Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET)

Volume 8, Issue 2, February 2017, pp. 4149, Article ID: IJMET_08_02_006


Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=8&IType=2
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
IAEME Publication

AUTOMATION OF MAIN BEARING BOLT AND CAP


LOOSENING MACHINE FOR AUTOMOBILE
CRANKSHAFT
S. Arun
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Department, Veltech, Avadi, Chennai, India

SK. Nagoorvali
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Department, Veltech, Avadi, Chennai, India

K. Sunil Kumar
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Department, Veltech, Avadi, Chennai, India

G.S. Mohan
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Department, T.J.S. Engineering College, Gummidipoondi, India

ABSTRACT
As the time consumed for the loosening of the bolt manually requires more time and reduces the
rate of production. The Automation is done. It saves a lot of time and also increases the rate of
production. The manual loosening of main bearing bolt and cap is not only a time consuming
process but it is also quite tedious and prone to human errors .Hence automation is done to reduce
the errors. The Automation of Main Bearing Bolt and Cap loosening reduces the part damage and
increases the efficiency of the product. The thread chip-off and operator errors are also reduced.
And also the requirement of skilled technician is reduced, which automatically reduces the time
consumed for various allowances.
Key words: Automobile crankshaft assembly, automobile bolt design, crankshaft assembly.
Cite this Article: S. Arun, SK. Nagoorvali, K. Sunil Kumar and G.S. Mohan. Automation of Main
Bearing Bolt and Cap Loosening Machine for Automobile Crankshaft. International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 8(2), 2017, pp. 4149.
http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=8&IType=2

1. INTRODUCTION
The scope of this project confines to the assembly line AUTOMATION OF MAIN BEARING BOLT
AND CAP LOOSENING MACHINE". The main bearing bolt and cap that are fixed in the MIP (Made In
Part) section is removed in the assembly to facilitate the insertion of the crank shaft. This is done manually
using pneumatic gun and other special tools. This might Cause damage to bolt head, missing of process,
human fatigue, time delay and less productivity [1]. So Automation is done which is results in reduction of
time consumed, avoid human error and also increase the efficiency [3]. All of which leads to increase the

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 41 editor@iaeme.com
S. Arun, SK. Nagoorvali, K. Sunil Kumar and G.S. Mohan

production known as AUTOMATION OF MAIN BEARING BOLT AND CAP LOOSENING


MACHINE.

2. DESCRIPTION
In Engine plant all operations are done by Automation Process. But the Main Bearing Bolt and Cap
loosening is done manually. As it (The Bolt and Cap loosening) is done manually as shown in the figure
1.There are various problems that occurs, moreover it is not completely reliable as there are chances of
human errors due to fatigue and other factors and also the time consumed on the process is more[4]. Hence
Automation is done.

Figure 1 Manual Main Bearing Bolt loosening

3. PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
3.1. Quality
The manual operation affects the quality in the form of part damage and thread chip-off in bolt. This is due
to the loosening of the bolt in main bearing cap.

3.2. Ergonomics
Ergonomics is said to be relationship between men and machine during manual operation. The ergonomics
is affected due to human fatigue, operational errors and the time consumed for various allowances.

3.3. Scrap
Scrap is also increased during manual operation and it causes Bolt damage and thread chip off and it leads
to increase in burr.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 42 editor@iaeme.com
Automation of Main Bearing Bolt and Cap Loosening Machine for Automobile Crankshaft

4. METHODOLOGY
REDUCED PRODUCTION RATE

INCREASED CYCLE TIME

TIME REQUIRE MORE TO LOOSEN THE BOLT

SINCE IT IS DONE MANUALLY

AUTOMATION OF MAIN BEARING BOLT


LOOSENING

Figure 2 Methodology

5. PROCESS INVOLVED

Figure 3 front view of automation of main bearing bolt and cap loosening machine
It works on Hydro-Pneumatic pressure .The block is input to the conveyor by the pick and place robot
and the block moves to the various sections through the conveyor. In the main bearing bolt and cap
loosening session the block is raised and the bolt and cap are loosened by the hydro-pneumatic system[7].It
automatically loosens the main bearing nut and cap in cylinder block and also it is sensed automatically by
the sensor. And it is consist of 10 spindle and each spindle operates simultaneously for bolt loosening [9].
And it is consisting of 5 clamps for loosening the main bearing cap. Its takes only less time for operation.
When compare to manual operation time.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 43 editor@iaeme.com
S. Arun, SK. Nagoorvali, K. Sunil Kumar and G.S. Mohan

