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EEE 299



Phone: (+90 232) 877 08 00
Fax : (+90 232) 877 08 06
E-mail: info@klemsan.com.tr

established in 1974. KLEMSAN is the first and the only
manufacturer of DIN Rail Terminal Blocks in Turkey, it has a wide
product portfolio, inside panel components, signal conditioners,
electronic and automation modules, marking systems... etc
KLEMSAN, as an ISO 9001 & ISO 14001 certified manufacturer,
offers a comprehensive product portfolio that complies with IEC
directives and carries the VDE, ATEX, CE, UL, cUL, CSA, DNV
and GOST-R approvals as a global passport to the international

KLEMSAN, with its Head Office in Istanbul, its regional

offices in Ankara, Bursa, Adana, Antalya and Konya, and its wide
distribution network with 72 distributors nationwide, is the leader
of the local market. Moreover, KLEMSAN is exporting to 60
countries including Romania, Kazakhstan, USA, Canada, Brazil,
Chile, S. Korea, Australia, Germany, Italy, France, United
Kingdom, Denmark, Norway, Finland, Taiwan, Morocco, UAE,
Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, Tunisia etc. Among these countries,
Klemsan has established 2 sales offices in Russia and Dubai
Klemsan Automation focuses on the products intended for Energy
Management, which is becoming an important need in Turkeys
energy sector and in that of the whole world. Some of the product
groups of Klemsan Automation are Reactive Power Controller,
Energy Analyzer, Multimeters, Monitoring Relays and
Transducers. Klemsans major target is to expand its product
portfolio by improving DIN Rail Terminal Blocks and Automation
products by continuous improvement and keeping the service
quality level high. Moreover, Klemsans motive is to contribute to
Turkeys economy and to be known as a Turkish manufacturer by
spreading its success in the domestic market to foreign market.

Main scope of business being terminal blocks and accessories,

Klemsan is increasing its production volume continuously and
keeps on adding new products to its product range in order to meet
the customer requirements. Having been manufacturing electronic
devices since 2002, Klemsan established its Automation company
in 2007. Adapting its SMD assembly line in Izmir Kemalpaa
Factory, Klemsan improves production capacity and
responsiveness. Klemsans products are designed and developed
in-house by its own R&D and software.

In this report, a detailed description of the that I have done and
observed during the summer practice is included. I explained
informations that are learned. I have performed my first year
Summer Practice in Klemsan Electric Electronics which is produces
Reactive Power Controller, Energy Analyzer, Multimeters, Monitoring
Relays, Transducers and Electric Terminals(As Known As Klemens).
My practice lasted totally 20 work day, started at 23.06.2014 and ended
in 18.07.2014. I have perfomed my work in AR - GE depertment of
Klemsan. In my first day Mr. Amir showed around the whole factory
to me.
This is the plastic enjection machine that use for produce any types
of Klemens.

In my first week I worked on Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) and i

learned what the PCB is. And then I learned working system of the
Reactive Power Controller and Energy Analyzer. They told me how
importance of these devices and i have learned how to do
measurement with these devices.
(Parts of Reactive Power Controllers PCB)
(Energy Analyser)

This is theEnergy Analyser of Klemsan. They call it Klea.

You can measure voltage,current and power of your system with this
device easily and you can follow these values of your computer because of RS
485 communication card.
(Communication and Displays)

16 (ANC-16) input channels

Double colored; backlight illuminated indicators

Keeping 6080 event logs with time stamp

Battery supported real-time clock and memory (min. 5 years of battery life)

Ability to assign input channels to HORN or ALARM relays via DIP switch

Isolated RS-485 port

HORN channels green and ALARM channels are in red color

Input signal voltage values: 24V AC/DC

Adjustable alarm recognition delay 0-30 seconds

Front panel buttons for alarm confirmation, deletion and display tests

Sound warning of alarms with a buzzer

2 relay outputs; HORN and ALARM relays


A multimeter or a multitester, also known as a VOM

(Volt-Ohm meter), is an electronic measuring
instrument that combines several measurement
functions in one unit. A typical multimeter would
include basic features such as the ability to measure
voltage, current, and resistance. Analog multimeters
use a microammeter whose pointer moves over a scale
calibrated for all the different measurements that can
be made. Digital multimeters (DMM, DVOM) display the
measured value in numerals, and may also display a
bar of a length proportional to the quantity being
measured. Digital multimeters are now far more
common than analog ones, but analog multimeters are
still preferable in some cases, for example when
monitoring a rapidly-varying value.
A multimeter can be a hand-held device useful for basic
fault finding and field service work, or a bench
instrument which can measure to a very high degree of
accuracy. They can be used to troubleshoot electrical
problems in a wide array of industrial and household
devices such as electronic equipment, motor controls,
domestic appliances, power supplies, and wiring system


This is the Electronic Multimeter of Klemsan and they

call it Ecras. You can measure existence/non-
existence of currents and voltages belonging to the
related phases. Also you can measure minimum and
maximum values for current, voltage (L-L, L-N), cos
active, reactive and apparent power.


