

Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing

12

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nologies for Smart Grid Communication: A Review, in CSNT, gree in computer science and technology from

2015. Harbin Institute of Technology in 2004, M.S. and

[22] H. Li, A. Dimitrovski, J. B. Song, Z. Han, and L. Qian, Com- Ph.D. degrees in computer application technolo-

munication Infrastructure Design in Cyber Physical Systems with gy from Harbin Institute of Technology Shenzhen

Applications in Smart Grids: A Hybrid System Framework, IEEE Graduate School, Shenzhen, China, in 2006 and

Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 16891708, 2011, respectively. He is currently a lecturer with

Third Quarter 2014. the School of Cyber Engineering, Xidian Univer-

[23] Y. Yan, Y. Qian, H. Sharif, and D. Tipper, A Survey on Smart sity. His research interests cover a wide range

Grid Communication Infrastructures: Motivations, Requirements of areas including Fiber-Wireless networks, IoT,

and Challenges, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 15, 5G, and smart grid.

no. 1, pp. 520, First Quarter 2013.

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Geographically Correlated Failures on Interconnected Power-

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Communication Networks, in SmartGridComm, 2013.

professor at the School of Cyber Engineering,

[27] P. K. Agarwal, A. Efrat, S. K. Ganjugunte, D. Hay, S. Sankarara-

Xidian University. His research interests cover

man, and G. Zussman, The Resilience of WDM Networks to

wireless mobile communications, FiWi, IoT, etc.

Probabilistic Geographical Failures, IEEE/ACM Transactions on

He has published more than 50 peer-reviewed

Networking, vol. 21, no. 5, Oct. 2013.

papers in many prestigious IEEE journals and

[28] A. Bernstein, D. Bienstock, D. Hay, M. Uzunoglu, and G. Zussman, conferences, and currently serves as the asso-

Power Grid Vulnerability to Geographically Correlated Failures - ciate editors for IEEE TC & TVT, the editor for

Analysis and Control Implications, in INFOCOM, 2014. IEEE Network, the guest editors of IEEE TETC &

[29] S. Neumayer and E. Modiano, Network Reliability under Geo- IEEE IoT Journal. He is a Distinguished Lecturer

graphically Correlated Line and Disk Failure Models, Computer of IEEE ComSoc.

Networks, vol. 94, pp. 1428, Jan. 2016.

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P. S. Sausen, Smart Grid Infrastructure Using a Hybrid Network

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16301639, Sept. 2013.

[31] J. Jiang and Y. Qian, Distributed Communication Architecture for

Smart Grid Applications, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 54,

no. 12, pp. 6067, Dec. 2016.

[32] S. Tozlu, M. Senel, W. Mao, and A. Keshavarzian, Wi-Fi Enabled

Sensors for Internet of Things: A Practical Approach, IEEE Com-

munications Magazine, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 134143, Jun. 2012. Lei Zhao received his B.S. degree in computer

[33] N. Zaker, B. Kantarci, M. Erol-Kantarci, and H. T. Mouftah, science and technology from Xidian University

Smart Grid Monitoring with Service Differentiation via EPON in 2015. He is currently a master student in the

and Wireless Sensor Network Convergence, Optical Switching and School of Cyber Engineering, Xidian University.

Networking, vol. 14, Part 1, pp. 5368, Aug. 2014. His research interests cover FiWi and mobile

edge cloud computing.

[34] Eric Pinet, S. Ellyson, and F. Borne, Temperature Fiber-Optic

Point Sensors: Commercial Technologies and Industrial Applica-

tions, in MIDEM, 2010.

[35] Z. Huang, C. Wang, T. Zhu, and A. Nayak, Cascading Failures

in Smart Grid: Joint Effect of Load Propagation and Interdepen-

dence, IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 25202530, Dec. 2015.

[36] S. Neumayer, G. Zussman, R. Cohen, and E. Modiano, Assess-

ing the Vulnerability of the Fiber Infrastructure to Disasters,

IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 16101623,

Dec. 2011.

2168-6750 (c) 2016 IEEE. Personal use is permitted, but republication/redistribution requires IEEE permission. See http://www.ieee.org/publications_standards/publications/rights/index.html for more information.

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