5.1. 2D Designs Layout

Figure 4 2D Machine view

5.2. 2D Machine View

Figure 5 2D Machine View

5.3. 3D Machine View

Figure 6 3D Machine view

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 44 editor@iaeme.com
Automation of Main Bearing Bolt and Cap Loosening Machine for Automobile Crankshaft

5.4. 3D Model

Figure 7 3D Design
esign of main bearing bolt loosening machine

5.5. Solid Works Model in Assembled View

Figure 8 3D Assembly

6. CALCULATION
i) To find Mass of plate/self weight:
Mass of the plate = density * volume
=3*130*100*2.7=91.26*10gm
ii) To find Bending Moment in Maximum:(M max)
M max= WL / 8
To find W: (consider the load as 2500N)
W= (91.26+2500)*9.81/1300
= 23.32 N
Therefore
M max = 23.32*(1.3) / 8
= 4.92Nm
iii) To find Maximum Deflection (Y max)
Y max = (5/384)*(WL4 / EI)

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.
IJMET/index.asp 45 editor@iaeme.com
S. Arun, SK. Nagoorvali, K. Sunil Kumar and G.S. Mohan

iv) To find Moment of inertia (I):


I = bd/12
= 1000*30/12 =2250*10 mm4
Therefore,
Y max = (5/384) *(23.32*(1300^4)/70*10*2250*10)
= 5.506 Nm
v) To Find Maximum Load Bearing Capacity
Force considered as 107.5N
max = force/area
Force =107*30*1000
= 3.22MN
The stress due to load
max= (2500+91.26)*9.81/(30*1000)
=1.01 N/mm

7. DESIGN CALCULATION FOR COLUMN


COLU

Figure 9 Column
i) To find moment of Inertia about X-X
X axis
IXX = (b1d1 b2d2)/ 12
= (135*115-115*95)/12
115*95)/12 = 8.89*10^6 mm4
ii) Moment of Inertia about Y-Y-axis:
axis:
IYY= (115*135-95*115)/12
= 11.53*10^6 mm4
Slenderness Ratio= L/rc
Where, I=Arc
Therefore 11.53*10^6= 4500*r
rC=50.61mm
herefore slenderness ratio = 1285/50.61= 25.39
Therefore

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.
JMET/index.asp 46 editor@iaeme.com
Automation of Main Bearing Bolt and Cap Loosening Machine for Automobile Crankshaft

Hence, slenderness ratio is less than 40 column is a short columns. So Eulers theory cannot be used. And
Eulers theory its only applicable for long column.
iii) Determination of Rankine value:
1/Pr = 1/Pe + 1/ Pc
Where, Pe= Buckling load
Pc= crushing load
iv) To find Buckling load
Pe= (4*3.14*3.14*EI)/Le
= (4*3.14*3.14*1.4*10^5*11.52*10^6) / 1285 =5.0779*10^6N
Pe=2.09*10^7N
v) To find crushing load:
Stress=Pc/A
Stress= 152N/mm for ASTM A36 steel bar
Therefore, stress=152*(135*115-95*115)=2.34*10^6
1/Pr=1/(5.0779*10^10) + 1/( 2.34*10^6)
Pr=1.97MN

8. DESIGN CALCULATION FOR UPPER FRAME


Assuming the top frame as a Fixed Beam which has uniform distributed load about 2500kg and the load
gets equally distributed.

Figure 10 Upper frame


i) To find self weight
Self weight = density* volume
Volume=1350*(140*95-120*95) =5805cm
Density = 7.85 gm/cc for A36 Steel bar
Therefore, self weight = 5805*7.85=45.56*10 gm
ii) To find Maximum Deflection Y max:
Y max = WL/384EI
= (1250+45.56)*9.81*1070/(384*2*10*578.4*10)
= 0.09 mm
iii) To find maximum bending moment
M max= WL/24
= ((1250+4556)*9.81*1070)/24
= 506.63 Nm

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 47 editor@iaeme.com
S. Arun, SK. Nagoorvali, K. Sunil Kumar and G.S. Mohan

iv) To find stress due to load


Max.stress = load/area
Load carrying capacity
= 1250*(140*95-120*75)
=0.5375*10^7 N
= 5.37MN
Max.Stress
= (1250+45.56)*9.81/(140*95-120*75)
= 0.5741 N/mm

9. DESIGN CALCULATION FOR BOLT LOOSENING

Figure 11 Bolt loosening Machine view


Force = Torque/distance
Torque required for loosening the Bolt in main bearing cap so, torque about 5 to 6 kgfm
In this torque formula we find the force value: We considered the torque value is 5.5 kgfm
Force =5.5/ (0.01) = 5393.66 N.