Relays are used to run a high-powered receiver

with small valuables current. Hundreds of types and
models relays are used to in production vehicles. relays
have a wide range of products. However they all
operating principle is the same.
Relays lost its popularity after triacs and thyristor
manufactured but they is still in use in many areas.
Relays has more than one switch contact in a single
structure.Relays open or close more than one load at
the same time.The relays can open or close some of
load at the same time. it is only advantage according to
the thyristor and triacs. This process is completely
associated with the design of the relay contacts.
Disadvantages is higher.It make a lot of failure because
it work mechacly.Contacts open constantly sticking
together. Electricity jumps will cause to oxidation of the
contacts and lost of the transmission. The turn-on time
is longer than them.The sound is not very nice while
contact are pulled and left.
Relays structure
They made up from coil, iron core, pallet, bow and
contacts. The relay coil is product to run 5-9-12-24-36-
48 volts. DC-powered mini relays are used in electric

Relays study
Current is applied to passed through the iron core in
the relay. N-S magnetic field is generated.This field
brought into electromagnet in the coil and allows to
change position of contacts of palette.If the current is
stopped, Electromagnet feature will eliminates. Flexible
spring tension pull back palette and bring contact to
first position.The surfaces can oxidized due touch the
each other. Coating is done on tungsten or platinum
with thin layer of silver to ensure that a minimum level
of oxidation at contacts.
If oxidation is formed in electronic circuit is not working
properly in relay contacts, this undesirable situation can
be resolved with water emery. New relay is used without
(Power Factor

This is the Power Factor Controller of Klemsan. They call it Rapidus.

It can do compensation with low current values (10mA).It has capability to

connect three-phase/single phase capacitor or reactor to any step. Every big
company should have power factor controller.

(Motor Portection Relays)

- Phase Failure Protection:

The output relay is de-energized without delay to
prevent motor from overheating and damage when any
of the phases fails. The output relay is energized
without delay when all phases return to normal.
- Asymmetry Protection:
Asymmetry is a condition that occurs due to
unbalanced load distribution and it results overheating
and damage of electrical motors.

- Over-Under Voltage Protection:

The output relay is de-energized without delay when
any of line voltages is above or below 40% from

(Voltage Monitoring Relays)

Voltage Monitoring Relays are designed to protect the

motorss and networks against undervoltage and
overvoltage conditions.
(Photocell Relay)

Photocell relays usually used to turn on and turn off the

illumination systems, according to the ambient light
level. Mostly used in the automation of street and park
lamps, and the illumination of shop windows.

(Liquid Level Controller)

LLC35 liquid level control relays control levels of

conductive liquids by measuring the resistance of the
liquid between the electrodes ( A and B ).If the
measured resistance is below the preset value,the
output relay is activated.To avoid electrolysis an AC
signal is given to the liquid.

Multi-voltage timers provide timing functionality from 50 ms to 300 hours

(Frequency Monitoring Relay)

FP35 frequency protection relay protects equipment from frequency

variations in the mains supply network. Protected equipment is
switched off after a time delay when the mains supply frequency falls
outside of the preset limits.

1- High Frequency Protection:

If the line frequency exceeds the upper frequency limit and
continually stays there for an adjustable time delay, the output relay is
de-energized at the end of delay. The relay is then energized
immediately when the line frequency returns to a value less than the
upper frequency limit and a hysteresis.

2- Low Frequency Protection:

If the line frequency exceeds the lower frequency limit and
continually stays there for an adjustable time delay, the output relay is
de-energized at the end of delay. The relay is then energized
immediately when the line frequency returns to a value greater than
the lower frequency limit and a hysteresis.
-My second week i learned how to do solder on PCB. The technician
Mustafa Akbal taught to me every detail of to do solder on
microelectronic circuits.
In the AR-GE that i work, new products are done and are tested, so
there are a few products in here ,because of that solder of these
products PCBs are done in here manually.

The machine we see in this figure is an electronic typesetting machine.

This machine firstly cream solder and then the components is
typesetted on PCBs. After that PCPs are going in the oven.
I learned the calibration of these devices with calibrator that in figure
is given below. We can regulate everything with this calibrator such as
phase angle, voltage, frequency etc. And we read values of our device
and compare them ,so we can understand our device works regularly
or not.
My third week i focused on programming. In our office Mr. Amir
(from Iran) have interested embedded systems and he taught lots of
thing about how to programming in C and C++ and how to work
embedded systems. I write some programs in C and C++.
For example;

#include "stdio.h"

#include "conio.h"

#include "stdlib.h"

#include "math.h"

#include "string.h"


char x[13]

char y[500],*z; const char h[]=" ";

int j,i=0,k=0,c,u=1; double tol,sum=0,a=1;

printf("Enter data:");

























printf("\n%.2lf (+;-) %.2lf\ntol:%lf",sum,tol*sum,tol);


return 0;

I wrote this program to make calculation of 5 colour resistors value

according to colours which you entered according to table shown
The output of this program:

And then Mr. Amir taught me some Matlab too. And i write discrete
time program in Matlab.







grid on;

box on;

title('Such A discrete time Signal')


The output of this porgram is:

My fourth week i focused on equipments of an electronic
circuirs. Mr. Serkan Kaba taught me how i can filter a signal,
how i can convert an AC signal to DC signal. I learned only
5V or 3.3V (according to type of processor) signals.

As you can see figure given above i have learned how to use
buffer circuits, voltage divider and current mirror and which
purpose we use these circuits.
I learned a lot of thing in KLEMSAN ELECTRIC
ELECTRONICS INC .The important thing is the
experiences. Mr. Serkan , Mr. Amir and Mr. Mustafa told a
lot of experiences. Addition to experiences, I learned
working principle of relays, multimeters, energy
analysers and i see the real working life. I will continue to
study these programs. Of course this is not enough. I will
learn them perfectly and i hope i will work this company.