9.1. Process Time Calculation for Manual & Automation Loosening Tabular Column
Table 1 Process time calculation

SI.NO Manual of Automation of Manual of Automation of Time saving Time saving


Bolt Bolt loosening Cap Cap loosening for bolt for Cap
loosening (Sec) loosening (Sec) loosening loosening
(Sec) (Sec) (Sec) (Sec)
1 15.75 8.73 33.68 12.64 7.02 21.04
2 16.12 7.53 32.15 13.72 8.59 18.43
3 14.28 8.39 30.01 13.14 5.89 16.87

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 48 editor@iaeme.com
Automation of Main Bearing Bolt and Cap Loosening Machine for Automobile Crankshaft

10. CONCLUSION
Success full implementation of Main Bearing Bolt and Cap loosening machine resulted in transformation
from manual processing to automatic processing, hence eliminating the workmens fatigue. The
achievements on implementation of the main bearing bolt and cap loosening machine is
Improved overall efficiency
Avoid scrap and burr
Avoid part damage
Thus the existence of main bearing bolt and cap loosening machine turns up the statistics friendlier to
higher standards.

REFERENCES
[1] Ligier, J.L.; Dutfoy, L. Modelling and prediction of a simplified seizure mechanism occurring in conrod
bearings. Mc. Ind. 2011, 12, 265273.
[2] Bravo, A.E.; Durn, H.A.; Jacobo, V.H.; Ortiz, A.; Schouwenaars, R. Towards new formulations for
journal bearing alloys. Wear 2013, 302, 15281535.
[3] Khonsari, M.M.; Booser, E.R. Effect of contamination on the performance of hydrodynamic bearings.
In Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology,
Baton Rouge, LA, USA, 1 May 2006; IMechE: London, UK, 2006; Volume 220.
[4] Gangopadhyay, A.; McWatt, D.G. The effect of novel surface textures on tappet shims on valve
trainfriction and wear. In Proceedings of the STLE/ASME 2006 International Joint Tribology
Conference, San Antonio, TX, USA, 2008; Volume 51, pp. 221230.
[5] Ciulli, E. A review of internal combustion engine losses. Part 2: Studies for Global Evaluations.Proc.
Inst. Mech. Eng. D J. Automob. Eng. 1993, 207, 229240.
[6] Ruchik D. Trivedia*, Dhaval B. Shahb, Kaushik M Patel3D Parametric Modeling for Product Variants
Using Case Study on Inner Ring of Spherical Roller Bearing science direct 2012 .
[7] Ronkainen, H.; Valkonen, A.; Kapulainen, M.; Simo, V.; Hokkanen, A.; Stuns, I. Embedded optical
sensor for oil film pressure measurement in journal bearings. In Proceedings of the NORDTRIB2008,
Tampere, Finland, 1013 June 2008.
[8] Tala-Ighil, N.; Maspeyrot, P.; Fillon, M.; Bounif, A. Effects of surface texture on journal-bearing
characteristics under steady-state operating conditions. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. J J. Eng. Tribol.
2007,221, 623633.
[9] Adatepe, H.; Biyikhoglu, A.; Sofuoglu, H. An investigation of tribological behaviors of dynamically
loaded non-grooved and micro-grooved journal bearings. Tribol. Int. 2013, 58, 1219.
[10] Ronkainen, H.; Valkonen, A.; Kapulainen, M.; Simo, V.; Hokkanen, A.; Stuns, I. Embedded optical
sensor for oil film pressure measurement in journal bearings. In Proceedings of the NORDTRIB. 2008,
Tampere, Finland, 1013 June 2008.
[11] Pawan Kumar Singh, Dr. L. P. Singh, Vicky Lad and Anil Kumar Vishwakarma, Modelling of
Crankshaft by CAD Tool and Finite Element Analysis Using Ansys Software. International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 7(4), 2016, pp. 205211.
[11] Praveen Padagannavar and Manohara Bheemanna, Automotive Computational Fluid Dynamics
Simulation of A Car Using Ansys International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology,
7(2), 2016, pp. 91104.

http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 49 editor@iaeme.com